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There are many laws that have been imposed so that people don't misuse ICT. In this report I will explain some of these laws and talk about some good and bad points about each act and I will also describe each act that I have listed to the related reports which I have done earlier. I will try to show why these laws were introduced and what they do now to keep people from abusing these new technologies. Here is the list of legislations: "¢ Computer misuse act 1990 "¢ Health and safety regulations 1992 "¢ Regulation and investigatory powers act 2000 "¢ Data protection act 1998 Legislation for the personal report In this section I am going to demonstrate my knowledge of the legislation by describing it and explaining how it protects me. I will also explain what it does and does not do for me. The first report that I did earlier was based on my personal use of ICT. I explained about variety software. Those were included anything from homework to fun and games like: "¢ Email "¢ MSN "¢ Internet "¢ Microsoft word/excel/Access As I do my course works and also my homework on the computer I need to make sure they are safe enough because if anything goes wrong on my computer then it will lead to the loss of the data on the computer. The other reason for my needs on this legislation is that I personally feel unsafe about the things that I save on my computer as I think they may be accessed by unauthorised person and being hacked. So, as the hacking and stealing data was increasing there needed to be a legislation to prevent this happening, legislation were also created for the misuse of data and viruses as well. I think the most suitable legislation which most relates to an individual user could be computer misuse Act 1990. This act covers the misuse of the technology available to people. It includes things such as: "¢ Planting viruses on people's software to damage their computer and the files and documents it includes "¢ Software copying , where things such as games , DVDs and programs are illegally copied "¢ Using computer time to carry out unauthorised work "¢ Hacking into someone else's computer to see the files and documents it contains or to use their information However if someone did do one of the above by accident they wouldn't be charged. The person has to prove the above acts were taking place to commit an illegal act. Good points "¢ Hackers would be punished by being caught and will be stopped to try to hack again "¢ Viruses can be traced back to the person whose computer has been affected to discipline them in a suitable manner, causing them to give up on creating viruses Bad point "¢ The legislation cannot stop people trying all of the above , all it can do is persecute the person who does it In my own opinion I think this legislation could be improved by making the sentence for the persecutor longer or be totally banded from touching computers. The reason for this is because I personally use internet in every single thing that I do on my computer whether it is for fun or for my school work , therefore I wouldn't personally think I have enough information about the files which may contain viruses. In that point this legislation is provided to stop hackers, viruses and other things that may damage data that I am working on. This legislation meets my need in a lot of ways for instance unauthorised personnel are not allowed to access the files on my computer and also to not modify computer material. Sometimes the possibility of the files on my computer being hacked is quite high, because as I go on different websites I might not be aware of the things that might be attached to them therefore this legislation again protects data that has been saved on my computer. The main criminal offences with this act which affects not only me but the people as well are: hacking, the sending of viruses, and controlling the computer material, etc. Overall, I think this act protects me well because it puts off people from hacking and creating viruses due to the risk involved and again the really good point about this act is that hackers would be perturbed by being caught and will be stopped to try to hack again, however the legislation can not stop people from doing them, all it can do is persecute the person who does it. Improvement I think this legislation can be improved by making the sentence for the persecutor, or be totally banded from touching computers. Legislation for Person with special/particular needs report In my report which was based on Craig Headley, who is a pupil in my school, I talked about his needs and also how far each technology met his needs. People like Craig with special needs use a variety of specially adapted software including: "¢ Special keyboards "¢ switches or touch-screens designed for use by people with a wide range of limited mobility and physical difficulties "¢ Dictaphone, etc. As I talked about the safety and security reasons for Craig therefore as we'll as having things like mobile phone which gave Craig an extra security , but he also needed some protection acts to protect him against problems as he uses computer quite a lot to do his school work.I think the main legislation could be health and safety act. The employer is required by this act to: "¢ Look carefully at the work place where the employer works to see if there are any health and safety risks and correct them if there is. "¢ Plan work so that there are changes in activity or breaks. "¢ Arrange eye tests and provide glasses if they are needed. "¢ Provide employees with health and safety training However, under this act there should be regular inspection of the work place and equipment being used in the workplace. All employees should be trained in all aspects of health and safety. Work should be designed so that there are breaks between tasks or during tasks. Computer users should be provided with regular free eye tests and free glasses if needed. Good points "¢ If the employer has met all the health and safety requirements then he is less likely to be sued "¢ the employee is less likely to gain an injury that could affect their career in case they were to be sacked Bad points "¢ the employer has to spend money to meet the health and safety act requirements "¢ the employer can be sued if an employee has been injured on a problem that the employer could have fixed , but didn't in time for the injury The reason for my choice is that for someone like Craig who is unable to do his work on his own, it is vital that he feels safe about the environment that he works in. Craig's needs are mainly important in the school, because he does a lot of work on the computer as I explained in my report that he has mobility disability, therefore for the safety reasons this legislation meets his needs in an enormous way. As Craig attends school, therefore there is a variety of software which he can use confidently. Technology has so much to offer Craig due to the legislation is able to cope with varieties of special needs like: "¢ partially sighted "¢ Dyslexia "¢ Limited mobility "¢ Deaf people In Craig's case the school is responsible for the welfare of disable people to ensure that they are safe and are kept in good health. This legislation has got some other advantages. For instance as Craig has mobility problems therefore he will not be able to protect himself as much as a person who hasn't got that kind of problem, at this point I think this legislation is vital for Craig to protect him against other problems which he might face in the future, for instance in a work place. I think if this legislation was not introduced most companies would not pay out for the needs that the disable people need, and if Craig wanted to apply for any job therefore he would miss out on job opportunities. Over all people with special needs will thank this legislation as it provides them with the opportunity that they deserve. Improvement I think the punishments of the legislation are too high and should be lowered. I also think the employee should have to pay a percentage of the cost of their health and safety equipment. Legislation for local communities report In my local community there is a lot of software which are used by different places such as libraries, etc. In general all organisations use the same kind of software but related to their needs. The needs on legislation for my local community are quite important. For example in the libraries the security isn't that good as they can not put people on duty to control every single computer to find out what people are doing on the computer, and apart from that people wouldn't feel confident and may think their rights has been affected Therefore there needed to be a law which could protect the community against a lot of problems as the software's could face illegal operations. The pieces of software which is used in my local community are: "¢ Internet "¢ Printer "¢ Microsofts "¢ E-mail The legislation that I think applies to this is the regulation of investigatory powers Act 2000 that imposes a responsibility in a lot of areas. This legislation is an act that gives the government the power to see that what you are using the technology for. The main points are: "¢ The government can control your communicationsEmails, telephone calls, text messages, voice mail, etc "¢ They can target anyone in the hope of catching someone doing something illegal "¢ They can monitor person's use of the internet for any purpose "¢ They can demand that if you use encryption, you hand over the key so that they can see what you are doing. They don't have to make you aware that they are doing this. "¢ They can even pinpoint exactly where you are when you send a SMS or make a call on your mobile. The main job of this act on the local community is to give the government the right to spy on electronic communications and data. However, this legislation has also got some advantages and disadvantages like the other acts that talked about before. The main good point about this legislation is that if there is suspicion of illegal operations for instance in the Byker library then the government is allowed to spy on them so they can stop it straight away. The disadvantages could be that the government could be wasting their time looking at an organisation that hasn't done anything wrong, and most importantly this can effect personal privacy on the computer and actually breaking other legislation regulations. Improvement I think this legislation should only be able to spy on communications and data with more than just suspicion to make sure the organisations and the other places which work under some laws won't be affected in some ways. Legislation for an adult employment report The second report that I did was about Mr.Fardoust who worked for the O2 mobile company, he mostly uses things that is specified for his job, including: "¢ Internet "¢ E-mail "¢ PDA "¢ Laptop Mr.Fardoust needs greater cover as he normally sits at the computer most of the time. His needs are mostly related to his job and he needs to make sure that the data and the programmes that he stores on the computer are safe, as they are not only personal files, but also the customers and other people's private information. The legislation that applies to this is the data protection act that was created to stop other people using data that you have produced. The main purpose of this act is to prevent misuse of personal data. All organisations that hold personal data like the company which Mr. Fardoust works in, have to register its use. They also have to state what the information they have is and what they will use it for. If the information is wrong because of the lack of care when it was written, and has in some way damaged that person's rights, the person can complain about the company under this act. This legislation helps Mr.Fardoust in a lot of ways. For instance by referring to my report that I did earlier when Mr.fardoust uses the computer for his personal use and gives his credit card number to different websites for online shopping therefore he is well protected from hackers and they cannot extort any money than the initial fee that is to be paid by him. The company that Mr.Fardoust works in produces a lot of data's every single day about the customer's information and some other things about the company itself, therefore the legislation law protects the data's that Mr.Fardoust has produced which is very good for the company as they sometimes give their credit card out. However if Mr.Fardoust doesn't take care of the data access codes then the likes of unauthorized person or hackers that might the information is quite high or they can even extort money from credit card details without anyone knowing who it was. Good points "¢ If the file or a program is being copied the legislation can shut the illegal operation down "¢ If the act was not in place the cots of legal software would go up, as more money is need to stop people producing illegal software copyright Bad points "¢ The shutting down of illegal operations takes courts cases to settle the disagreements "¢ The legislation seems that they can not trace every one who copies things, as the number of people is increasing every day Improvement I think this legislation could be improved if as soon as the illegal operations have been found they should be shut down immediately and they should also consider what type of protection is needed for the type of data. So ,if the data is little important then it should only have little protection but for private details for instance in the company that Mr. Fardoust works in, as they have customers information on the computers then there should be a greater protection placed.
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There are many laws that have been imposed so that people don't misuse ICT. In this report I will explain some of these laws and talk about some good and bad points about each act and I will also describe each act that I have listed to the related reports which I have done earlier. I will try to show why these laws were introduced and what they do now to keep people from abusing these new technologies. Here is the list of legislations: • Computer misuse act 1990 • Health and safety regulations 1992 • Regulation and investigatory...
trace every one who copies things, as the number of people is increasing every day Improvement I think this legislation could be improved if as soon as the illegal operations have been found they should be shut down immediately and they should also consider what type of protection is needed for the type of data. So ,if the data is little important then it should only have little protection but for private details for instance in the company that Mr. Fardoust works in, as they have customers information on the computers then there should be a greater protection placed.
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Since the American Revolution and the...Since the American Revolution and the creation of the Second Amendment of the Bill Of Rights, America has been given the right to personally own and bear arms. In the past decade, we, the responsible citizens have seen the number of individually owned guns skyrocket out of control. The possession of guns in a home brings a false sense of security which can endanger lives, and not only to those whom the gun is licensed to, put people at risk, and set bad example to those that see the results of crimes and the easy access to weapons. But do people really need guns? In the 90's we saw many incidents caused by accidental shootings, many of which were by children whose parents had not taken proper care in storing their guns. Mistakes like these are unacceptable. The lives of those innocent people were taken away due to the exorbitant number of people owning guns. Many other American citizens have been killed due to the inexperienced use of guns in a moment of panic; those who do not have easy access to guns could have prevented these accidents easily. So do people really need guns? Do you need really need guns? Do you really need to protect yourself against evil and others that drastically? Some people say they need to have guns to protect themselves. Some say they need them because they live in perilous environments. You should not have to feel the need to own a gun for defense"¦ it is a violation your freedom, and others'. Do you need guns? Owning guns is completely uncalled for. They are a hindrance in our lives and are the biggest detriments to society today. People must realize that the second amendment was not calling and permitting personal ownership ship of guns but the right to own weapons if it is necessary to start a militia. Due to the strength of the Police, The State Guard, National Guard, and this amendment is now out dated. If people would take pride in the knowledge that the possession of guns is not about social status or wealth, rather than bringing out the cruelty in people then may be, Gun Control would not be such a calamitous issue that is part of every day life. Do you still need guns? This country was built upon the want for freedom, that liberty includes the sense of security one needs in their daily life. If people need a gun to feel safe, then they are restricting others' freedom besides their own, which calls for reform and change. The NRA National Rifle Association says, "Guns don't kill people, People kill people." I say, People with guns kill people.   

Since the American Revolution and the creation of the Second Amendment of the Bill Of Rights, America has been given the right to personally own and bear arms. In the past decade, we, the responsible citizens have seen the number of individually owned guns skyrocket out of control. The possession...

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Personally, I think that custodial sentences...Personally, I think that custodial sentences work better for offenders that have not committed such a serious offence, much more cost-efficient, the offender is likely to stick to the community penalty, rather than I can only imagine being stuck in such depressing surroundings, but let us see if I am right and see the effectiveness of community penalties. Crime is ever growing in one part of or another, where an individual offends; the offence must be proportionate to the offence. It is the courts dealings to do justice; by achieving some measure of proportion between one sentence and another can it do justice linking one offender and another. When sentencing offenders the courts may settle on to enforce other types of sentences rather than prison. Overcrowding in the prisons has forced decisions to expand Home Detention Curfew; this is offenders being unconfined 60 days before their discharge date and kept and eye on, tagging the offenders to support them continuing to stick to the strict probation requests. Although there have been many various community established punishments that the court has put in to use. Over the years, there as been four main types of non-custodial sentences, however the names have varied. These sentences relate to those individuals that are 16 and over. I will talk about the key non-custodial sentences. Community Rehabilitation Order CRO "“ this is between 6 months and 3 years in length and may have certain set A CRO was formerly a Probation Order. Community Punishment Order CPO "“ is unpaid work in the community. A CPO was formerly a Community Service Order. Community Punishment and Rehabilitation Order CPRO "“ is a combination of the above. It may have additional requirements like those of a CRO. A CPRO was formerly a Combination Order, And finally a Drug Treatment and Testing Order DTTO. The effectiveness of community penalties can also be seen by the changes that the Criminal Justice Act 2003, which came into force in April 2005, the 'generic community sentence', also known as the community order. This lets judges and magistrates to combine what previously would have been different orders and tailor the sentence to fit the needs of the offender. Here are some more of the conditions in detail that can be set on an offender are: "¢ Supervision, by the probation service and probation centre attendance, or treatment for drug, alcohol, or mental problems. "¢ Compulsory unpaid work, this would include community work like cleaning up graffiti "¢ Contribution of specific activities, this might include basic skills, or perhaps preparation to the people affected by the crime. "¢ Probation from undertaking activities "¢ Undertaking accredited programmes', which aim to change offenders behaviour "¢ Curfew and exclusions "¢ Residence requirement where an offender may have to stay in a specific place like an accepted hostel "¢ Mental health treatment only provided with the consent of the offender, and drug rehabilitation "¢ Alcohol treatment, which also the offender must consent to, also an attendance centre for offenders under the age of 25, may be required to attend the centre for set hours over the course of their sentence "¢ A supervision requirement ordering the offender to go to appointments with a dependable officer to endorse rehabilitation this can include attendance at an attendance centre when an offender below the age of 25 . The Criminal Justice Act provides the court with the authority to give a community sentence to an unrelenting offender aged 16 or over, on the occurrence when that individual has been convicted and fined on three or more earlier times. A report released earlier this year shows well equipped, well-administered community punishments and crime diversion plans cut crime by more than 50 per cent. The report suggests that these punishments are more successful than prison, also should be stretched to make sure that communities are safer and there are less fatalities of crime. The total people beginning community sentences under the supervision of the probation service in 2004 was 128,077 - 6% higher than the number starting in 2003, and some 30% higher than the number in 1993. The number of women starting community sentences rose by 70% between 1993 and 2004, to reach 19,460; the number of men increased by 25% to reach 108,617. International research suggests that well run, carefully targeted rehabilitation programmes can reduce reconviction rates by 5 "“ 10%. The Home Office aims to reduce re-offending by 5% by the end of the financial year 2007-08 and by 10% by the end of the decade. Reconviction rates for those serving community sentences are 14% lower than for those serving time in jail. The number of adults in 2002 who re-offended after two years of leaving prison was 67%. The number of adults in 2002 who re-offended on a community sentence after two years was 54%. Community penalties reduce offending by 14%. Prisons have failed to achieve their goals, and so, in large measure, have most of their alternatives. The failure of our prisons to reform or reintegrate offenders has been apparent since John Howard toured Europe's prisons in the eighteenth century Further more lately; research has made it increasingly clear that prison does not deter offenders any more effectively than most community punishments. The use of prison and community sentences has largely enhanced over the last decade. In between the years of 1996 and 2002, the amount of people been set a custodial sentence increased by 32% from 85,000 to 112,000. In the same years, the help from community sentences had risen 41% from 1333,000 to 186,000, in the same way that the operation of fines cut down by 25% in the years of 1991 and 2001. In addition, first-time offenders getting a community sentence has also increased noticeably. Twenty-percent of first-time offenders in 1996 got a community sentence. This did increase by 32% in 2002. Community orders give confidence to those low-risk offenders to assist them more competently it is proved rather sending them to prisons. Community orders give a more effective penalty against offending and engage offenders putting back into the community; they have lower rates of re-offending, both in volume of offending and importance of offences. Prison does not create respect. HM Chief Inspector of Prisons demonstrated in her report of Brisnford YOI that deprived stages of hygiene and busted fixtures and fittings did little to endorse a courteous environment. As I have said community sentences can involve offenders undertaking unpaid community work and putting back into communities that they have up to that time only taken from; this is better than having them sitting out their time in prison beds is more probable to create respect. The Government's 5 year strategy includes unpaid work at the heat of community sentencing, rising from 5 million hours in 2003 to forthcoming 10 million by 2011. Sunderland Youth Offending Service Restorative Justice Scheme currently has 22 payback schemes in Sunderland. The scheme operates 6 days a week, 50 weeks a year with young people involved in over 400 schemes a year and the schemes are extremely cost effective. This kind of method of working collaboratively with the community has been in particular effectual in making sure young people start to think about the needs of others, frequently those less lucky then themselves, and to be grateful for the code of equivalent chance for all. Restorative methods engage an offender and their injured party choosing to meet up, when the offender is confident to give explanation of their proceedings and request for forgiveness from the victim. An assessment by Oxford University of the restorative cautioning scheme run by Thames Valley Police found that the scheme helped the offenders to more appreciate the influences of their offending had on their victims saw admission of guilt as showing real regret. The greater use of community sentences for those low-risk offenders who are at present sentenced to custody would decrease the record prison people, ease the pressures of overcrowding, and give the prison service the chance to take on good work with the higher risk offenders who for grounds of public safety have to be held in custody. If the government is serious about cutting down the statistics in re-offending, it needs to take concentrate on how to diminish the numbers going in to custody. On the whole with the high number of non-violent, non-dangerous criminals who are sentences for such petty crimes, which probably could be dealt with more suitably directed whilst on a community sentence. Here it can allow them to make reparation for their crimes and gives confidence them to live a good and in the eyes of the law a crime free life. Prison sentences then instead should be used as a final sentence for those serious violent offenders who carry on creating threat to the social order.   

Personally, I think that custodial sentences work better for offenders that have not committed such a serious offence, much more cost-efficient, the offender is likely to stick to the community penalty, rather than I can only imagine being stuck in such depressing surroundings, but let us see if I am...

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