Related Keywords

No Related Keywords

Register NowHow It Works Need Essay Need Essay
"To be competitive a manufacturing firm must adopt "Just-in-time" JIT methods". Using examples, carefully evaluate the accuracy of this statement.
9 User(s) Rated!
Words: 1949 Views: 354 Comments: 0
There are many factors, which are responsible for the "love affair" and adoption of Japanese techniques and philosophy by many North American and European managers. Four main factors are global competition, limitations of Taylorist-Fordist production paradigm, application of new technology requiring a skilled and cooperative workforce and the apparent success of the Japanese paradigm. Japan a completely devastated country has emerged in the post war period as the world"s second largest economy after the United States. This miracle has been attributed to well-planned and executed methods of production management especially in the manufacturing industry. The competitiveness of companies such as...
discussed above will find that it will not make them competitive and may result in total failure. However one cannot ignore the advantages of JIT manufacturing technique, as it is a very useful tool in ensuring competitiveness if the system is set up properly in conjunction with the other factors in the Japanese model. It is important to understand that to be competitive, a company must have a well-planed production system. This can be done using several management strategies as long as they are well planed and suitable for the nature of the company and its national culture.

Become A Member Become a member to continue reading this essay orLoginLogin
View Comments Add Comment

The life of Bill Gates is...The life of Bill Gates is compared to Jay Gatsby in "The Great Gatsby." Bill Gates is the chairman and chief software architect of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft is the worldwide leader that helps businesses and people, who want to see their full potential. Did you know that Microsoft employs about an average of 61,000 people in 102 countries and regions, and Microsoft has revenues of US$39.79 billion, for the fiscal year ending June 2005. Bill Gates was born on October. 28, 1955. Bill had grew up in Seattle with his two sisters. Their late mother, Mary, was a schoolteacher, University of Washington regent, and she was also chairwoman of United Way International. Bill Gates had attended a public elementary school and then he went to a private Lakeside School. At 13 Bill was still at the Lakeside private school, were he discovered his interest in software and he had begun programming. Napoleon Bonaparte was among Gate's boyhood idols. Driven by a persistent desire to master the economic world, just as Napoleon was driven to master the military and political worlds, Gates built his own Grand Empire, only to see it assailed from all sides. Gale Group, 2001 At Harvard University in 1973, Bill Gates was a freshman there. While he was there, he also lived down the hall were Steve Ballmer lived. Which if you don't know, Steve is Microsoft's chief executive officer. When Bill was still at Harvard, he had developed a version of BASIC language for the first microcomputer. Jay Gatsby can relate to Bill Gates early years because, Jay came from a impoverished childhood in the rural areas of North Dakota to actually become fabulously wealthy. But Jay Gatsby didn't start his own company like Bill Gates did, instead he became rich by participating in organized crime, which included in bootlegging. An from his early youth, Jay "despised poverty and longed for wealth and sophistication"”he dropped out of St. Olaf's College after only two weeks because he could not bear the janitorial job with which he was paying his tuition. Though Gatsby has always wanted to be rich, his main motivation in acquiring his fortune was his love for Daisy Buchanan, whom he met as a young military officer in Louisville before leaving to fight in World War 1 in 1917." While Bill Gates was a Junior at Harvard University, Gates had left Harvard to devote his time and money to Microsoft, a company that he started back in 1975 with his childhood friend Paul Allen. And Bill Gates was also guided with his personal belief that computers will soon be a tool in every home, office, school, and etc. So at Microsoft they had begun creating more and more software for the computers that people had at home, as well as still developing software for the office computers. So this foresight that Bill Gates had, was what has been the main success of Microsoft as well as the software industry. Under the leadership of Bill Gates, was the mission of Microsoft to still improve and to advance in the world of software technology, and it was also Bill's idea to make computers an technology more cost effective and more fun for people to use them. Jay Gatsby can relate to this because, So Jay Gatsby had fell in love with Daisy since the first time he had met her. Just because of her aura of charm, grace, and luxury. And to which Jay had lied to Daisy about his own background, because she would not go out with him if she knew that Gatsby was a poor boy. In other words, its that he wasn't good enough for her at the time. So when he went off to the war, Daisy promised him that she would wait for him to get back, but she didn't. "Daisy promised to wait for him when he left for the war, but married Tom Buchanan in 1919, while Gatsby was studying at Oxford after the war in an attempt to gain an education. From the moment on, Gatsby dedicated himself to winning Daisy back, and his acquisition of millions of dollars, his purchase of a gaudy mansion on West Egg, and his lavish weekly parties are all merely means to that end" SPARKNOTES. Bill Gates was also a Philanthropist. In the year 1999 Bill was at least worth $87.5 billion. And his was at least 18.5 percent stake and in Microsoft, had accounted for at least $76 billion, while again with his personal stash of fortune amounted to at least $11.5 billion and still counting. At least $5 billion is in Bill's personal investment portfolio. $6.5 billion was divided by Gates between the two foundations, the "William H. Gates Foundation" and the "Gates Learning Foundation." But also, Bill an his wife started the "Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation" it had endowed more than $17 million, that supported the "philanthropic initiatives in global health, mainly in third world countries. Bill Gates was also quite a visionary, and a article said that "Gates likes to talk about the future. As the decade drew to a close, his own future and that of Microsoft remained in doubt. On 7 June 2000, in the most severe antitrust prescription since the breakup of AT&T in 1984, U.S. District Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson ruled that Microsoft was a monopoly and ordered it be split into two companies. What the ruling means for Microsoft is ultimately less interesting than what it means for Gate's vision of the future, as he is not merely marketing an assortment of technologies, but marketing a way of life" Gale Group. Bill Gates has truly had a successful life. I mean he started his own business from the ground"¦up. He also has a wife name Melinda Gates, and they have three children. So Bill Gates has truly lived or lives "The American Dream." Jay Gatsby can relate to this because, Gatsby became fabulously wealthy, and devoted all his wealth to the Daisy the girl that he loved and that left him. But still Gatsby got his riches from organized crime. But became wealthy. Just the things he did, truly shows that Jay Gatsby has lived "The American Dream."   

The life of Bill Gates is compared to Jay Gatsby in "The Great Gatsby." Bill Gates is the chairman and chief software architect of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft is the worldwide leader that helps businesses and people, who want to see their full potential. Did you know that Microsoft employs about...

Words: 1049 View(s): 115 Comment(s): 0
Introduction Scheins model consists of three...Introduction Scheins model consists of three distinct levels. These are the levels of culture. The levels range from the very visible and tangible to the very tacit and invisible. The first level is known as the visible level or the "artefacts". Scheins model is best demonstrated by comparison to an iceberg. The visible level is the part of the berg that can be viewed above water. It is the simplest level to freely observe what you hear, see and feel in an organisation. All visible structures and processes are on this level. The next level is less visible and is referred to as the espoused level. This level deals with strategies, goals and the philosophies of an organisation. These are the values people say they believe in but that belief may or may not be reflected in their behaviour. At this level the question "why?" is often asked, and appropriate justifications must be given. E.g. "Why are things done the way they are?". Here basic values may be highlighted in company documents e.g. integrity, customer orientation, product quality etc. Although two companies may have similar espoused values, inconsistencies may occur. These inconsistencies tell you that a deeper level of thought and perception must be driving the overt behaviour. This deeper level may or may not be consistent with the espoused values or principles. In order to understand the culture, the "goings on" at the deeper level must also be understood. This "deeper level" is more commonly known as the "hidden beliefs and assumptions" or "shared tacit assumptions". There are four dimensions in this deeper level. They are:  Boundaries of Activities  The Nature/Truth of Decision Making  Assumptions about Time and Progress  Human Nature. 1. Boundaries of Activities These are the boundaries imposed on each job. These boundaries can range from parochial narrow and small minded to cosmopolitan broad and messy. Often, a combination of the two is required to achieve success depending on the organisation. In relation to Geneqo, we feel Des has overstepped his boundary by ridiculing Bradley by impersonation. This debasement was, worse still, carried out in front of other staff members. This type of behaviour is damaging to an organisation as it encourages a subculture of dysentery in the ranks and negatively affects the team dynamic. Bradley as a person is very outgoing and cosmopolitan and doesn't seem to notice this emergent counter-culture. Des is parochial in his activities as he is very end goal fixated. Bradley, on the other hand is not as annoyed by the constant delays and seems to be cosmopolitan in his approach. Whilst Des is getting flustered and feels the project has "hit a brick wall", Bradley seems confident all will come together in the end. There is also parochialism apparent in the work attitudes in the team. Each employee seems to be working on an individual basis to finish the product and there appears to be little collusion to achieve this goal. This is a case Hoefstede's "individualism" dimension. 2. Nature of Truth/Decision Making. In Geneqo there is a lack of communication amongst the team. As the CEO Bradley is an autocratic leader who relies heavily on his charismatic authority to give his decisions credibility. He has made poor and costly decisions in the past such as in the case of the outsourcing fiasco. We feel this shows flippant decision making and poor managerial skills. For his part, Des did not posses the gumption to tell Bradley outright that he had made a poor choice. In this company truth seems to be codified in the example of Bradley's suitability to the job based on past success and also hidden no expression of true feeling and opinion. 3. Assumptions about Time and Progress Geneqo is very inept at achieving temporal goals and objectives. Not only is Des' idea now old and quite possibly outdated, the project is seriously behind schedule and more delays are expected. As mentioned in the text; "pharmaceuticals had changed a lot in forty years" we believe that this product runs the risk of being an obsolete dinosaur by the time it gets to market. There is also a distinct possibility that another competitor may beat them to the marketplace if they don't manage to come up with the goods soon. Progress on the project appears to be very slow and is not end result fixated. Des appears to be the sole staff member who is concerned with the actual end goal of the company, i.e., the introduction of this pharmaceutical to the marketplace. Bradley and the rest of the team appear process fixated and seem not to be focused on the end goal. We believe that this organisation is still living on the past, reflecting on their past glories and successes whilst ignoring present and future challenges. They make the basic assumption that if things worked in the past they must be good enough to work in the present and future and therefore do not need to be re-examined. This assumption can indeed be valid if the technology and the environment remain stable but can lead an organisation to destruction if changes occur. We believe Bradley is resting on his laurels from the Novoscon era and feel this does not make him a good manager. Because of the slow progress, investors in the company are becoming agitated. To appease some investors, Bradley hired Marco who came highly recommended. Here is another example of the company relying on individuals' past successes. The question begs to be asked, Is Bradley using exhausted and antiquated resources?? 4. Human Nature There are many types of personalities in Geneqo. Firstly, the CEO of the company is charismatic, domineering and very proud of his previous achievements. Bradley takes the position of a Mc Gregor's theory "Y" manager. He believes that he has the best team possible and is willing to sit back and let them do the work he believes they are capable of. He does offer encouragement to motivate his staff but is not as autocratic as theory "X" managers. Next is Des the Scientist who originally came up with the idea as a direct result of his PhD research. He treats the drug as his "baby" and didn't approve when others such as Bradley didn't demonstrate the requisite passion and enthusiasm for his project. Des openly abhors Bradley but lacks the confidence to directly confront him. This leaves his problems unsolved and creates irritation and annoyance. We feel Des is a coward and feels bullied by Marco's and Bradley decisions. He blames other peoples' personalities rather than his own apparent weakness. He is dominated by Bradley. Marco was brought in to handle the marketing but seems completely uncommitted to the company. He has a reputation of not spending more than six months at any one company which demonstrates flightiness and unreliability. He is a high flyer with a love of nightclubs and big deals. The other scientists display an individualistic attitude towards work and as such work poorly as a team. Bradley is not an effective manager and each scientist is treating the project as "just another post-doc research gig". This shows they are unmotivated by the project and don't seem to care if the product comes into fruition or not. The regulatory member of staff is "taking a break from his real job" which implies he doesn't take this project seriously and may be laid back in his efforts. This may delay the project further causing even more headaches for the organisation. There is a poor sense of group work in the company. Each staff member has a different outlook as to what the project is giving them personally. There is little or no unity or symbiotic work relationships Recommendations Based on the analysis of Geneqo's situation by the Scheinian four factor framework and other theories and ideas we have made the following recommendations for Des:  Firstly Des needs to address and resolve his anti conflict issues. He needs to be more assertive and stand up for himself.  We believe that Des should suggest a combined parochial/cosmopolitan approach to their boundaries in order to find the best middle ground and obtain a happy medium.  Des should suggest that decision making should be a collusive and democratic process to ensure the best outcomes.  Des should speak the truth about his feelings of discontent and not take his anger out on Bradley by clandestinely mimicking him.  Geneqo need to get serious about the delivery date of their drug. They need to realise that the pharmaceuticals market is fast paced and they might be left behind. Further delays should not be tolerated. Des needs to communicate this fact to Bradley and work with him to achieve results. A symbiotic relationship is needed.  Des needs to stop relying on past successes of management and instead look to the future success of his own product.  He needs to sort out his vacation time and financial issues to leave his mind free to deal with business issues. We feel the company should review the layout of the organisations structure and possibly consider implementing Lewins 5 phase model of change which includes the following stages: "¢ Phase 1: Diagnosis "¢ Phase 2: Unfreezing "¢ Phase 3: Movement "¢ Phase 4: Refreezing "¢ Phase 5: Renewal   

Introduction Scheins model consists of three distinct levels. These are the levels of culture. The levels range from the very visible and tangible to the very tacit and invisible. The first level is known as the visible level or the "artefacts". Scheins model is best demonstrated by comparison to an...

Words: 1580 View(s): 162 Comment(s): 0