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Down Syndrome
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Sometimes when meiosis the division of reproductive cells occurs, chromosomes may be lost, left behind, or too many may be passed on, resulting in the birth of a child with a genetic or congenital defect or disease. One of the most common of these genetic disorders is Down syndrome. This disorder takes its name from Dr. Langdon Down, who was the first to describe it formally, in 1866. Down syndrome is a condition marked by abnormal physical and mental development that is caused by a genetic defect. This genetic defect is caused by an extra chromosome. People born with Down...
heart and gastrointestinal defects, control infections with antibiotics, relieve endocrine gland malfunctions, and dental problems can be held in check through early measures against tooth decay, plus orthodontics and restorative dentistry to remedy crooked teeth.

With proper medical care average life expectancy is now almost the same as that of the general population. However, even with excellent nurturing and education, not many Down syndrome adults can be fully independent. Most will always need a protected home and work environment. Institutionalization may still be necessary in a minority of Down syndrome people with incredibly severe physical defects or developmental disability.

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The common cold has been around...The common cold has been around since the Greeks where physician Hipprocrates suggested that the stuffed up feeling was the result of too much waste matter in the brain. When you received a runny nose, it was the waste overflowing. After the Renaissance, doctors began to study the human body and eventually discovered bacteria. After viruses were uncovered in 1898, German scientist Walter von Kruse suggested viruses were the cause of colds. His findings weren't confirmed until 1938. In 1955, Sir Christopher Andrewes identified a virus that caused colds; he made a vaccine against it only to find out there were over 200 viruses that caused colds People can catch the common cold in many different ways. Some can catch the common cold by breathing in the germ, which gets past the mucus of your nose and into a cell. When a person who has a cold coughs or sneezes, tiny droplets of moisture that contains germs spray out. The common cold can also be caught through direct contact, especially when hands have contact with the eyes or mouth. Not only can the common cold spread through direct contact, but indirect contact too. A child with a cold could touch a toy and another will touch the same toy. People sometimes catch the common cold because they have nasal allergies or physiological stress, which makes them more vulnerable to the cold. Cold weather also allows people to catch colds because of the extra time they spend indoor, which increases the chances of viruses being transmitted from one to another. In addition, the cold weather lowers humidity where cold "“ causing viruses can survive better. Also, during the cold weather, a person's nasal passage lining becomes drier reducing the chances of stopping viruses. Lastly, the common cold is neither a genetic nor hormonal disease. Population most infected by the common cold is relative young children. Children receive six to ten colds a year while adults receive two to four colds. Women in their 20 to 30 years of age catch colds more often than men because of their more frequent contact with children. Adults over 60 years of age have fewer than one cold per year. The common cold this year is more likely to happen in central United States where most of the cool wind is blowing. Before a common cold starts, warning signs are perceived, some are: stuffy nose, hoarse throat, light coughing, and sneezing. The common cold is an ineffective disease if treated correctly and quickly, but if not, it can lead to ear infections or bronchitis. Short, simple colds only last a few days, but longer severe colds cause the person to have a fever, loss of appetite, aches, and chills through their body. The common cold an acute disease, meaning it lasts for a short period of time. Although a cold to people is a common cold, there are three different types of it. There are colds caused by allergies, by virus infection, or by both. Although there is no actual cure for the common cold, the victim can help the immune system fight by staying in bed to receive rest and to keep isolated from other people. Also, the victim should eat nourishing foods and drink plenty of fluids such as fruit juices, tea, or water. The immune system does it part to help the cold by producing kinins, which cause the swelling and inflammation of the nasal membranes and the increased production of mucus. If the victim's cold persists or gets worse, a doctor can prescribe antibiotics. Antibiotics do not kill the virus , but are used for bacterial infections. In addition, the cold can be relieved, not treated, by over the counter medications such as Tylenol or Aspirin, but labels of the drugs should be read carefully or might have severe side effects with prescribed drugs. Preventing the common cold is quite easy, make sure to keep yourself healthy and take vitamins to keep your immune system strong. Hand washing is the simplest and most effective way of preventing yourself from a cold. Touching less of the eyes or nose will also prevent germs from getting into your body. Becoming chilled or cold does not increase your chances of getting a cold. Studies have shown that people in warm weather and in cold have the same amount of colds. After researching on this project I discovered that a common cold could be caused by allergies and not only by a virus. Also, I was startled by the number of workers that stay home per year because of a common cold in the United States. Having a cold would be very effective to stay home from school and pamper yourself. Consequently, you would have to catch up on missed work and suffer raw skin under the nose from blowing your nose too many times, occasional runny noses, and running out of energy faster than usual. All in all, the common cold may not be a severe disease, but still an uncomfortable one to cope with.   

The common cold has been around since the Greeks where physician Hipprocrates suggested that the stuffed up feeling was the result of too much waste matter in the brain. When you received a runny nose, it was the waste overflowing. After the Renaissance, doctors began to study the human body...

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