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Down Syndrome
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Sometimes when meiosis the division of reproductive cells occurs, chromosomes may be lost, left behind, or too many may be passed on, resulting in the birth of a child with a genetic or congenital defect or disease. One of the most common of these genetic disorders is Down syndrome. This disorder takes its name from Dr. Langdon Down, who was the first to describe it formally, in 1866. Down syndrome is a condition marked by abnormal physical and mental development that is caused by a genetic defect. This genetic defect is caused by an extra chromosome. People born with Down...
heart and gastrointestinal defects, control infections with antibiotics, relieve endocrine gland malfunctions, and dental problems can be held in check through early measures against tooth decay, plus orthodontics and restorative dentistry to remedy crooked teeth.

With proper medical care average life expectancy is now almost the same as that of the general population. However, even with excellent nurturing and education, not many Down syndrome adults can be fully independent. Most will always need a protected home and work environment. Institutionalization may still be necessary in a minority of Down syndrome people with incredibly severe physical defects or developmental disability.

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Chromium was discovered by Louis "“...Chromium was discovered by Louis "“ Nicholas Vauquelin in France, 1797 and prepared the metal itself the following year. The name Chromium originated from the Greek word "chroma" meaning "color", named for the many colored compounds known for Chromium. Chromium is a steel-gray metal used to produce stainless steel and helps with corrosion. Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and in volcanic dust and gases. It is present in several forms such as: chromium0, chromiumIII, and chromiumVI, which are the most common. These forms have no odor or taste. ChromiumIII occurs naturally while chromiumVI and chromium0 are produced by industrial processes. Metal chromium, which is the chromium0 form are used to make steel. ChromiumVI and chromiumIII are used for chrome plating, dyes and pigments, leather tanning, and wood preserving. Not all chromium forms are healthy to the environment. Chromium enters through the air, water, and soil mostly through the form of chromiumIII and chromiumVI. Chromium is strongly attached to soil and only a small amount can dissolve in water and move deeper in the soil to underground water. ChromiumIII is an essential nutrient that helps our body use sugar, protein, and fat. Although chromiumIII is healthy, chromiumVI can cause irritation to the nose when breathing high levels of it. Several studies have shown that chromiumVI compounds can increase the risk of lung cancer. Chromium in general is a transition metal with four energy levels. The first level contains 2 electrons, the second 8, the third 13, and the fourth 1. It weighs 51.996 amu and can be found in the periodic table in period 4 and group 6. Various colored gemstones ruby, emerald, serpentine owe their color to chromium. Chromium trioxide is used in chrome plating and as a colorant for ceramics. Chromium oxide, lead chromate, and other chromium compounds are used as pigments. Chromium dioxide, strongly magnetic, is used in recording tapes. All in all, chromium can be toxic, a nutrient, or a substance in which to help produce other man "“ made materials. Chromium is in everyone's bodies because it naturally occurs in our food. Birth defects though, have been discovered due to the exposion of chromiumVI for animals and humans.   

Chromium was discovered by Louis – Nicholas Vauquelin in France, 1797 and prepared the metal itself the following year. The name Chromium originated from the Greek word "chroma" meaning "color", named for the many colored compounds known for Chromium. Chromium is a steel-gray metal used to produce stainless steel and...

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