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The "Land Between the Rivers" has been a source of both savage barbarism and great civilizations. Mesopotamian culture reached its peak between ca 3000-550 BCE. Yet, much of Mesopotamian culture goes unnoticed, despite its rich heritage. A vast bulk of the great early civilizations developed in the land known as Mesopotamia. It can, in fact, be proven, without question, that because of Mesopotamia's extensive trade routes, its excellent leaders, and the astronomical growth in technology that occurred, that Mesopotamia was one of the greatest civilizations to have ever existed. For its time, Mesopotamian culture had the greatest trade routes. Its trade network reached from the sands of Egypt to the deserts in India. Most certainly no civilization in the western world at that time had not heard of the great cultures that existed between the Tigris and the Euphrates. Egypt, in itself, had an excellent trade route with its access to the Mediterranean sea. Mesopotamia, however, had trade routes not only in Egypt, but in many other locations to the east as well. All previous trade routes had been confined from village to village. Through its extensive trade route, it can be seen that Mesopotamia was a great civilization. Mesopotamia did not only have trade routes as a testament to its greatness, but a flourishing government as well. As Mesopotamia was racked with barbarian invasions, the rise of some of History's most fearsome and great leaders can be seen. Sargon I, for example, managed to unify one of the largest areas of civilization at that time. Sargon I is also noted having never lost a single war in his entire life. As well, with Mesopotamia, the first system"”and indeed the most extensive in that point in time"”of codified law. King Hammurabi's aptly titled system of codified law, the Code of Hammurabi, while seemingly harsh in today's view, was heralded as a just and fair law back in its day. History also shows that one of the greatest Ziggurats of all time was created in the land of Mesopotamia.. Nebuchadrezzar II's Hanging Gardens of Bablyon is noted as being one of the greatest marvels of the ancient world. With such a glorious string of leaders, it is obvious to conclude that Mesopotamia was one of the greatest civilizations ever to have existed. Aside from its string of incredible leaders, History shows that Mesopotamian culture gave birth to some of the greatest technology man has ever developed. In Mesopotamia, a scientific revolution took place. It was so incredible that the sheer amount of advances would not be seen for another 4000 years. Mesopotamian culture is noted as having the first mathematical breakthrough with the invention of exponents and their sister, roots. This new system of mathematics allowed for the creation of basic architectual designs such as the arch, the dome, and vaulted ceilings. Concepts so simple that man cannot, to this day, improve upon them. This advancement in architecture allowed for more people to fit in less space. This allowed for a population growth as less people had to leave cities. Because of this, there is a need for communication other than speech. Through this need comes the first system of writing, Cuneiform. All these advancements would be enough to prove that Mesopotamia was a great civilization, however, those alone do not give Mesopotamian culture the full recognition it deserves. It also gave rise to practical medicine. No longer would a headache be cured with a ceremonial dance. Detailed pharmaceutical tablets have been found with cures ranging from battle wounds to venereal disease. Mesopotamia also gave birth to Astronomy, making such leaps which would not be matched until Galileo invented the telescope. All these developments in science and technology make it clear that Mesopotamia was one of the greatest civilizations to have ever existed. It is obvious to conclude that because of Mesopotamia's flourishing trade routes, its rich history of leaders, and its advancements in science and technology that Mesopotamia should be regarded as an extraordinary civilization. Modern man owes a great deal, indeed, to Mesopotamian culture. Everywhere there is evidence of ancient Mesopotamian influence. From the wheel to the sails on ships, Mesopotamia has truly left its mark on society as any great civilization would.
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The "Land Between the Rivers" has been a source of both savage barbarism and great civilizations. Mesopotamian culture reached its peak between ca 3000-550 BCE. Yet, much of Mesopotamian culture goes unnoticed, despite its rich heritage. A vast bulk of the great early civilizations developed in the land known as Mesopotamia. It can, in fact, be proven, without question, that because of Mesopotamia's extensive trade routes, its excellent leaders, and the astronomical growth in technology that occurred, that Mesopotamia was one of the greatest civilizations to have ever existed. For its time, Mesopotamian culture had the greatest trade routes. Its...
until Galileo invented the telescope. All these developments in science and technology make it clear that Mesopotamia was one of the greatest civilizations to have ever existed.

It is obvious to conclude that because of Mesopotamia's flourishing trade routes, its rich history of leaders, and its advancements in science and technology that Mesopotamia should be regarded as an extraordinary civilization. Modern man owes a great deal, indeed, to Mesopotamian culture. Everywhere there is evidence of ancient Mesopotamian influence. From the wheel to the sails on ships, Mesopotamia has truly left its mark on society as any great civilization would.

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The Holocaust is one of... The Holocaust is one of the main events that we study in History today. Everyone knows about the Holocaust, no matter how young or old. It was the killing of hundreds of thousands of Jews and other Asocial groups living in Nazi Germany and other nearby countries. The events of the holocaust were atrocious and are sickening to learn about but something even more sickening has come about that is to do with the holocaust. Questions have been raised about who actually knew about the Holocaust. Many historians have claimed that the German people knew nothing about the Holocaust; this view is somewhat comforting, knowing that these people, who are so similar to ourselves, didn't involve themselves in the atrocities. However, Daniel Goldhagen, a Harvard history professor and son of a survivor claims that there is no way that the German people couldn't have known about the holocaust and published a book called "Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust". The book has caused a lot of controversy amongst historians and normal people. It has also made people want to know about who actually did know about the holocaust. The idea that the German people didn't know is comforting and something we'd like to believe, but upon further investigation it is stupid to think that the Germans knew nothing. The victims of the holocaust were being put into ghettos and sent to camps. There is no way people cannot notice things like this. Especially as the camps had to be built, the camps were huge and were about the size of an airport terminal. That could not have been built in secret. It was not only the German people who would've known but the allies' as well. If you look at any Nazi textbook you will more than likely see a photo of a camp taken by one of the allies during war times. This obviously shows us that the leaders of Britain, France and America knew about what was going on. There were many things that could have been done to stop it as well, such as bombing the camps, bombing the train tracks that took the Jews to the camps as well as some other techniques. Obviously this didn't happen, this is because the leaders knew that we, as a public, needed a figure to hate and also, they were too busy trying to fight and win a war. As already stated, there is no way that the Germans couldn't know about the holocaust. Jews were being sent away to ghettos. This involved the mass upheaval of Jews from their homes. In the film "Schindler's List" Spielberg shows us that from his point of view the Germans knew about what was going as a small child is seen screaming out "Goodbye Jews". The film was made four years before Goldhagen published his book. The German people more than likely knew someone involved, whether that be a Jew or a soldier. There are many reasons as to why the Germans didn't do anything to stop the goings on. They were living in a Nazi police state. Their every movement was being watched and if they did anything wrong then they may have been sent to the camps along with the Jews and other groups. The Germans were also apathetic, they really didn't care. The war that was going on was more important than the Jews. Most of the Germans obviously agreed with the Nazi's anti Semitic views as they had been rife in Europe for a very long time. Many also had Social Darwinist views and believed that if the Jews and other groups were stronger then they'd be OK and it wasn't their job to intervene. Other more brutal Germans saw the Jews as a problem and they weren't human. It is hard to think that all the German people knew about the holocaust and it is unfair to assume that every German fully knew about the holocaust. There are many reasons why the Germans didn't know such as they didn't have enough evidence of the goings on and didn't want to believe idle rumours. They had information about the holocaust but simply did not understand it. There are also the people who knew something was going on, but didn't want to know about it so they closed their eyes and ears and tried to remain oblivious to the fact it was going on. However, if the Germans did know about the goings on then a lot of serious questions need to be asked as to why they let it happen, for out benefit more than anything. Why did the Germans join in? Was it because they enjoyed killing? Were they just too anti Semitic for their own good? Were they brainwashed by propaganda? The Germans would have joined in for many reasons. There was a strong history of anti-semitism in Germany and many other European countries, because of this many people believed that the Jews were evil and agreed with Hitler's views. R Evans says that "Goldhagen argues that the Germans killed Jews in their millions because they enjoyed doing it, and they enjoyed doing it because they their minds and emotions were eaten up by a murderous, all-consuming hatred of Jews that bad been pervasive in German political culture for decades". This shows us that Goldhagen believed that the German people enjoyed the killing of the Jews due to amount of anti Semitic propaganda around, which had increased a lot by the time the Nazis came into power. Propaganda comes in many forms, such as newspaper articles, films and speeches. Rudolf Hoess made a speech at Nuremberg spreading the anti semitic message "It was something already taken for granted that the Jews were to blame for everything"¦It was everything we heard"¦Even our military training"¦took for granted that we had to protect Germany from the Jews". A quote from policeman shows that the propaganda was effective and that ordinary people believed that the Jews were scum: "I believed the propaganda that all Jews were criminals and subhumans and that they were the cause of Germany's decline after the First World War. The thought that one should disobey or evade the order to participate in the extermination of the Jews did not therefore enter my mind at all" The Nazis also used films against the Jews. Films such as "The Eternal Jew" depicted the Jews as slimy, creepy old perverts. There were many Germans that were directly involved in the Holocaust that didn't want to be. These were the Germans in the army whose job it was to kill the Jews. Rudolf Hoess states in the same Nuremberg speech that the soldiers "were all so trained to obey orders without even thinking that the thought of disobeying an order would simply never have occurred to anybody and somebody else would have done just as well if I hadn't"¦I really never gave much thought to whether it was wrong. It just seemed a necessity." The soldiers who didn't want to participate didn't have to and they weren't punished as the Nazis knew that what they were doing was psychologically harmful, even if the people thought the people they were killing weren't even really human. The more comforting argument about the Holocaust is that the German people knew nothing and they were just ignorant of the events. Although there seems to be too much evidence about the holocaust being inescapable there must have been some Germans who simply didn't know what was going on, including the leading bureaucrats who were in charge of major services that helped the holocaust happen, such as the Head of Reich Railways. He was in charge of the trains that took Jews to camps and in an interview for the film "Shoah" in 1985 he said: "I was strictly a bureaucrat"¦It was said that people were being sent to concentration camps and that those in poor health probably wouldn't survive"¦the extermination. Everyone condemns it"¦But as for knowing about it, we didn't". It will never be possible to lay the blame for the holocaust on anyway. Yes, it was the idea of the Nazi party, but the mass extermination of the Jews couldn't be achieved by just one small group of people. It had to involve the whole country or at least as many people in the country who could help. The blame can't be left on just the Nazis or even the whole of Germany as when the Nazis invaded other countries they already had their Jews rounded up and volunteered to kill them their selves. The fact that people from other countries had already rounded up their Jews shows that the holocaust wasn't the secret it was meant to me. In my opinion I think everyone knew about the holocaust, some Germans were Willing Executioners, some were just following orders and some tried the hardest they could to be ignorant of the events going on, but it just wasn't possible.   

The Holocaust is one of the main events that we study in History today. Everyone knows about the Holocaust, no matter how young or old. It was the killing of hundreds of thousands of Jews and other Asocial groups living in Nazi Germany and other nearby countries. The events...

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Clara Harlowe Barton was born on...Clara Harlowe Barton was born on Christmas day, 1821 in Oxford Massachusetts. She was the youngest of her 4 siblings by at the least 10 years of age. Growing up in a middle class family, Clara was home schooled until the age of 15, then she became the teacher. As a child, in her spare time Clara enjoyed treating sick and injured pets and neighborhood animals. At the age of 11 Clara's brother fell off their barn roof and she took it upon herself to help him recuperate, which later served as her medical studies. As she grew older it came as no surprise that her humanitarian interests would lead her to a field of health, which she pursued until the day she sadly passed, April 12th, 1912. In 1861 the Civil War had begun. At the time of the war Clara had been working at the United States patient office in Washington, D.C. As the sixth Massachusetts regiment arrived Clara followed, leaving her job and beginning her life as a philanthropist. First Clara accomplished the task of starting a relief program for the injured soldiers. Next Clara was brought to attention of a medical supply shortage, and quickly organized a donation. As she arrived at the "Cornfield" she wasted no time before acting as medical staff and distributing her supplies to surgeons. Ms. Barton cradled soldiers in the middle of the battle field trying to ease their pain. To do all she could to help Ms. Barton cooked food and distributed water to the wounded. When night fell Clara Barton gathered wagons with lanterns to help supply light necessary for the doctors to work. Although her work was still unfinished at the battle site, Ms. Barton endeavored upon a new task. Two years into the war in 1863 Ms. Barton joined in the efforts of gathering the dead and finding the missing bodies. She helped identify over 13,000 men, publishing enormous lists of names in local papers as well as contacting family members of the casualties. With all that she was doing Surgeon General William A. Hammond awarded her a pass to travel with army ambulances, "for the purpose of distributing comforts for the sick and wounded, and nursing them back to health." "What could I do but go with them Civil War soldiers, or work for them and my country? The patriot blood of my father was warm in my veins." Ms. Barton was a battlefield nurse. She delivered food and medical supplies to the wounded as well as waited with them until they were carried to safety. She was given the title "Angel of the battlefield." "Undaunted, the likely figure in her bonnet, red bow, and dark skirt moved on and on, and on and on. Working non-stop until dark and even after, Ms. Barton comforted men and assisted surgeons in their work. Ultimately throughout her life Clara Barton led by example. When most men served in the army and most women stayed at home, Ms. Barton traveled around searching for new challenges to help the people of her country during the war. By the end of the war in 1865 Clara Barton had cared for most of the casualties from the "battle of the wilderness." She was truly an American humanitarian. It can easily be seen why Clara Barton was an important Civil War figure. Clara Barton did not serve in the war as a soldier; she served as an angel doing everything she could to help those who did serve. Had there been no Clara Barton who knows how many more men would have lost their lives, she truly is an important Civil War figure. Aside from her Civil War achievements"¦ By the end of the war Clara Harlowe Barton had performed most of the services that would later be associated with the American Red Cross, which she founded in 1881.  

Clara Harlowe Barton was born on Christmas day, 1821 in Oxford Massachusetts. She was the youngest of her 4 siblings by at the least 10 years of age. Growing up in a middle class family, Clara was home schooled until the age of 15, then she became the teacher. As...

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