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The Crucible - John vs. John
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The Crucible, by Arthur Miller is a play set in the sixteen nineties about the tragic witch hunts in Salem, Massachusetts. Two important characters in the book to focus on are John Proctor and John Hale. Both Hale and Proctor transform throughout the play because of the conflicts they are involved in. John Proctor is an average puritan farmer in Salem who is faced with many internal conflicts. First we learn of his wife's distrust of him because he committed adultery. He did not want to get involved with the witch trials because he thought they were nonsense. Only after...
give his lie." 132 As the play gets farther along he begins to open his eyes and see that the people being sentenced are good, religious puritans. Hale then tries to pursued the people in jail to confess and have the charges dropped. By the end of the book Hale has changed from a religious puritan to someone who values life more than the puritan way of honesty.

Arthur Miller shows us that people are constantly changing due to different situations they are involved with. He also shows us that people are shaped by their reactions to these situations.

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"Ting. Tingle, tingle, tremble toes, she's..."Ting. Tingle, tingle, tremble toes, she's a good fisherman, catches hens, puts 'em inna pens"¦wire blier, limber lock, three geese inna flock"¦one flew east, one flew west, on flew over the cuckoo's nest"¦O-U-T spells out"¦goose swoops down and plucks you out." The book "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" is about a man, Randle Patrick McMurphy who is a rough-and-tumble, fun-loving guy who comes into the mental ward in Oregon and challenges the authoritarian nurse, Ms. Ratched. As the struggle between them goes on, McMurphy starts to show the other men of the ward how to loosen up and that they do not have to always listen to the nurse. Eventually, McMurphy is defeated when Ms. Ratched makes him get a lobotomy. When you first pick up the book, you will first notice that the story is told by one of the men who live in the ward. This is Chief Bromden; a half-Indian who is one of the long time committed men. In my eyes, the Bromden is a key character in the whole book. The Chief, in reality, is 6 foot 7 inches tall, but in his mind he sees himself as a man only two or three feet tall. This is because he has received over 200 electro-shock treatments and has been physiologically beaten to think that he is an inferior being to all others but he is not alone. All of the patients in the ward have had this done to them, some more than others. Another thing that sets the Chief apart is the fact that he has led everyone to think he is deaf and mute. This has enabled him to hear some of the secrets of the ward because everyone thought it was safe to talk around him. The Chief has also been in the army and in WWII. He claims to hear and see machinery in the walls of the ward that track and monitor all action that goes on in and around the hospital. With his experiences in war and with what he has gone through in the ward, he often loses himself in a "fog". He creates this "fog" in his mind so that he can numb the reality of where he is. Because of how he acts when in this fog, he has remained distant from all other patients in the ward. At least he was until he met McMurphy. McMurphy seemed to warm up to the Chief as soon as he met him and always joked around with him even though he never acted like he heard him. The only person he opened up and talked to was McMurphy. He told McMurphy all about his childhood and about what goes on in the hospital. There always was some kind of bond between the two. It was always McMurphy as the leader and Bromden who followed him. McMurphy showed the Chief how to grow as a person, and as a man. The more he learned, the less he had to lose himself in the fog. It was that way the whole time they were together, at least until McMurphy had his lobotomy. After the Chief saw the shell of a man that was McMurphy, he knew his friend would not want to live that way. During the night, Bromden smothered McMurphy to death with a pillow, then broke a window and fled from the hospital. It might not seem like it from what I just told you, but Chief Bromden was actually a key role in the book. He provided the insight into the workings of the hospital, backgrounds on the patients, and the different thoughts in the staff's head from what he heard while doing his daily work, cleaning.   

"Ting. Tingle, tingle, tremble toes, she's a good fisherman, catches hens, puts 'em inna pens…wire blier, limber lock, three geese inna flock…one flew east, one flew west, on flew over the cuckoo's nest…O-U-T spells out…goose swoops down and plucks you out." The book "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" is...

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The play 'King Lear' is centred...The play 'King Lear' is centred on Lear's journey towards self-knowledge, through suffering and torment. As the play unfolds, Lear's suffering increases and in turn, so does his self-Knowledge. His reconciliation with his daughter Cordelia demonstrates Lear's self-awareness and wisdom, however it is debatable as to how much Lear's actually learns, for it seems that his wisdom comes too late. In the first scene of the play, the audience observe Lear as superficial and materialistic. Furthermore, his is unable to identify a king's need for power and responsibility to work as one when he devises the 'love test', a means "to shake all cares and business from our age." The idea of the 'love test' is foolish and egotistical, as is his desire to be treated in the same manner after the division of his kingdom. Lear' actions are not those of a responsible ruler and the concept of a division of state would be particularly alarming for and Elizabethan audience, who depended on a strong central rule. Gonerill and Regan's superficial and elegant professions of their love fool Lear. Gonerill describes her love as being "dearer than eye-sight, space, and liberty" as Regan portrays herself as "an enemy to all other joys." This reference to 'eye-sight' is ironically significance as the play unfolds, for Lear's acceptance of Gonerill's love subsequently contributed to Gloucester's loss of sight. In contrast Cordelia does not attempt to compete with her two sisters superficial expressions of love, and talks rationally of how she loves her father "according to my bond; no more, no less." Lear is blind to Cordelia's honest expression of her love, and her strength of character and integrity are displayed and contrasted with her father's foolishness and stupidity. Lear's foolishness is examined further when Kent's willingness to sacrifice his own life for Lear "my life I never held but as a pawn"¦" is rewarded with banishment. By the end of the scene family and national harmony have been destroyed. Lear has reversed the social order and created a society where the good are banished and the evil are allowed to thrive. It is important to note that within the construct of the play this reversal could potentially provoke revolution, destroying the whole fabric of society in Britain. Critics agree that this violation of the duties of Kingship is the initial deed from which the tragedy springs. In Scene 4 of Act one the Fool plays a significant role in increasing Lear's self-knowledge and awareness after the banishment of Kent and Cordelia. The fool does not directly challenge the King due to his use of childlike language, however the Fool's scathing jests suggests Lear's powerlessness, and the fact that the Fool continues even after being threatened with a whipping, "take heed, sirrah; the whip" indicates that Lear is beginning to start his journey towards self-knowledge and awareness. In this Scene Lear begins to question himself and his identity when he asks, "who is it who can tell me who I am." Lear also disregards the use of the royal 'we', which he adopted in his earlier questions, "Are you our daughter." This reveals to the audience that Lear is no longer omnipotent. Lear realises that he has made a mistake, and there is indication that he has behaved unwisely when he says, "Woe that too late repents and that he has acted stupidly." Although Lear is beginning to realise his mistakes, his self-knowledge is only partially improved, for his still is of the belief that his unhappiness is mostly due to his daughter Gonerill, "Ingratitude, thou marble hearted fiend." By the end of this act the audience witnesses a slight development in King Lear, where he acknowledges that he treated Cordelia wrongly. "I did her wrong" Lear's raging emotions also seem to be driving him to insanity, "O let me not be mad, not mad, sweet heaven!" However the audiences feelings towards him are mixed due to his self pity, and blaming of his unhappiness on his daughter Gonerill, "So kind a father!" Events are rapidly heading towards crisis point in Act 2 Scene 4. Lear discovers that Kent has been put in the stocks, which unnerves the King for it is proof that he continues to be treated with contempt. ""¦Tis worse that murder to do upon respect such violent outrage." The audience again experience the selfish nature of Lear when he appears to be expressing concern for Regan's husband Cornwall, "Maybe he is not well." However his true concern lies with reasoning for Regan and Cornwall's failure to greet him, as opposed to concern for Cornwall. Lear's foolishness is revealed further when he recognizes that his relationship with Gonerill is indissoluble, "But yet thou art my flesh, my blood, my daughter..." and that Gonerill will remain with him like a disease "or rather a disease that's in my flesh." This is ironic for Lear fails to realise that he has cast off Cordelia, the healthy part of his blood in exchange Gonerill and Regan, the diseased part. This is an insight into Lear's limited progression towards self-knowledge. We are also reminded of the dangers of measuring love with words and numbers when Lear insists that he will reside with the daughter who allows him to retain the greatest number of followers, "Thy fifty yet doth double five and twenty and thou art twice her love." Lear is ignorant to the fact that neither of his daughters cares for him. Within the construct of the play Lear is given a heroic nature despite his foolishness and self-pity, due to the evil of Gonerill and Regan, the 'Machiavels' who will do anything to succeed power, despite the consequences. The storm in Act 3 Scene 2 serves as a metaphor for Lear's internal struggle to preserve his wits, which conforms to the Elizabethan belief that Kings were of a higher form of humanity, and therefore a King's despair has grand repercussions. At this point in the play we begin to feel more sympathy for Lear. For the first time the King has started to consider issues that he took little care of as a ruler, especially the distinction between folly, and the deliberate evil of crimes, a central theme in the play. Lear understands that ""¦I am a man more sinned against than sinning." This statement is somewhat true when he is compared to his evil daughters Regan and Gonerill. In this scene Lear changes significantly in a very important way, his journey towards greater understanding of himself and the world around him has truly begun. When alone in the storm Lear displays genuine compassion for the fool when he says, "poor fool and knave, I have one part in my heart that's sorry yet for thee." Also for the first time Lear acknowledges and agrees with what the Fool has to say about those with 'little tiny wilt"¦.' People who are not blessed with the powers of manipulation. Lear responds to the Fool with "True, my good boy. Come, bring us to this hovel." This response indicates Lear's growing understanding of himself and the world in which he lives. In Scene 4 of Act 3 It is clear to the audience that Lear is becoming increasingly more compassionate, "O, I have ta'en / Too little care of this, " and he is awakening to the responsibilities of a King in society. Lear attempts to throw off his clothes, which represent the hypocrisy and greed on which society is based. This attitude forms a comparison with the earlier Lear, "O, reason not the need. Our basest beggars / Are in the poorest thing superfluous." This illustrates Lear's growing self-knowledge and awareness. The trial scene in Act 3 Scene 6 is a parody of the previous 'love test' at the beginning of the play. However through Lear's madness his judgement is not faulty. When a comparison is formed with the earlier 'love test' the audience realise that Lear can see the true natures of his daughters, "and here's another, whose warped looks proclaim"¦" This trial scene also parallels to the trial of Gloucester, where Gloucester says he hopes to see "The winged Vengeance overtake such children." Lear's speeches in Act 4 Scene 6 illustrate a greater level of knowledge and understanding. His first speech shows Lear's realisation of the powers of flattery, and how his previous status was not based on his ability's as King, but on the sycophancy of others, where "they told me I was everything: 'tis a lie, I am not ague proof." Lear learnt from his experiences of the storm, where there was no distinction of social order, that it was his position as King that separated him from common humanity above anything else. Lear's second speech concerns the balance of society, and his hatred towards Gonerill and Regan forces him to consider issues of female sexuality, which was a typical characteristic of madness in the Elizabethan era. His self-knowledge is clarified when him compares the outcomes of legitimate and illegitimate sex, "For Gloucester's bastard son /Was kinder to his father than my daughters,"he is unaware if Edmund's wrong doings. Lear's third speech rejects society based on wealth and social status, which he had once enforced. Lear professes that "robes and furred gowns" hide hypocrisy and corruption. His new knowledge enables him to analyse human nature, and his new compassion enables him to reflect upon the lives of the poor and venerable, however his hatred towards Gonerill and Regan hinders his ability to be a peace with himself. In Act 4 Scene 7 Lear and Cordelia are reunited, and it is with this reunion that critics affirm Lear's new birth, from the Lear, which had preciously died in the Storm. It is a scene of pathos and renewal. Natural remedies such as sleep and music are applied to heal Lear, and Cordelia is seen as a saviour figure. Like Gloucester, Lear experiences a symbolic death where he thinks he is "bound upon a wheel of fire"¦"In hell and he is now "old and foolish." However he becomes rational again, and there is hope that Cordelia's love may restore him, nonetheless there is still question as to whether Lear's self-knowledge has come too late. At the opening of the concluding scene of the play the audience experience that Lear's inner peace, and freedom from his thoughts of revenge towards his evil daughters. His inner tranquillity, an happiness of is reconciliation with Cordelia is reflected in his use of peaceful language such as "gilded butterflies", and he confesses that they will "sing like birds I' the cage." However, Lear's dreams of prison with Cordelia are revealed as an illusion almost immediately. Thereafter, the pathos is emphasised by the tragic death of Cordelia, and the helplessness of Lear, "I am old now / And these same crosses spoil me." Yet despite Lear's torment, at his death he is of the illusion that Cordelia is still alive. It is difficult to valuate how much Lear learns throughout the course of the play. Through his suffering he learns the powers of love and compassion, as well as wisdom and humility. However it is impossible not to feel that his suffering has been in vain, and his journey towards self-knowledge was hindered by his anger towards Gonerill and Regan. Of course this added to the pathos and tragedy of the play, where at the finally the audience is left wondering whether justice really was achieved. This concept of tragedy has sharply divided opinions amongst critics. Jonathan Dollimore sees it as "above all, a play about power, property and inheritance", where Lear, Poor Tom and the Fool are outcasts alienated from Jacobean society. In contrast many critics such as G k Hunter view the play as essentially a personal tragedy, about Lear's journey to redemption, which leads to be the greatest of Shakespeare's tragedies.   

The play 'King Lear' is centred on Lear's journey towards self-knowledge, through suffering and torment. As the play unfolds, Lear's suffering increases and in turn, so does his self-Knowledge. His reconciliation with his daughter Cordelia demonstrates Lear's self-awareness and wisdom, however it is debatable as to how much Lear's actually...

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