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"Marlowe's biographers often portray him as a dangerously over"“ambitious individual. Explore ways this aspect of Marlowe's personality is reflected in 'Dr. Faustus.' " Christopher Marlowe lived during the Renaissance period in 16th century England. Although this was a time of change, the Elizabethans still had fixed moral values. 'The Chain of Being,' a concept inherited from the Middle Ages, can be described as a hierarchy of society, with the monarch at the top and the lowliest peasants at the bottom. Below people were animals, plants and rocks. During the Elizabethan era, 'dangerous ambition' would probably involve trying to break the 'Chain of Being' and striving to increase one's social status. It was believed to be necessary to accept one's place in the chain, as to disrupt it and overcome the set order of society could mean chaos would follow. Faustus was an exceedingly ambitious man, even in relation to what is considered to be ambitious by people in today's society. In the prologue, The Chorus sums up Faustus' background and early life, emphasizing his ordinary background and academic success. It seems that Faustus' intellect made him become proud and this fired up his ambition. When Marlowe presents Faustus in scene 1, Faustus methodically shuns great authors and classically intellectual subjects, such as medicine and law because they hold little attraction to him, line 11 'A greater subject fitteth Faustus' wit.' The above quote shows how Faustus elevates himself above taking up an intellectual pursuit that would be highly esteemed by the Elizabethans. Another sign that Faustus holds himself in high regard is that he refers to himself in the third person, also shown in the above quote. Faustus' discusses beliefs that he will no longer hold and describes what he wants to achieve in his opening soliloquy. Faustus may be seen as blasphemous in the opening speech, implying that he would only be a doctor if he could be equal to God, lines24-6 'Couldst thou make men live eternally Or, being dead raise them to life again, Then this profession were to be esteemed.' This is made more obvious when Faustus lastly says, line 62 'A sound magician is a mighty god.' Marlowe portrays Faustus as being over-ambitious by his turning to magic, which is a much more sinister and much less conventional pursuit than others that he had been discussing previously. Faustus hopes that magic will make him omnipotent and god-like. There is little evidence to suggest that Marlowe himself wanted power over others, but his rise in society from a shoemaker's son to a scholar at Cambridge University and later, a spy, was extremely rare at the time. Marlowe did not lead a normal Elizabethan life; in fact, one could say that it was similar to fiction. The over-ambitious part of Marlowe's personality is reflected in Faustus because it seems Marlowe must have wanted success in his life, and to over-reach his set path in life. It becomes clearer as the play continues that Faustus is a dangerously ambitious person when in scene 3 he discusses the deal with a devil, Mephastophilis, concerning the selling of his soul to the Devil in return for earthly power. When Faustus makes the contract, it seems as if he is not thinking ahead as his attitude is carefree. He possibly does not believe in Hell, or that he has a soul, or about the reality of the bargain. His attitude at this point can be summed up by the following phrase Scene 4, lines 103-4, 'If I had as many souls as there be stars, I'd give them all for Mephastophilis.' Faustus' ambition for power and lack of foresight are what doom him later on in play. Arguably, ambition can be said to have caused the downfall of Marlowe himself. His violent murder in a London tavern in 1593 was mysterious and historians often question possible motives for killing Marlowe; his drive to succeed may have made other people envious and resentful. In 'Dr. Faustus', other characters are probably envious of Faustus too. In one of the comic scenes, scene 6, we learn that Robin and Rafe have stolen one of Faustus' books and plan to use it to seduce a woman. They must have been jealous of Faustus' power and his magical aptitude; however it is not the case that he is murdered by these characters later on in the play. Faustus is ambitious and enjoys his newfound power until the end of the play, despite being warned of the reality of his empty bargain by the Old Man and by the Good Angel throughout the play. The Old Man says in scene 12 lines 107-9, 'Ambitious fiends, see how the heavens smiles At your repulse, and laughs your state to scorn. Hence hell, for hence I fly unto God.' This moment foreshadows Faustus' lines at the end of the play, where, horrified, he must face the Devil and Hell. Faustus' ambition makes him a more human character despite him his selling his soul to the Devil, which may make him more difficult for the audience to relate to because of the extraordinary situation. His intellect sometimes creates doubts in his mind about the bargain that he has made, but his ambition overrides his conscience until the very end. This is shown by the Good and Evil Angels, who appear in scenes 1 and 5. They are binary opposites and in my view are present to put another side to Faustus' personality "“ a conscience. The Good Angel tries to motivate Faustus to repent by concentrating on God's anger. However the Evil Angel contradicts the Good Angel, Scene 5 lines 253-6 'EVIL ANGEL: Too late. GOOD ANGEL: Never too late, if Faustus can repent. EVIL ANGEL: If thou repent, devils shall tear thee in pieces. GOOD ANGEL: Repent, and they shall never rase thy skin.' The Good and Evil Angels' stichomythic dialogue is not too realistic and shows how torn Faustus is between the two sides. He is easily swayed and believes the angel that speaks last, but it is interesting to bear in mind that despite the warnings, his ambition stays with him to the end and leads to his downfall. Marlowe portrays Faustus' ambition as dangerous; it was the cause of his demise. Perhaps Marlowe used the theme of over-ambition as a warning to the audience, who would be likely to be wary of ambition - it was looked down on as a negative personality trait in Christian England. Ideas around at the time such as 'The Chain of Being' reinforced religious opinion into people's everyday lives and morality plays popular from the early 1400s to the 1580s were used to strengthen people's Christian principles, as 'Dr. Faustus' also does by discouraging ambition. Marlowe reflects ambition in the character of Faustus to deter the audience from being ambitious, and over-reaching their place in the 'Chain of Being'. However, if Marlowe chose to be 'dangerously over-ambitious' and regarded himself as this, it is likely that he may have written 'Dr. Faustus' differently, not viewing ambition in such a negative way. Whatever Marlowe's view on ambition was, it is not made clear in the play, through Faustus or other characters. Certain aspects of his personality are indeed reflected in Faustus, which make reading the play and exploring Faustus as a character even more intriguing.
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"Marlowe's biographers often portray him as a dangerously over–ambitious individual. Explore ways this aspect of Marlowe's personality is reflected in 'Dr. Faustus.' " Christopher Marlowe lived during the Renaissance period in 16th century England. Although this was a time of change, the Elizabethans still had fixed moral values. 'The Chain of Being,' a concept inherited from the Middle Ages, can be described as a hierarchy of society, with the monarch at the top and the lowliest peasants at the bottom. Below people were animals, plants and rocks. During the Elizabethan era, 'dangerous ambition' would probably involve trying to break...

Marlowe reflects ambition in the character of Faustus to deter the audience from being ambitious, and over-reaching their place in the 'Chain of Being'. However, if Marlowe chose to be 'dangerously over-ambitious' and regarded himself as this, it is likely that he may have written 'Dr. Faustus' differently, not viewing ambition in such a negative way. Whatever Marlowe's view on ambition was, it is not made clear in the play, through Faustus or other characters. Certain aspects of his personality are indeed reflected in Faustus, which make reading the play and exploring Faustus as a character even more intriguing.

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In the expository text Unzipped- everything...In the expository text Unzipped- everything teenagers want to know about love, sex and each other, Bronwyn Donaghy has written about the facts and consequences of teenage sex. By doing so she has presented us with her old fashioned ideologies and her strong 'anti-teenage-sex' values and attitudes. As the audience Donaghy has tried to scare us into believing and following these attitudes, which are very evident throughout the entire text. Virginity and abstinence is the way to go. This text is targeted at young youths who are curious and want to explore their sexuality and their parents who Donaghy thinks should be open and willing to educate their children on the subject. In order to do this she has employed the use of three different writing styles: These being narrative, expository and real life accounts. Between chapters and further the different sexual topics, Donaghy has split the information up by an ongoing fictional story, which runs through the entire book. It is a narrative story about two inquisitive and curious adolescent teenagers who fall in love and start to get 'full on' but then decide against the idea of sex as it is simply too complicated. Donaghy has done this by using very 'down to earth' language that she thinks teenagers can relate to and a simplistic story line. However by trying to relate to teenagers at what she perceives is their level in my opinion gives the story very little realism in regards to reality as she simply cant 'pull it off'. The story is made to almost look superficial. Within the story it is made very clear that abstinence is the way to go, reflect Donaghy's ideologies. As the writer she does not even try to hide this attitude of hers and at one stage, through Ben's mum is able to vocalise this: ' Love is a wonderful thing"¦. Sex on the other hand, can be very dangerous in the hands of the young and inexperienced.' She then goes on to say: I sincerely hope you wont'. This is in relation to Ben and Lucy's sex life. By creating this story Donaghy tries to manipulate us as the audience to accept these ideas and her values as being right. To further shape our response towards this very strong attitude Lucy and Ben adhered to Ben's mum's opinion and further Donaghy's ideologies. She developed these characters in order to express her perception of what teenage relationships should be like in her eyes. To reinforce her 'no sex' attitudes Donaghy moves from the ideal 'perfect couple', Ben and Lucy to a chapter of a real life account from the perfect virgins point of view. We meet Amira. Amira is 21 and still a virgin. She is described by Donaghy as having 'the face of and eastern princess', which immediately positions us to respect her and see her in a positive light. She comes from a supportive, hard-working family, goes to church every Sunday and does not believe in sex before marriage. She is made out to be 'picture perfect'. As the audience we are made to see her as a role model. Within this story Amira's values and attitudes are made very obvious. She values love, companionship and a good family life. She believes that sex is special and is worth waiting for. It is worth waiting dor love. Within her story she even quotes: ' I want sex to be really special, with the right person. I would never consider having casual sex, just for the sake of it.' Her values and attitudes reflect Donaghy's ideologies perfectly and for this reason Donaghy has almost gone to the extent of putting a halo over Amira's head. In contrast to Amira there is Helen. She is very much not the little angel-like Amira. In her opening sentence to introduce Helen, Donaghy finds it difficult to reconcile 'the purity and beauty of Helen's face with the horrors of all she has experienced'. By saying this Donaghy automatically enforces her negative view towards Helen's way of life. As the audience we are positioned to view her differently to Amira. Helen cam from a disruptive childhood, where she was physically abused by her mother's boyfriend and her father was a drunk. By the time she was 12 she was in and out of foster homes and refuges for homeless girls. At 14 she had already lost her virginity in a 'one night stand' and had moved in with a friend Kenny. There she met Raymond and a year later was pregnant with her first child. Helen is now married at 17 and pregnant with her second child. Donaghy has chosen to tell Helen's story in order to express the consequences of sex and a rough upbringing. She has tried to scare adolescences from having sex, instead enjoy the wonders of love. Raymond quotes: 'It might have been fun to have had some time when we were just young and together'. From this we are given the impression that even though he loves his son very much, he would of rather just be teenagers for a while and not have so much responsibility. After the consequences of sex, his son, he realises that love is better than sex and that life can be great without it; This conforming to Donaghy's ideologies. Through contrasting these two very opposing situations we are persuaded to see how sex leads to serious consequences, however life without it is amazing and dignifying. Further to scare teenagers off sex, Donaghy has provided information about sex, via facts, figures, opinions and credible experts. Personally I did not think it was Donaghy's place to be saying quite a bit of this section of the text, as she is not a doctor; her opinions are not evidentiary. I found the chapter Love of Sex? Great expectations, on some occasions fairly contradicting. She tries to relate to teenagers at their level and deal with the subject of sex with maturity, however writes 'a chapter mainly for kids'. She is not respecting teenagers as being mature. The opening paragraph tries to make the reader confused with sex and by doing so Donaghy has tried to stop teenagers from having sex. The chapter promotes abstinence and not having sex to you are older and or love, this being the whole ideology of the text. With the help of Professor Sol Gordon, Donaghy differentiates between love and sex and we are given the definite opinion that she does not believe in sex without true love. However she also states that teenagers fall in and out of love all the time. This contradicts what she has said, should we sleep with everyone we love? Despite this, the expository section of this text is simply developed to portray her old fashioned ideologies, lighten curiosity and to scare teenagers from sex. In this text Unzipped, Bronwyn Donaghy has tried to inform teenagers and their parents about teenage sex and the consequences that come with it. At first to an extent, I found this book quite factual and relevant, however the more I red into to it the more this seemed not true. It is all about Donaghy's personal opinions towards the subject and how she finds teenage sex as a 'bad' thing. The text is very selective and there is not one occasion in the book where people don't regret sex or come out with any good experiences from it. This makes us come to the conclusion, are all expository texts designed entirely to inform and provide information or do they have an underlining meaning?  

In the expository text Unzipped- everything teenagers want to know about love, sex and each other, Bronwyn Donaghy has written about the facts and consequences of teenage sex. By doing so she has presented us with her old fashioned ideologies and her strong 'anti-teenage-sex' values and attitudes. As the audience...

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In the words of Pap,... In the words of Pap, "You think you're better'n your father, now, don't you, because he can't [read and write]?" 2. In Mark Twain's adventure novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck Finn escapes from civilized society to traverse the Mississippi River. Throughout the book, Twain uses various themes such as social ostracism to comment on human nature and its role in shaping society. Sometimes mainstream society is not as right and moral as it believes, and when individuals try to justify it they push away their own humanity. Twain demonstrates this through the various lifestyles, comparing the intellects and beliefs of different social classes, and Huck's conforming to each facet of society. One of the first instances Twain uses to portray sociological exclusion reveals itself in the contrast of lifestyles. Throughout his life both prior to and after his "murder," circumstances expose Huck to opposing ways of life including but not limited to rich vs. poor and simple vs. complex. Personifying middle-class society, Widow Douglass acts as a mother figure for Huck, deeming it her duty to "sivilize" 1 her adopted son, dressing him well and sending him to school. On the contrary, Pap observes that "You've [Huck] put on ["¦] frills" and swears to take him "down a peg" 14. The two family icons pull Huck in opposite directions, but as influential as they may be, Huck knows he does not have a place in either world. If anything, Huck identifies more with the simplicity of Pap's natural way of life than with the materialism of the middle-class of society. Willfully shunning both Pap and Widow Douglas, Huck finds a way to "keep Pap and the widow from following" him instead of moving "far enough off before they missed [Huck]" 31. Furthermore, a contrast of the characteristics of men and women presents itself when Huck attempts a reconnaissance mission as a girl in St. Petersburg. Huck cannot go as himself because society would catch him and return him to what he escapes from, but the way men and women live is different enough that they cannot impersonate each other. Although he practices and thinks he manages, Jim's comment that Huck does not "walk like a girl" 41 does not do it justice. Almost instantly the woman Huck chooses to question sees through his disguise, explaining that His last hope in maintaining his anonymity crumbles when he states his name as "M"”Mary Williams" 44 instead of Sarah Williams, attempting to cover up his mistake by claiming his name was Sarah Mary Williams. After critiquing his performance, the woman remarks that he "might fool men, maybe" 46, emphasizing the mental, physical, and social differences between the two sexes. They differ in the way they throw, catch, and in the way they thread a needle; the only part of his facade that Huck demonstrates well lies in the things country folk know, such as where the most moss grows on a tree. The way a person lives also affects him or her in greater ways, changing the way one believes as well as the way a person thinks. The differences between people encompass a profound array of features including religion and intelligence. Mark Twain uses Jim and Widow Douglas to portray contention between Christianity and superstition. At first, Huck finds himself surrounded by conventional Christian beliefs and what the widow calls "Providence" 8, which refers to the Christian God the term "providence" means the will of God or hand of God. Constantly questioning the faith and the purpose of prayer, Huck ponders its place in his life using the only logic he knows and in the end favors the simpler superstitions of Jim. Leaving Christianity behind, Huck embraces, for example, the philosophy of throwing salt over his shoulder to dispel bad luck and the belief in the ongoing misfortune associated with touching a rattlesnake's skin. Believing that "nothing come of [prayer]" 8, there is no room for doubt in Huck's reasoning to abandon life with Widow Douglas for rafting on the Mississippi"”Huck's beliefs do not belong in that part of society. Similarly, separation exists in the realm of intelligence, specifically between whites and blacks. While on the raft, Huck tells stories of kings and dukes to Jim and his "eyes [bug] out" at the idea of people who "[call] each other your majesty ["¦] your grace ["¦] your lordship" 57. When discussing King Solomon, Jim misses the true meaning of the story despite Huck's attempts to teach him, and Huck thinks, "you can't learn a nigger to argue" 60. Tom Sawyer's gang also illustrates the levels of competence and naïveté in terms of Tom's literary knowledge. Lacking the same interest in books, Huck finds Tom telling him "You don't seem to know anything" and calling him a "perfect saphead" 11 when Huck asks too many questions about Arabs and genies. Huck is not a fool and neither is Tom; however, Huck has "street smarts" whereas Tom possesses a more formal education and more book learning. Try as he might, Huck does not fit into the same part of society. As much as he tries to fit in with the cultures he comes across, he always sticks out. Wherever the wind takes him, Huck seems to conform to whatever social group he immerses himself in. While he stays with Widow Douglas, Huck gradually accepts the rules of the middle-class. At first, he hates going to school, but "by and by [he gets] so [he can] stand it" and "the longer [he] went to school the easier it got to be." 11 Additionally, learned to tolerate the "widow's ways" 11, and although he likes "the old ways best," he likes "the new ones, too, a little bit" 11. However, Pap kidnaps him, and before long Huck adapts "to being where [he is], and [likes] it" 18, until Huck tires of Pap's abuse. Belonging to neither civilized society nor life in nature, Huck strikes out on the river. At each place he stops, he learns to follow in the footsteps of whoever's company he keeps. With each group he happens to join, he soon finds that he has no place in their ranks and withdraws to the river. Wherever he goes, Huck finds a way to fit in only to find that he doesn't belong"”belonging to all societies, yet none of them. The only place where he finds relative peace is on the river. It is the only place where there is nothing to struggle against. Huck is a misfit wherever he goes, rejecting and rejected by mainstream society and every other accepted society that he finds along the river. Throughout his journey, Huck finds different ways of separating himself from society while being a part of it. He sees how quickly life changes and how lifestyles can affect a person. Further set apart by his views, Huck forsakes traditional beliefs for superstition and the balance of luck. Through his journey along the Mississippi River, Huck also understands how much intelligence changes. Feeling no affinity for any aspect of mainstream society he experiences, Huck willingly spurns what he knows as humanity for the society that suits him. At the close of his journey when Aunt Sally makes plans to "adopt [Huck] and sivilize [Huck]," Huck informs the reader that he has no desire to join high society"”"[he] been there before" 220.   

In the words of Pap, "You think you're better'n your father, now, don't you, because he can't [read and write]?" 2. In Mark Twain's adventure novel Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Huck Finn escapes from civilized society to traverse the Mississippi River. Throughout the book, Twain uses various themes such...

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