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On June 26, 1187, the Muslim Sultan Saladin crossed the river Jordan with 20,000 of his followers "“ an army consisting of roughly 12,000 light horsemen and a number of footmen to a location south of the Sea of Galilee where he and his men encamped. They had been ravaging the nearby countryside in hopes of provoking a Christian attack, but had been unsuccessful. The Frankish Christians led by King Guy in Jerusalem had also mobilized their own army and camped at the spring at Saffuriyah . Marshall W. Baldwin says that the Franks too had an army 20,000 strong, but it was different in composition. The "Latins", as they are called, were a cavalry of 1,200 heavily armored knights, 3,500 lightly armored, mounted sergeants, several thousand foot soldiers, as well as a large number of native auxiliaries as mounted bowmen . Between the two great forces the largest memorable, Christian gathering in years lay an arid terrain; the hot summer sun made travel extremely difficult, especially for large numbers. One could easily expect fatigue, dehydration, and low morale when venturing to the east of Saffuriyah until reaching the Sea of Galilee. Strategists of each side knew the consequences of traveling across the region and so, "the waiting game" was played to see who would be the one to be provoked into a trap through the valleys. Although Saladin had unified large sections of the Muslim world, his army was still not a standing one. The crusaders counted on the fact that Saladin would have trouble holding his army together for a long period of time because his soldiers were not full-time warriors. Many were also tradesmen or farmers that easily disbanded when there was no action to get back home . Saladin knew his situation and continually harassed the area of Tiberias in failed attempts to provoke the Christians into leaving Saffuriyah, until he decided on July, 2 to besiege the city itself. He moved the majority of his troops to the high ground west of Tiberias. From this location, the Muslims could block entrance to the city while still accessing water supplies from the Sea of Galilee through the eastern side of the ridge. Tiberias was poorly fortified and Saladin's well "“ supplied forces had no trouble entering its walls. Residents of the city took refuge in the citadel, including the wife of Count Raymond of Tripoli who urgently sent west for help. Upon receipt of Eschive's distress call, there was great commotion among the Christian camp and a leadership council was called. James A. Brundage argues that many of the council were in favor of a counter-attack on Saladin's troops, claiming that "they all advised that at dawn they should march out, accompanied by the Lord's Cross, ready to fight the enemy, with all the men armed and arrayed in battle formation . However, the best strategists of the Frankish army were not "proud-bouncing", battle hungry fools. They realized that they could not move easily over the terrain to Tiberias and many of them immediately agreed with Count Raymond of Tripoli . Despite that it was his wife under attack, Raymond urged King Guy of Jerusalem to stay at Saffuriyah where there was plenty of water and provisions were accessible. He persuaded the King to hold the favorable position and wait for the Muslim Saracens to come to him. It was thought that perhaps if the Muslims took Tiberias, they would be proud and cross the arid lands to Saffuriyah where they could be crushed easily . Raymond's words were sensible, advising that "Saladin might destroy the walls of the town, but these could be rebuilt; he might take captive [my] wife and men, but these could be recovered"¦do not endanger the Kingdom by endangering the field army; let Tiberias go; remain here at Saffuriyah" . Despite Brundage's ideas, other less biased sources speak of only one knight at the war council who was anti-Raymond "“ Gerard de Ridefort, leader of the Templars. Various historians argue over what exactly caused King Guy to stray from his initial inclination to stay at Saffuriyah. A most probable theory comes from Baldwin, who claims that late that night after the council, Gerard spoke with the King in private. According to Baldwin, Gerard said that Raymond was a traitor, and also implied that should the King "relinquish the city without a blow", he was a coward . Almost all sources tell how Guy was a weak-minded King and was therefore easily influenced by Gerard. What is also important to note is that Gerard and Raymond had long been rivals. Gerard disliked Raymond and therefore was more concerned with his personal agenda then the well being of the Kingdom. In addition, R.C. Smail claims that "before their reconciliation a few weeks before, Raymond had been Guy's enemy and Rival" . By taking this viewpoint, it can be seen that Raymond was looking to disgrace Guy on his first major campaign as King. However, what Smail fails to mention is the reason for which Raymond reconciled with Guy. Baldwin tells of how on May first of 1187, a raid took place in which many Christian Templars were killed. The Kingdom could not "afford the loss in manpower and morale and upon hearing the news, Raymond willingly ended his disputes with Guy in an effort to save the Kingdom . Smail's theory is harder to grasp also because looking at the army that marched, who was leading the vanguard but Raymond? It would not have been wise for Guy to place Raymond to lead his "first major campaign" had they been such great rivals; doing so would have put the effort at risk from the start. Why would Guy make the decision to allow Raymond to lead his vanguard if they were enemies? Custom would not have been sufficient reason alone15. It was possible though that Guy was compelled to answer the call of a Lady in need and that is why he was so easily swayed to march. Whatever it was that Gerard said to the King on the night of July, 2 worked because the next morning July, 3, Guy stubbornly gave the order to march to his confused followers. When Saladin heard that the Christians were heading his way, he was thrilled and removed his forces from Tiberias to set up for the attack, spreading is troops along the surrounding hillside. This was the turn of events that Saladin had hoped for; his plan had worked and the Franks would be at a disadvantage, marching through the heat without water or supply. Using his mobile horse archers, Saladin harassed the crusader forces as they marched. His archers were quick enough that they could use the hit-and-run tactic that the Muslims were famous or notorious depending on your vantagepoint for. The Christians had no real way of counter-attacking, for their army was not well equipped to handle hit-and-run attacks. In fact, the Latin army was more of a European style; they were used to marching their armies onto a field and charging at each other with their various units "“ most effective being the heavy cavalry. The main problem with this was that there was no one for the heavy cavalry to charge at because the light Muslim horse archers were not a stationary target, such as an infantry unit. The Saracens did not venture close to the crusaders either, making it difficult for the Christian infantry to do any damage. The only way the Franks may have been able to effectively attack back at the Muslims were if they were to use their own archers "“ longbowmen. However, the problem was that the bowmen had no mass target to aim at and in order to fire, they would have needed to be stationary themselves. Unfortunately for the crusaders, their army was not one that performed well on the march16. Saladin knew this and used it to his advantage. All that the crusaders could do was ignore their losses and press on. The Muslims repeated their tactic again and again; they would empty their quivers into the crusader army, then return for more arrows and repeat the attack. Joshua Prower offers an excellent construction of the formation of the crusader army and it's problems on the march: The mounted knights were preceded and probably flanked also by archers and crossbowmen, as well as by units of Turcoples, mounted archers who fought like the Saljuq or Turkish contingents. The heavy cavalry were the weakest point of the army when faced with Muslim troops far more mobile than their own. The enemy's mounted archers could shoot from well outside the range of Crusader spears and lances and thus avoid a frontal encounter with the Frankish cavalry. Once a Frankish horse was hit, the Crusader was at the mercy of the Muslim bowmen. Against their dense rain of arrows there were only Crusader foot-archers. Since they preceded and flanked the cavalry, they prescribed the rhythm of the march and, by slowing it down, made the Franks an easier target17. By the time the crusaders reached the mid-way point to Tiberias at Marescallia, they were exhausted. The rearguard, led by the Templars, had been badgered since the morning by Muslim horse archers and was trailing behind. Realizing this, Raymond stopped and King Guy tried to rally his troops. He discussed the situation with other leaders of the army and decided that there was no way that they would be able to make it the seventeen kilometers to the Sea of Galilee by nightfall18. Instead, a new route for water was planned to a spring located just outside the town of Hattin. In order to reach it, the crusaders would have to risk journeying through a narrow pass between two hills called "The Horns of Hattin". The movement would be a gamble, but it was a chance that they had to take; the spring, although through the Horns, was only five kilometers19 from their camp. They pressed on, attacked every step by the same tactic used by the Muslims from the start. Saladin saw the direction of the crusaders, he quickly moved his troops to intercept them at Marescallia. When the Franks began to march from the main road, a state of frenzy enveloped the army. The fast riding cavalry charged onward, leaving the footmen and bowmen to fend off their attackers at the flank20. When they approached the Muslim army awaiting them, the knights attempted to charge through the lines with their lances and onward to Hattin behind the enemy, but failed. The Muslims held and the knights found themselves surrounded by the enemy to the front, to each side and also enclosing to the rear, following the slow-moving footmen. King Guy saw that his men would not reach the spring that day and ordered his troops to set up camp in hopes of rallying them. The outcome of such a decision would cost the crusaders dearly. Guy has been continually criticized for ordering camp on July 3, but in reality he had no choice. His men were obviously tired and there was little hope that they would break the Muslim line. Just before nightfall, Saladin moved a large number of his troops to the Horns of Hattin and spread them out to await the crusader march the next day. From this post, Saladin had control of the Christian's goal and was able to use the spring at Hattin to supply his own troops once again. That night, his Muslims pestered the tired and thirsty Christians continually with arrows. The Muslims were rejoicing their anticipated victory as they were re-supplied from the Sea of Galilee. They saw the state of their adversary and knew that the morale of the Franks was low. Adding to their attacks of arrows, they sang and shrieked to make their presence known "“ to strike fear into the hearts of their Christian rivals. Saturday, July 4, 1187 is a landmark date to the study of the crusades. It was a day of victory for one, and of sorrow for the other. The Christians found that they could no longer retreat and were trapped; for them, it was the beginning of the end. Saladin used his main army and attacked the Templars at the crusader's flank. While the Templars defended bravely, they were overrun as the main body of Christians pressed on toward Hattin, leaving the rearguard behind without support. The crusaders developed a strategy for combat in which the success depended on the cooperation of both the knights and footmen to help each other for protection. They attempted to march their units in a formation where the infantry would guard the knights from arrow attacks with their shields, and the knights would fend off an enemy charge to the infantry with their lances. While the tactic was well possible, it failed on impact. The tired footmen routed when they came under heavy attack, scattering up the hills to the right and left. Most were slaughtered, leaving the knights extremely vulnerable21. King Guy once again ordered camp in hopes of rallying his men, but to no avail. There was complete chaos among the perishing Christians and Raymond attempted one last charge at the Muslim blockade. Instead of breaking through the line however, the Saracens quickly maneuvered and the Raymond charged straight through the center of the line without inflicting a wound22. As a result, the crusader morale diminished and many of those charging knights ran on in retreat. In hopes of tying up his victory, and making use of the favorable winds, Saladin then set fire to the grass surrounding the remaining Latin forces. From their view, the crusaders could see nothing but dense smoke as arrows rained in from overhead. The losses were great and the Christians lost their Holy Cross, which had been their spiritual inspiration, to Muslim capture. The battle was over when Saladin ordered his final advance. Few Christians escaped as thousands were captured or killed. In general, the knights were treated honorably by their conquerors and with the exception of the Templars, who were executed for their fanatical views, many were later released. The infantry on the other hand, were treated quite differently as many were either slaughtered on the spot or sold into slavery. Baldwin proves this by pointing out that "a significant observation made by one Moslem chronicler gives further evidence that the separation of the infantry from the cavalry had been decisive. He noticed that although scarcely a horse was left alive, few of the heavily armed knights were injured"23. The Christians, who should have won a conflict against Saladin, were outwitted and defeated. According to Baldwin, they were led into a trap because of "personal and political animosities particularly on the part of Gerard de Ridefort"24. Had King Guy not been persuaded to move from Saffuriyah, there might never have been a Hattin at all. Likewise, credit must be given to Saladin, whose military tactic and planning at the expense of crusader foolishness helped him to gain the upper hand. Saladin had been victorious the minute that the Christians left their water and supply, leaving themselves defenseless and unequipped. The Latin army, for the first half of the campaign, fought an enemy on the march "“ something they were not prepared to do. The Franks had fallen for the trap through the arid lands that they had hoped would be used on the Muslims. Everything that could have gone wrong with the crusader campaign did. It was only a matter of time before Saladin's victory; it was just a question of how long the Christians would hold out and where. As Baldwin notes: "This is the tragic significance of Hattin. It was a battle that perhaps need not have been fought and certainly should not have been lost"25. It was a clear case of military strategy at its best; obviously not on the part of the crusaders, but by their adversary. It was not long before Saladin went on to conquer the territories surrounding Jerusalem, and then the city itself. With Saladin spread the nightmare that the Christians had fought against so vigorously during the first crusade; with Saladin, the Mosque26 was returned to Jerusalem.
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On June 26, 1187, the Muslim Sultan Saladin crossed the river Jordan with 20,000 of his followers – an army consisting of roughly 12,000 light horsemen and a number of footmen to a location south of the Sea of Galilee where he and his men encamped. They had been ravaging the nearby countryside in hopes of provoking a Christian attack, but had been unsuccessful. The Frankish Christians led by King Guy in Jerusalem had also mobilized their own army and camped at the spring at Saffuriyah . Marshall W. Baldwin says that the Franks too had an army 20,000 strong,...
hold out and where. As Baldwin notes: "This is the tragic significance of Hattin. It was a battle that perhaps need not have been fought and certainly should not have been lost"25. It was a clear case of military strategy at its best; obviously not on the part of the crusaders, but by their adversary. It was not long before Saladin went on to conquer the territories surrounding Jerusalem, and then the city itself. With Saladin spread the nightmare that the Christians had fought against so vigorously during the first crusade; with Saladin, the Mosque26 was returned to Jerusalem.
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The 18th centaury was a time...The 18th centaury was a time of great change. The rich were getting richer, and the poor were getting poorer. The social gap between these two classes was getting wider, which caused much conflict and as these people were living side by side. This effect was magnified between these two extremely different social classes, causing a time of great unrest and therefore caused crime to raise an expediential rate. The printing industry had just took off, which provided much more and cheaper printed material and more people were becoming literate causing the demand for printed material to increase. This coincided with the government's first attempts to create a professional police system. Soon the public began to want "sensational" material, usually broad sheets, and ballads, which offered very graphic and excaudated accounts of crimes and executions. Although this met their demands, the stories and accounts were still bound to reality, which was usually not as exciting and structured as fiction. At this time criminals began to become famous and were surrounded with fascination and awe. For example the Thief "Jack Shepard" was one of these famous criminals, was considered a romantic hero and historians published his exploits. These events were mirrored across Europe and the need for police forces all across Europe became apparent. A well-known figure was Eugene Francois Vidocq, a French police informer. He was originally a criminal and sentenced to jail but to reduce his sentence he became a police informer and his freedom was eventually granted in 1811 due to his success and he became a police chief. He did not receive a salary, but was paid by his results, although because of his close ties with the criminal underworld he was suspected of corruption and forced in to resignation in 1827. He re-instated back in to the police force again but after a year he resigned and turned his carer to a private detective, and a writer. Vidocq wrote accounts of his former life as a police informant but in a highly excaudated form. This went down well with the public. The material he wrote would have been very exciting, and different to other material too, because this was based on something that actually happened; a story of a man who spent his life on the edge of crime, who was the hero and the villain. Being in such an unstable and exciting position, the stories would be about depict, conspiracy, deception, a real sense of danger and extreme and constant excitement. These first ever crime fiction stories were a cross between the colourful and graphic broadsheet style events, and the first fictitious crime stories, classed as crime fiction. The first real crime fiction writer was Edgar Allen Poe, his novels were not like other crime fiction authors but set the perfect scene for more crime novels, and gave a good idea to continue from and a structure for the first ever crime fiction novel. Edgar Allen Poe's first novel was "The murders in the Rue Morgue" This novel does not have the structure and style of most crime fiction stories but still had many good aspects and many downsides too. The story, "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" is seen as the first ever crime fiction novel, and is a cross between Poe's horror story style and a crime fiction story. The story starts with a very brutal and horrible murder. The brutality was present here because Poe was a horror writer too. It starts by giving a description of the victims, and how they were found. This sets the scene and allows the story to go on to all the evidence and suspects, giving a description of the victims, all that had happened the night of the murder and accounts of people at the crime scene. Then the investigator, Dupain, has a look at the evidence and crime scene and like all the great crime fiction detectives, sees much more than the police investigation did. Dupain gathers a picture in his head of the night of the crime. Although he still does not gather enough evidence to provide answers, until the end of the story when, surprisingly, the suspect was an ape. The actual plot of the story would not have been very obvious, and the reader would not have been able to work it out themselves. so the story is not as satisfying at the end for people who find satisfaction in guessing the suspect, but the story was still a very good idea and was well written for the first ever crime fiction story. The same structure is still used today giving us the traditional chronology of the crime, the suspects evidence and investigation and three finally the conclusion. Conan Doyle could be thought of as the most important crime fiction writer, his name is famous and his novels are even better known. Conan Doyle expanded the crime fiction idea and refined it, removing the more descriptive and boring parts that slow down the story and created much faster stories that get down to the point much quicker and make the story much more exciting. The Sherlock Holmes saga was very well known and influential lasting an extremely long time. Although Conan Doyle eventually killed off Sherlock Holmes, due to popular demand he had to bring him back. Sherlock Holmes, like most detectives from crime fiction novels was an outsider. He was distinguishably different to other people and worked on his own accord without police involvement. He is also much smarter than the police, and can always find more than their investigation showed. He is an expert at analysing people and is able to deduce many things from just looking a person over. He also has a partner, Doctor Watson, who is very important in a detective novel because it gives the detective some one to explain to so the reader can also be aware of what the detective is thinking explained to them, showing what they have discovered, and how they are analysing the situation. Sherlock's outstanding characteristics are a very important part of him too. They set him apart from other people, and reflect on his personality and reinforce his difference from other people. These characteristics also distinguish him from other detectives. When someone mentions Sherlock Holmes most people will immediately think of Sherlock with his pipe, large magnifying glass, Deerstalker cap and his trademark quotes, like "elementary my dear Watson". Another important factor of Sherlock Holmes is his intelligence and ability to analyse people and crime scenes to much more precise extent than the police. He thinks in a very different way to most people, giving him the better abilities of analysing, and summing up a situation in a much better way than the law enforcement can. This characteristic is one of the most important for all detectives because it allows them to be above everyone else which is why they are successful as a detective. Holmes works independently from the police, and therefore is not bound by police timing procedure or even laws. This gives him the ability to bend and even break the rules in his pursuit for justice, giving him a rebellious and outsider image; a man whom is not afraid to break the law, but lives by his own rules. The last very and important part of Holmes's characteristics is not Sherlock but Watson his partner. Watson allows Holmes to explain what he is doing to the reader, although Watson is useful in investigations too and he will point out evidence, and work with Holmes, although still allows him to be at a distance from authority and gives him a companion too. A typical Holmes story starts off by setting the scene, usually Holmes and Watson relaxing, talking and maybe looking for a case. Whatever the situation there is no mystery or problem yet. As an example we can use The Speckled Band. In the beginning of this Holmes and Watson are calmly chatting with no mystery or problems yes. Then an event will happen, some one will arrive usually and they will have a problem and have come to Holmes for help. In The Speckled Band a woman arrives, and asks Holmes for help, After their initial meeting, Holmes will look them over and usually deduce something from their appearance and works out things like how they arrived, who they are or something that has happened to they recently. Holmes deduced that the women had travelled by dogcart to a train station, and started very early. The women is shocked by how he knows this, but he explains his method to her. ""¦I have no doubt, you have come by train this morning, I see" "You know me then" "No but I observe the second half of a return ticket in the palm of your left glove. You must have started early, and yet you had a good drive in a dog cart, along heavy roads, before you reached the station" The lady gave a violent start, and stared in bewilderment at my companion. "There is no mystery, my dear madam", said he smiling. "The left arm of your jacket is splattered with mud in no less than 7 places, there is no vehicle save a dog cart which throws up mud in that way, and then only when you sit on the left hand side of the driver". Then they will have a conversation with Sherlock Holmes and Watson, and will explain and describe her problem to them and will be asked a few questions. After this Holmes and Watson usually leave to gather evidence, suspects and begin collecting information about their case. After a brief investigation, Holmes and Watson will usually have a conversation and we learn what Holmes is thinking, how he is dealing with the situation and what his theories or suspects are. In The Speckled Band, they look over a room in which the woman's sister died many years ago, and discover many things that are not usual. This begins to make a picture and gives some possible suspects like the father, but still not enough to give away the end and enough evidence to allow the reader to begin piecing together the evidence. "¦ Finally he took the bell rope in his hand and gave a brisk tug. "Why it's a dummy," said he"¦ "¦"Very strange" muttered Holmes, pulling at the rope. "There are one or two singular points about this room, for example, what a fool a builder must be to open a ventilator in to another room, when with the same trouble he might have communicated with the outside air""¦ "¦"They seem to have been of a most interesting character "“ dummy bell ropes, and ventilators which do not ventilate." When Holmes talks to Watson, he mentions the anomalies in the room, but Watson cannot put them together, although Holmes is on to something. "¦"I saw nothing remarkable, save the bell rope, and what purpose that could answer I confess is more than I can imagine." "You saw a ventilator too?" "Yes but I did not think it is such an unusual thing""¦ "¦"I knew that we should find a ventilator before we came to stake Moran" "My dear Holmes!" Oh yes, I did, you remember he statement, she said that she could smell Dr Roylott's cigar. Now, of course that suggests at once there must be a communication between the two rooms"¦ "¦I deduced a ventilator""¦ "¦"Did you observe anything very peculiar about the bed?" "No" "It was clamped to the floor. Did you ever see a bed fastened like it before?" Now Holmes and Watson will investigate some more, but this time will have some idea of what they are looking for and usually gather some substantially important evidence. This is shown in The Speckled Band when Holmes and Watson stay the night in the room, and hear the whistle, smell the smoke, and Holmes eventually realises what is happening and quickly saves himself from the snake by hitting it. Causing it to kill the father whom was planning to kill his daughter. Holmes makes a sudden connection and rush to the crime scene, leaving everyone in wonder. In the case of The Speckled Band he rushes to the father's bedroom where he knew he would have been dead before he got there. Then he will discover something or some one, which will solve the case and Holmes will then explain to Watson how he deduced what the answer to the mystery was. From here there is a sudden and abrupt end, without any epilogue or lengthy ending. The ending is a very important part of the novel; it gives the reader a sense of satisfaction that the evil plot has been foiled and good triumphs over bad. This helps re enforce the fact that crime doesn't pay and societies moral values. Holmes also stops the criminals without the help of authority, showing that his individuality makes him much more suited to the job. The plot must always end in a morally correct way, but there also must always be a struggle to overcome, a mystery to solve. This has always been apparent with all crime fiction, and how ever much the actual genre has changed this has remained constant. There is also the ability to solve the crime yourself this gives the reader a challenge, although The Murders in the Rue Morgue was not able to provide this very well, but it was one of the first crime fiction novels. The golden age of crime fiction started around the 1930's and gave birth to many crime fiction detectives and detective novels. Although the story style had changed since Sherlock Holmes, the basic underlying structure was still the same layout and virtually unchanged. The main change in the story, was the question of less who done it, but why did they do it and becoming more psychologically based. Nowadays the detective is usually associated with the police, and more realism is more important. Although the detective is associated with the police, they still are usually working on their own accord and have a degree of individuality and are still able to bend or break the rules and have the freedom that a crime fiction detective must have. Golden age stories are also much more believable than older stories, and part of this realism is being associated with the police, which usually means the detective has someone from the police as their partner. The detectives of the golden age are still upper class, but not as arrogant, or removed from the lower classes as the older detectives like Sherlock Holmes. For example, Poirot is a retired detective, who is very well off and has no official job, so he became a private detective, giving him the freedom that a crime fiction detective needs, but still reports to the police. Poirot still has a sense of arrogance about him and does not believe that small cases are important enough for him because he still has his pride. The modern detective novel, usually on TV too, has developed since Sherlock Holmes and the golden age but the structure is still the same as it has always been. Many things have developed from modern crime fiction, like police procedural, and crime fiction on TV. In modern crime fiction, psychology has become much more evident and so has realism, like the golden age but more developed in this way, and with more realism and psychology. Almost all modern crime fiction detectives are part of the police now, but are in separated departments or are official detectives and still have the freedom needed. Modern day detectives are still different from most people, and have a partner too, but the main difference from older crime fiction is more women detectives. Poirot shows this importance of psychology here in a quote. "To track footmarks and recognise cigarette ash is not sufficient for the detective. He must also be a good psychologist" Holmes and older pre golden age detectives did not use psychology as much. In the PD James story, there is much more realism than Holmes stories. Most of the investigating was done in the form of reviewing old court files and the case being studied is an old case, has already been closed but there are still unanswered questions. This is interesting, it involves a crime that occurred a long time ago, but is still unsolved, secrets of the past, this also intrigues people in a way that something has existed for many years which has never been solved. After gathering information in the old files Dalgliesh goes and talks to suspects and gathers more information. The structure of this is still the same as an older murder mystery, but the story is not as intense and much more believable. Dalgliesh is not a member of the police force though, and still has a partner, the cannon. The things that interest people in this genre are the element of good and bad, and the sinister violence of the murder which would be much more interesting when the first ever novels were written in the 18th century. There is also the element of mystery and how the puzzle eventually comes together and you find out what happened, and allows you to take a guess at what it might have been but when the detective finally discovers the truth it is interesting to find out what it is and how the detective worked it out. When the story is over justice is served and the guilty party is punished or brought to justice and good wins over bad. There have been many developments of the crime fiction genre since the 18th century, but the stories basic structure is still the same as it was in the first ever novel. Although today an ending or prologue is added. Then there is also the change in the question of who done it to why did they do it, which brings much more psychology in to the story, and the detective's are sometimes psychologists in modern crime fiction. Crime fiction has expanded from books to TV, which makes the partner more important, because the author cannot say what the detective is thinking, or explain small things, so the partner is used more to communicate with the detective and explain their thinking. But underneath all the change their still is the basic structure of One: a mystery, Two: the gathering of evidence and Three: the conclusion and answer to the mystery. I believe that crime fiction will continue to evolve and will stay a very popular genre for much time. Many things will change and although novels will still be written, TV series' will become more popular as the genre expands. There will be many changes in the style and media but as we have seen the basic structure of crime fiction will still remain unchanged. Crime fiction is very popular, always has been since the first ever crime fiction story, and most probably still has much more development to come and will remain popular for some time.   

The 18th centaury was a time of great change. The rich were getting richer, and the poor were getting poorer. The social gap between these two classes was getting wider, which caused much conflict and as these people were living side by side. This effect was magnified between these two...

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The Russians Would never have joined...The Russians Would never have joined the war if it weren't for the German invasion of 1941 "“ Operation Barbarossa. This parallels the USA intervention "“ they only joined because the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbour. Operation Barbarossa commenced on the 22nd June, 1941. Just over 3,000,000 German troops invaded the USSR. Stalin doubted the country ability to perform well on the battlefield since the Finnish War, refused to counteract the Germans preparations, for fear of provoking them into war. The Russians concluded that the German form of attack "“ The Blitzkrieg "“ would not be possible on Russia. The German infantry outnumbered the Russian, but the Russians had more artillery and aviation forces. The Russian infantry was told that it was not to retreat, do was destined to become destroyed or captured. The Germans set up 3 army groups, and assigned them to 3 different areas:- North - Leningrad Central - Moscow South - Kyyiv The generals agreed that they had to lock the Russian forces into battle, in order to prevent them escaping into the rest of the vast country. However, they disagreed on how to do this. The majority of them thought that they would sacrifice everything to protect Moscow; the capital; the centre of industry; the centre of all the networks and transport. Hitler disagreed. He believed that the Ukrainian area "“ for its resources "“ and the oil of the Caucasus were much more crucial. A compromise was made. Army Group Centre would march towards Moscow. The victory was predicted for ten weeks ahead. This timing was crucial because it would be impossible to fight once the short Russian summer had ended. Things seemed to happen a lot faster. In the first month Germans had already encircled Bialystok and Minsk, and on August 5th, the Germans crossed the Dnepr River, the last natural obstruction to Moscow. The group defeated a small force in Smolensk, capturing another 300,000. When it had reached Smolensk, it was two-thirds of the way there. Hitler decided to change plan. He sent the group north to help the other two groups, ignoring the generals' protests, thereby stopping the advance to Moscow. On September 8th Army Group North had, together with the Finnish army, brought Leningrad to siege. On September 16th Army Group South had captured Kyyiv, with 665,000 prisoners. After this, Hitler re-ordered the advance to Moscow. After nothing for six weeks, Army Group Centre carried on on 2nd October. By the 16th, 663,000 more prisoners had been taken. The autumn rains started, turning the Russian roads to slippery, wet mud, and the advance was halted for about a month. Halfway through November the ground froze and the German officials were faced with a choice. They could either send the troops home, make them dig camps where they were, or carry on to some victory at Moscow. They chose to march on. The Germans had formed two 'spearheads' going towards Moscow. On December 5th however, the forces were stopped because the troops had lost the will to fight and the machinery was freezing up. On December 6th, General Georgy Zhukov counter-attacked the halted German army. Within a few days the Germans were retreating, abandoning all of the now useless machinery and weapons. After the counter-attack, they began a counter-offensive, and attacked the German front. The Germans had poor defences, and could not make any now, because the ground was frozen. Although the Russians did considerable damage to the German front, the threat on Leningrad and Moscow still hung.   

The Russians Would never have joined the war if it weren't for the German invasion of 1941 – Operation Barbarossa. This parallels the USA intervention – they only joined because the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbour. Operation Barbarossa commenced on the 22nd June, 1941. Just over 3,000,000 German troops invaded the...

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Turning points are points where an...Turning points are points where an important change occurs. It is very important that it will never be forgotten since these turning points make such great impact on history. Some of these impacts include food, people, plants, animals, technology, and diseases passed from one continent to the other. The voyages of Columbus and the Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union are one of the most significant turning points that made political, social, and cultural impact. The voyages of Columbus began the European race to colonize the Americans. A far-reaching exchange of people, plants, animal, and ideas occurred between Europe, the Americas, and Africa. Christopher Columbus, and ambitious Italian sailor from Genoa, convinced the Spanish monarchs to finance his plan to reach Asia by sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in 1942. He and the rest of his crew sailed towards west for India in just three small ships. Columbus also had an impact on a global exchange, which was called the Columbian Exchange because it started with him. This exchange leads to profound changes for people in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Also, the introduction of American crops such as corn and potatoes to other continents contributed to population growth in Europe, Asia and Africa in the 1700s. Columbus made a major turning point in global history by establishing empires and trade links around the world on his voyages of exploration. Many changes such as the slave trade between Africa and the Americas turned into a huge and lucrative business. Also, European countries competed for colonies and trade in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The Collapse of communism in the Soviet Union began the years of change in Eastern Europe and brought an end to the Cold War. There are many effects of the fall of the Soviet Union, such as the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the end of the Cold War, Economic hardships, conflicts between pro communist and pro democratic groups, loss of role as world superpower, and lastly, minority revolts and civil conflicts. Under communism, ethnic tensions in multinational states had been kept from being known. But then they reappear again with the fall of the Soviet Union. The Cold War, which was going on for 25 years in the 1970s had ended. The United States and the Soviet Union promoted a period of détente, which was the lessening of tension. This Détente involved the arms, which controlled talks and treaties, cultural exchanges, and trade agreements. Many important turning points in global history had had an impact on many things such as people, food, technology, diseases"¦. etc. The voyages of Columbus and the Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union both are major turning points in history. The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union helped bring about the end of the Cold War. Christopher Columbus explored in his voyages and lead to impacts, which was passed from continent to continent.   

Turning points are points where an important change occurs. It is very important that it will never be forgotten since these turning points make such great impact on history. Some of these impacts include food, people, plants, animals, technology, and diseases passed from one continent to the other. The voyages...

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