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Down Syndrome
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Sometimes when meiosis the division of reproductive cells occurs, chromosomes may be lost, left behind, or too many may be passed on, resulting in the birth of a child with a genetic or congenital defect or disease. One of the most common of these genetic disorders is Down syndrome. This disorder takes its name from Dr. Langdon Down, who was the first to describe it formally, in 1866. Down syndrome is a condition marked by abnormal physical and mental development that is caused by a genetic defect. This genetic defect is caused by an extra chromosome. People born with Down...
heart and gastrointestinal defects, control infections with antibiotics, relieve endocrine gland malfunctions, and dental problems can be held in check through early measures against tooth decay, plus orthodontics and restorative dentistry to remedy crooked teeth.

With proper medical care average life expectancy is now almost the same as that of the general population. However, even with excellent nurturing and education, not many Down syndrome adults can be fully independent. Most will always need a protected home and work environment. Institutionalization may still be necessary in a minority of Down syndrome people with incredibly severe physical defects or developmental disability.

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Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin,...Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, and is also known as Ascorbic Acid. It was first isolated in 1928 by the Hungarian biochemist and Nobel prize winner, Dr. Szent-Gyorgyi. Two-time Nobel prize winner, Dr. Linus Pauling was the first to realize vitamin C's importance in a healthy immune system. Most animals can produce their own vitamin C. Man, primates apes, chimps, etc., and guinea pigs, however, have lost the ability. They instead have to get it through their diet. It was a Scottish physician named James Lind, back in 1753, who first said that fresh vegetables and ripe fruit could be used to prevent scurvy a severe vitamin C deficiency, which is rarely seen today. The British Navy took his advice about 404 years later, taking lime juice on long sea voyages to ward off the disease. For this, they were nicknamed, "Limeys." 42.2% of vitamin C comes from vegetables, 41.5% from fruits, 3.2% from dairy products, 2.3% from meat, poultry and fish, and .9% from other foods "“ legumes, nuts and soy .1% and miscellaneous foods .8%. In the average American diet, 93% of their vitamin C comes from fruits and vegetables and citrus fruits and tomatoes contribute to almost half of the vitamin C provided by the fruits and vegetable group. Foods that contain small amounts of vitamin C and are not considered good sources of calcium can contribute a good amount of vitamin C to a diet if eaten often or in large amounts. Some good sources of vitamin C include broccoli, red peppers, parsley, potatoes, strawberries, and oranges, etc. Vitamin C can be damaged during food preparation, like when chopping, cooking, boiling, exposure to air, and being submerged in water. The amount of vitamin C is high enough in most foods though, that the amount after this is more than enough. To keep the vitamin C from being damaged you can eat fruits and vegetables raw whenever possible, and cook potatoes in their skin. Steam, boil or simmer in a small amount of water, or microwave for a short time. Refrigerate prepared juices and don't store them longer than two or three days, and when storing cut/raw fruits and vegetables keep in an airtight container and refrigerate don't soak or store in water. The recommended dietary allowance RDA for adolescents is 75mg per day for males and 65mgs per day for females. Adults should have 90mg per day for males, and 75mg per day for females. Smokers should be getting 125mg per day for males, and 110mg per day for females. A study done by the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA, found that the average intake by Americans was over the RDA, but females tended to get less than males of the same age. What's the purpose of Vitamin C? First of all, it is vital to the production of collagen. Collagen is a protein that gives structure to bones, cartilage, muscle and blood vessels. It has the most fibers contained in connective tissue, which gives the body form and supports the organs. When collagen is produced, there's a series of events, some inside, and some outside of the cell. Vitamin C is active inside of the cell, where it adds hydrogen and oxygen to two amino acids, proline and lysine. These help form procollagen which is a precursor molecule, that is later packaged and modified into collagen outside of the cell. Without Vitamin C, collagen formation would be disrupted causing a wide variety of problems throughout the body. Vitamin C is a redox agent, meaning that it acts as an antioxidant in some cases and an oxidant in others. Antioxidants are important because they inhibit chemical reactions with oxygen. These reactions oxidant reactions cause damage to cells. As an antioxidant, one of the most important functions is to protect the LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage. Only when LDL is damaged does cholesterol seem to lead to heart disease. Vitamin C is one of the most important antioxidant protectors of LDL. The use of vitamin C supplements is almost never necessary. There is more than enough of it in everyday foods, and consuming more vitamin C, does not increase the amount that remains in the body. Scientists have recommended that healthy people take multi-gram amounts of vitamin C for the prevention of illness, but there isn't much research to back it up. People with iron overload, history of kidney stones or kidney failure, etc. shouldn't take supplements. Taking supplements may also encourage someone to take too much vitamin C. People believe that because Vitamin C is water-soluble, that it is safe to take in high doses. Some develop diarrhea after as little as a few grams, while others are fine with ten times that amount. Vitamin C taken in large amounts, can take away the body's copper "“ an essential nutrient "“ and can increase the absorption of iron. It can thicken the walls of the carotid arteries, vessels in the neck that supply blood to the brain, cause a toxic release of inorganic iron which can be fatal for some, damage to outer layer of teeth if tablets are chewed, abnormal heart rhythms, and a variety of other medical problems.   

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, and is also known as Ascorbic Acid. It was first isolated in 1928 by the Hungarian biochemist and Nobel prize winner, Dr. Szent-Gyorgyi. Two-time Nobel prize winner, Dr. Linus Pauling was the first to realize vitamin C's importance in a healthy immune system. Most...

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