Related Keywords

No Related Keywords

Register NowHow It Works Need Essay Need Essay
"Marlowe's biographers often portray him as a dangerously over"“ambitious individual. Explore ways this aspect of Marlowe's personality is reflected in 'Dr. Faustus.' " Christopher Marlowe lived during the Renaissance period in 16th century England. Although this was a time of change, the Elizabethans still had fixed moral values. 'The Chain of Being,' a concept inherited from the Middle Ages, can be described as a hierarchy of society, with the monarch at the top and the lowliest peasants at the bottom. Below people were animals, plants and rocks. During the Elizabethan era, 'dangerous ambition' would probably involve trying to break the 'Chain of Being' and striving to increase one's social status. It was believed to be necessary to accept one's place in the chain, as to disrupt it and overcome the set order of society could mean chaos would follow. Faustus was an exceedingly ambitious man, even in relation to what is considered to be ambitious by people in today's society. In the prologue, The Chorus sums up Faustus' background and early life, emphasizing his ordinary background and academic success. It seems that Faustus' intellect made him become proud and this fired up his ambition. When Marlowe presents Faustus in scene 1, Faustus methodically shuns great authors and classically intellectual subjects, such as medicine and law because they hold little attraction to him, line 11 'A greater subject fitteth Faustus' wit.' The above quote shows how Faustus elevates himself above taking up an intellectual pursuit that would be highly esteemed by the Elizabethans. Another sign that Faustus holds himself in high regard is that he refers to himself in the third person, also shown in the above quote. Faustus' discusses beliefs that he will no longer hold and describes what he wants to achieve in his opening soliloquy. Faustus may be seen as blasphemous in the opening speech, implying that he would only be a doctor if he could be equal to God, lines24-6 'Couldst thou make men live eternally Or, being dead raise them to life again, Then this profession were to be esteemed.' This is made more obvious when Faustus lastly says, line 62 'A sound magician is a mighty god.' Marlowe portrays Faustus as being over-ambitious by his turning to magic, which is a much more sinister and much less conventional pursuit than others that he had been discussing previously. Faustus hopes that magic will make him omnipotent and god-like. There is little evidence to suggest that Marlowe himself wanted power over others, but his rise in society from a shoemaker's son to a scholar at Cambridge University and later, a spy, was extremely rare at the time. Marlowe did not lead a normal Elizabethan life; in fact, one could say that it was similar to fiction. The over-ambitious part of Marlowe's personality is reflected in Faustus because it seems Marlowe must have wanted success in his life, and to over-reach his set path in life. It becomes clearer as the play continues that Faustus is a dangerously ambitious person when in scene 3 he discusses the deal with a devil, Mephastophilis, concerning the selling of his soul to the Devil in return for earthly power. When Faustus makes the contract, it seems as if he is not thinking ahead as his attitude is carefree. He possibly does not believe in Hell, or that he has a soul, or about the reality of the bargain. His attitude at this point can be summed up by the following phrase Scene 4, lines 103-4, 'If I had as many souls as there be stars, I'd give them all for Mephastophilis.' Faustus' ambition for power and lack of foresight are what doom him later on in play. Arguably, ambition can be said to have caused the downfall of Marlowe himself. His violent murder in a London tavern in 1593 was mysterious and historians often question possible motives for killing Marlowe; his drive to succeed may have made other people envious and resentful. In 'Dr. Faustus', other characters are probably envious of Faustus too. In one of the comic scenes, scene 6, we learn that Robin and Rafe have stolen one of Faustus' books and plan to use it to seduce a woman. They must have been jealous of Faustus' power and his magical aptitude; however it is not the case that he is murdered by these characters later on in the play. Faustus is ambitious and enjoys his newfound power until the end of the play, despite being warned of the reality of his empty bargain by the Old Man and by the Good Angel throughout the play. The Old Man says in scene 12 lines 107-9, 'Ambitious fiends, see how the heavens smiles At your repulse, and laughs your state to scorn. Hence hell, for hence I fly unto God.' This moment foreshadows Faustus' lines at the end of the play, where, horrified, he must face the Devil and Hell. Faustus' ambition makes him a more human character despite him his selling his soul to the Devil, which may make him more difficult for the audience to relate to because of the extraordinary situation. His intellect sometimes creates doubts in his mind about the bargain that he has made, but his ambition overrides his conscience until the very end. This is shown by the Good and Evil Angels, who appear in scenes 1 and 5. They are binary opposites and in my view are present to put another side to Faustus' personality "“ a conscience. The Good Angel tries to motivate Faustus to repent by concentrating on God's anger. However the Evil Angel contradicts the Good Angel, Scene 5 lines 253-6 'EVIL ANGEL: Too late. GOOD ANGEL: Never too late, if Faustus can repent. EVIL ANGEL: If thou repent, devils shall tear thee in pieces. GOOD ANGEL: Repent, and they shall never rase thy skin.' The Good and Evil Angels' stichomythic dialogue is not too realistic and shows how torn Faustus is between the two sides. He is easily swayed and believes the angel that speaks last, but it is interesting to bear in mind that despite the warnings, his ambition stays with him to the end and leads to his downfall. Marlowe portrays Faustus' ambition as dangerous; it was the cause of his demise. Perhaps Marlowe used the theme of over-ambition as a warning to the audience, who would be likely to be wary of ambition - it was looked down on as a negative personality trait in Christian England. Ideas around at the time such as 'The Chain of Being' reinforced religious opinion into people's everyday lives and morality plays popular from the early 1400s to the 1580s were used to strengthen people's Christian principles, as 'Dr. Faustus' also does by discouraging ambition. Marlowe reflects ambition in the character of Faustus to deter the audience from being ambitious, and over-reaching their place in the 'Chain of Being'. However, if Marlowe chose to be 'dangerously over-ambitious' and regarded himself as this, it is likely that he may have written 'Dr. Faustus' differently, not viewing ambition in such a negative way. Whatever Marlowe's view on ambition was, it is not made clear in the play, through Faustus or other characters. Certain aspects of his personality are indeed reflected in Faustus, which make reading the play and exploring Faustus as a character even more intriguing.
0 User(s) Rated!
Words: 1277 Views: 244 Comments: 0
"Marlowe's biographers often portray him as a dangerously over–ambitious individual. Explore ways this aspect of Marlowe's personality is reflected in 'Dr. Faustus.' " Christopher Marlowe lived during the Renaissance period in 16th century England. Although this was a time of change, the Elizabethans still had fixed moral values. 'The Chain of Being,' a concept inherited from the Middle Ages, can be described as a hierarchy of society, with the monarch at the top and the lowliest peasants at the bottom. Below people were animals, plants and rocks. During the Elizabethan era, 'dangerous ambition' would probably involve trying to break...

Marlowe reflects ambition in the character of Faustus to deter the audience from being ambitious, and over-reaching their place in the 'Chain of Being'. However, if Marlowe chose to be 'dangerously over-ambitious' and regarded himself as this, it is likely that he may have written 'Dr. Faustus' differently, not viewing ambition in such a negative way. Whatever Marlowe's view on ambition was, it is not made clear in the play, through Faustus or other characters. Certain aspects of his personality are indeed reflected in Faustus, which make reading the play and exploring Faustus as a character even more intriguing.

Become A Member Become a member to continue reading this essay orLoginLogin
View Comments Add Comment

What Causes Cell Phone Radiation and...What Causes Cell Phone Radiation and How Does it Effect Your Body? What is so popular with young teenagers today? Cell phones. Walking around on campus to walking around at the mall with your cell phone may seem fashionable and trendy, but did you now that it might be causing you to get a cancer? Ninety percent of cell phone holders do not realize it and it should be something everyone should be aware of. It may seem a bit unusually how a cell phone can cause a child or an adult to get cancer, but it is true. New evidence is growing fast about health risks from mobile phones "“ electromagnetic radiation. These devices can be used to make telephone calls from almost anywhere. Symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, burning sensations on the skin were more common among those who make longer phone calls. At the same time there are a growing number of unconfirmed reports of individuals whose health has been affected after chronic, frequent use of mobile phones, presumably from radiation effects on cell. There are two types of phones, one has the antenna mounted on the handset and the other has the antenna mounted on a separate transmitter or, if the telephone is installed in a vehicle, mounted on the roof or rear window. Communication between a mobile telephone and the nearest base station is achieved by the microwave emissions from the antenna. Concerns have been raised about the type of mobile telephone that has the antenna in the handset. In this case, the antenna is very close to the user"s head during normal use of the telephone and there is concern about the level of microwave emissions to which the brain is being exposed. Those telephones that have the antenna mounted elsewhere are of no concern, since exposure levels decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the antenna. Cordless telephones, which need to be operated within about 20 meters of a base unit that is connected directly to the telephone system do not have any health concerns associated with their use because exposure levels are very low. . Media reports have claimed that up to 70 percent of the microwave emissions from hand- held mobile telephones may be absorbed in the user"s head. This is not supported by the evidence, but nevertheless leads to speculation that hot spots may be created in the user"s brain, thereby raising concerns that the telephones may be a health risk. Other reports have indicated that mobile telephone users suffer localized headaches when they use their telephone. At this stage, it is difficult to evaluate the evidence supporting these reports, since they have not been published. This work on human subjects follows other phone studies in animals suggesting that radiation from mobiles may cause brain tumors, cancer, anxiety, memory loss and serious birth defects. An Australian study found that mice exposed to pulsed digital phone radiation over 18 months had twice the risk of developing cancers. An American study found that learning and short term memory were impaired after 45 minutes exposure to radiation from phones in rats. And other studies of electromagnetic radiation on pregnant mice suggest that high exposure can affect intra-uterine development, confirmed recently in chicks. The effects in humans are unknown. In Britain a 27 year old woman with a brain tumor is taking a mobile phone manufacturer to court who she blames for her tumor. A biologist, Roger Coghill has also been given permission to bring a case against a provider of mobile phone equipment for failing to warn people of radiation hazards. A wide variety of electrical devices contribute to electro smog, ranging from computers, to phones, TV sets, radar transmitter and transformers. However mobile phone radiation is certainly intense, as evidenced by the effects on aircraft navigation systems, or more obviously on a nearby conventional telephone or a music system. The brain cancer reports originated in the USA where a number of lawsuits have been lodged against mobile telephone manufacturers and suppliers. These claims for damages allege that the microwave emissions from mobile telephones used by the claimants caused their brain cancers. Those few cases that have been tried have been dismissed for lack of supporting evidence. Microwaves are but one type of electromagnetic field of the ways that these fields are described is by specifying their frequency. The range of frequencies that are useful for telecommunications include microwaves. Some public concern about mobile telephones is erroneously based on media attention to the possibility of adverse effects from exposure to power-line electromagnetic fields, which have a much lower frequency than the microwaves emitted by mobile telephones. The physical properties and biological effects of these fields are very different from microwaves and it is meaningless to extrapolate the results of those studies to the subject of this Information Bulletin. The current Australian exposure Standard is based on the well-established thermal effects of exposure to microwaves. That is, when tissue is exposed to sufficiently high levels of microwaves, the tissue is heated and damage may occur. The exposure limits are set well below levels where any significant heating occurs. The Standard also sets limits for pulsed radiation that are intended to eliminate possible effects where heating is not evident. All mobile telephones marketed in Australia must satisfy the regulatory requirements of Austel the Australian Telecommunications Authority, as well as that part of the Australian Standard that sets limits on the power output of a mobile telephone. Therefore, use of a mobile telephone is not expected to cause significant heating in any part of the body, including the brain. Some research has indicated that non-thermal effects resulting from low-level microwave exposure also occur. However, the existence of these effects has not been sufficiently established to allow for them in the Standard. A few animal studies suggest that exposure to weak microwave fields can accelerate the development of cancer. Further studies are required to establish their reproducibility and the existence or otherwise of a dose-response relationship. Whether these results are relevant to users of mobile telephones is not clear. In any event, these results cannot be dismissed at this stage. The very few studies that have been conducted on human populations epidemiological studies do not provide any direct information on possible mobile telephone hazards and hence are of limited value. The results of these studies are difficult to interpret because exposure levels were either not measured or impossible to determine from the data provided. In general, however, this type of study will be useful in identifying possible links between mobile telephone use and cancer risk. Complementary cellular and animal research is required to establish any cause-and-effect relationship and the biological mechanisms involved. The Australian Radiation Laboratory continues to closely monitor the research being conducted in this area. On the specific issue of brain cancer occurring in users of these telephones, it is important to note that such cancers existed before the introduction of mobile telephones. It is simply not possible to identify the cause of any single case of cancer. Long-term studies to investigate whether mobile telephone users have a greater incidence of, say, brain cancer than the general population have not been completed. The Commonwealth Government has established the Electromagnetic Energy Public Health Issues Committee to examine and advise on the adequacy of health exposure standards, compliance procedures, local and overseas research results and the potential for further research, all with respect to mobile telephone use, among other things. The Committee includes representatives from the Department of Health and Family Services, the Department of Communications and the Arts and the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Mobile telephone companies and service providers are not represented. Late in 1996, the Commonwealth Government announced that $4.5mil would be provided for an Australian research and public information program over the next 4-5 years. The National Health and Medical Research Council will manage this research program. There is no evidence that microwave exposure from mobile telephones causes cancer, and inconclusive evidence that such exposure accelerates the growth of an already-existing cancer. More research on this issue needs to be carried out. Users concerned about the possibility of health effects can minimize their using a mobile telephone which does not have the antenna in the handset or using a "hands-free" attachment. There is no clear evidence in the existing scientific literature that the use of digital or analogue mobile telephones poses a long-term public health hazard. There are five ways to reduce the risk of radiation going in your body. One is to have shorter conversation. Try to avoid speaking for long periods on the cell phone; furthermore, try to plan your calls in such a way that you use ordinary phones for long conversations. Second, don't sit in the car. Speak as little as possible inside the car because it amplifies the radiation. If you have to speak a lot from the care, get a roof antenna. Third, protect your baby. Don't place a turned-on mobile phone in the baby carriage. The mobile phone produces microwaves even if you don't speak in it. Fourth, avoid waist. Don't carry the cell phone in the belt round the waist. It is unnecessary to expose the deposits of bone marrow in the hips, and the testicles to the microwaves. Earlier there have been warnings against placing the phone next to the heart. This is now regarded as being less dangerous, unless you have a pacemaker. The best place to carry the phone is in a military trousers leg pocket. And finally, direct the antenna. Always pull out the antenna when you use the phone and direct it away from the head, not upright in parallel with the head. It may be a marginal difference, but it reduces the radiation into the head somewhat.   

What Causes Cell Phone Radiation and How Does it Effect Your Body? What is so popular with young teenagers today? Cell phones. Walking around on campus to walking around at the mall with your cell phone may seem fashionable and trendy, but did you now that it might be causing...

Words: 1644 View(s): 207 Comment(s): 0
"Texts can be valued for different..."Texts can be valued for different reasons" Discuss this statement with references to "The Great Gatsby". Texts can be valued and appreciated for numerous reasons, and this is particularly apparent in F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel, The Great Gatsby. The novel is a great part of 20th century literature and is valued for the themes and ideas that Fitzgerald presents, such as the importance of dreams in peoples' lives, the myth that is the 'American Dream', Fitzgerald's perspective of 1920's life, and the style in which he portrays his ideas. It is also valued simply as a love story "“ as an entertaining narrative. In The Great Gatsby, dreams and their importance play a major part in the plot and underlying themes. It is seen that Gatsby himself presents this idea the most; this is because Gatsby is different to all the other characters in the novel as he actually has a dream "“ to "improve himself" which he hopes will eventually win back Daisy's love. ""¦ An extraordinary gift for hope, a romantic readiness such as I have never found in any other person"¦" The reader learns that Gatsby has had dreams and ambitions his entire life, while his parents had none; Gatsby was not fond of this characteristic found in his parents. His goals and aspirations made him who he was and he realised that he was different to his parents in this way. He left his home, his mother and father at a young age and was described as a "son of God." Gatsby disconnected himself from his parents and created his own identity as God created people. Gatsby's dream is symbolised by the green light on the end of Daisy's dock, across the river from his house, and represents his desire for Daisy. Nick narrator the story admires this quality in Gatsby and excuses all his faults because of his hopes and dreams. In the end, Gatsby dies in pursuit of his dreams and Nick says, "No "“ Gatsby turned out alright at the end; it was what prayed on Gatsby, what foul dust floated in the wake of his dreams." Nick, unlike the other characters, doesn't have any goals or aspirations. He doesn't have high expectations, and is comfortable with the way he lives his life. However, the other characters, Jordan, Daisy, Tom and Myrtle, are not happy with what they already have, and only have goals that are short-term, and are often self-centered and concerned with money. The people attending Gatsby's parties also appear to be materialistic and without ambitions. They go through life without directions or dreams; they were "wanderers" and "gypsies" who often weren't even invited to the parties, whereas Nick was actually invited. The parties continue this theme as they take on dream-like qualities. This is seen in Nick's descriptions, which are very colourful, "blue gardens" and "yellow cocktail music" which helps them resemble dreams. There are constant references to dreams, such as his description of the moonlight, "Whisperings and champagne and the stars" and "the Earth lurches away from the sun" as well as comparisons, which all give the impression that the parties are just a dream or an illusion and not actually reality. Nick's descriptions also change very quickly from one idea to the next, as well as to different times, which is also similar to dreams. The contrast to the theme of dreams is also seen in the characters of Tom, Daisy, Nick, Jordan and the people attending Gatsby's parties, as they show that the 'American Dream' is a myth. This is seen through Gatsby's attempts to repeat the past, and other evidence that proves the incapability of the American Dream such as George Wilson, the social classes of East and West Egg and Tom's racist comments. Throughout the whole novel, there are attempts to repeat the past, particularly in Gatsby's case. There are repeated references to clocks, symbolising the want for repetition, such as Gatsby nearly breaking Nick's clock, representing his want to stop time or bring back feelings from the past. Also during the meeting set up for Gatsby and Daisy, Nick says to Gatsby, "you can't repeat the past," and Gatsby replies "why of course you can!" This shows that Gatsby's whole life revolves around his dream of winning back Daisy. It is also shown that the American Dream is corrupted through the people at Gatsby's parties. They use Gatsby just as a place to party. They act without conscience or consideration, by not seeing Gatsby while at his house, or even knowing who he is. They gossip about him without even having met him and do not turn up to his funeral. Nobody at the parties knew much about the other guests, and were described in a general tone, there is only basic information, lacking details. This helps to show that the characters are very self-centered and materialistic. The format of Gatsby's parties also shows this; The alcohol, orchestra, food, decorations "“ "a corps of caterers"¦" Although Gatsby has a purpose for wanting money, the other wealthy characters have only selfish desires for it. The ideas of the American Dream suggest that all people living in America have a fair chance at success and wealth if they put in hard work. It also entitles people to an equal life without prejudices placed upon them no matter what their background is. However, it is clear that this dream has failed in the case of George Wilson. He has worked a hard life at his Gas and mechanic centre, yet still lives in poverty. The other characters Tom and Daisy Buchanan, Jordan show that wealth and status is still inherited, not earned. They also display the ever-present social classes of East and West in the novel; The inhabitants of East Egg are "people who haven't earned their money" and West Egg is the "less fashionable" side of Long Island. Tom also comments about the professed need for a white dominated society, which shows that people living in America don't treat or see each other as equals so the American Dream is non-existent. At the end of the novel, Gatsby's dream is linked to the Dutch sailors who founded the American Dream, which suggests that there may once have been an American Dream, but it is no longer possible. The Great Gatsby is also valued for Fitzgerald's perspective of 1920's life. He states that 20th century life is very materialistic "“ the majority of the characters and the party guests only care about money and want more of everything that they have already. There are comments on the different social values seen, and evidence of people lacking traditional morals and values. The characters constantly act without conscience and are generally very careless and selfish; for instance, the numerous accidents involving cars "“ Jordan left the top down on a borrowed car and denied even having the car, someone's hand got run over, and a party guest got bogged in Gatsby's driveway. The people at the parties also have no consideration for Gatsby as they are hardly civilised while at his house, and, as mentioned above, they come uninvited, sometimes without even knowing Gatsby and often gossip about him. The most self-centered and inconsiderate acts of these people were their absence at Gatsby's funeral after using him so greatly. Tom and Myrtle act without conscience through having an affair, which is then followed by Daisy and Gatsby's brief affair. The text is also greatly valued for the quality of Fitzgerald's style of writing, seen in his description of people and events and his use of symbolism. Through his writing, he creates an impression of the parties and at the same time, reinforces certain ideas. His method of description is very much impressionistic, and this is seen through his emphasis on irrelevant details, which then become symbolic. For example, the oranges and lemons "“ they are symbolic of things being used up and discarded, such as the way Gatsby's guests treat him. Fitzgerald also changes times and ideas quickly as well as adding unnecessary, yet effective, snatches of conversation at the parties. He also creatively and efficiently presents the parties in a dream-like fashion, with constant references to dreams, the illusion of it not really being reality and the surreal events that take place. Another effective use of symbolism in the novel is the eyes of Doctor T. J. Eckleburg, which are an unfinished advertisement in the Valley of the Ashes of a pair of eyes and spectacles looking over the desolate wasteland, halfway between West Egg and New York. The eyes represent an omnipresent figure seeing all; it sees the lack of conscience in Americans such as Tom, Daisy and Jordan as well as the breakdown of the American Dream. They also saw the true circumstances of Myrtle's death. George Wilson mistakes the eyes for God and fears their judgment of him. The Valley of the Ashes also represents the failing of the American Dream. It shows the corrupt nature of society through the pollution of the area until it could no longer be used. Lights in the novel represent Gatsby's hope of Daisy returning to him. The light at the end of her dock reassures him that she is till close to him, and his house lights represent his attempt to attract her. His lights are only turned off after their first kiss, when he is comfortable that he has her back, and when he is dead. Wolfsheim's human molar cufflinks represent an increasingly materialistic and unfeeling society. Yet this text should be simply enjoyed as a love story "“ as an entertaining narrative. The story of Gatsby's attempts to win the love of Daisy is representative of the writing styles during the 1920's, and is valued for this insight. The tale of a man loving a woman and dieing in the quest for her love appeals to readers on an emotional level. The numerous themes and ideas that F. Scott Fitzgerald presents in The Great Gatsby are valued in many ways. He shows that dreams should be important in peoples' lives, and that everyone should have a goal in life. He also displays the corrupt nature of the American Dream in the 1920's, and how society's social classes and racist views will never result to equality in America. This perspective of 20th century life and Fitzgerald's style are also appreciated and valued.   

"Texts can be valued for different reasons" Discuss this statement with references to "The Great Gatsby". Texts can be valued and appreciated for numerous reasons, and this is particularly apparent in F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel, The Great Gatsby. The novel is a great part of 20th century literature and is...

Words: 1790 View(s): 196 Comment(s): 0
A 43-year-old man from Boston was...A 43-year-old man from Boston was having a steamy cyber affair with who he thought to be a 23-year-old woman. He later found out the "she," to his dismay, was an 80-year-old man living in a Miami nursing home. Things like this happen everyday, people mask their sex and age to avoid or attract attention on the Internet. This is only one of the reasons why the government wants to censor the Internet. They claim they want to 'protect' the children by limiting the amount of 'reality' they are allowed to view. But in order to do this they would need to censor the entire Internet, from everyone. This is why censorship on the Internet would be a violation of the first amendment. Censorship itself is not what most people are concerned about. Instead, how far will it go? How far is too far? When will it stop? Can the Internet ever be censored? These questions need to be answered before we can even think about censoring. In order to fully understand censorship you have to know what the Internet is. The Internet is an open interconnection of networks that enables computers to connect directly through phone lines. It allows people from around the world to communicate with the touch of a button. Its size is unimaginable, its content is uncountable. "In early 1995 more than 50,000 networks and 5 million computers were connected via the Internet, with a computer growth rate of about 9 percent per month" Rutkowski, Encarta. Is the Internet to large to be censored? Remember in the 1940s people said radio was uncensorable. What is censorship anyway? Censorship is the official restriction of expression thought to be harmful. "Censorship restricts the flow of ideas, depriving people of information they need to maintain an open society" Steffens, 11. Censorship itself is by no means a new idea. It has existed since the beginning of mankind, Playboy magazine in the 1950's, radio in the 1930's, book burning in the 1940's, steamy celluloid reels in the 1920's, and erotic pages coming off the Gutenberg press in the 1350's. People fear new technology, I believe this is the reason that people want to censor the Internet. Change is a frightening thing, but without it the human race would cease to exist. Taking over our world, computers can be good or bad depending on how you look at it. At this time there is more information on the Internet than there is in any library and it is only a matter of years before books themselves will become obsolete. By censoring the Internet the government will only be holding us back. Germany, China, Singapore, and several other countries have taken action and began to censor the Internet. The United States is not far behind. On February 8th, 1996, President Clinton signed the Communications Decency Act, which limits freedom of expression on the Internet. With this act, the very same materials which are legally available today in book stores and libraries could be illegal if posted on World Wide Web sites or Usenet newsgroups. Not only would it have made it a crime to write provocative e-mail to your lover, it would also be a crime for your Internet provider. "Censorship is never for those who have experienced it. It is a brand on the imagination that affects the individual who has suffered it, forever" Nadine Gordimer, Microsoft Office. What business does the government have telling people what they can and can't see anyway? If the child's parents are so concerned about what they are going to see on the Internet, there is software available that screens the Internet for just that computer. It isn't very expensive, in fact, you can even download some software from the Internet. Yet, this software is no substitute for good judgment. "If you have time on your hands, if your comfortable with computing, and you have an unflagging curiosity about sex - in other words, if you're a teenager - you may think you've suddenly landed in pornography heaven" Gleick, 26. Pornography is the only thing that you ever seem to hear about the Internet, but there is so much more out there. Information on anything and everything you could possibly ever imagine. Most of the material that I gathered for this project was done by hours of Internet 'surfing'. Another large misconception about the Internet is that while surfing you can just stumble on to pornography. Though it is possible, I highly doubt that you would, the Internet is not exactly known for being 'user-friendly.' In fact it would probably be less of a hassle and much less time consuming to go to the bookstore in the mall to find nude pictures. Not that I am saying that the Internet is hard to maneuver, on it just takes some time to get used to it. Let's say that the United States was to censor nudity and profane swearing. The good to come from this is that children and teenagers will no longer be able to view pornography on the Internet. Instead, you could go to the local public library or bookstore. The point I am getting at, if you fail at finding something at one place just move on to another. The bad part about censoring is that it would put a leash on the imagination and art such as Michelangelo's David would be lost. Action against censorship is being taken in Cyberspace, on February 10, 1996, to show just how many people will be affected by the Communications Decency Act. The Coalition to Stop Net Censorship had asked everyone, everywhere to turn their World Wide Web pages black until 11 a.m. EST. Turnout was stupendous, thousands of web pages turned black for this occasion. A blue ribbon campaign has also started, the blue ribbon symbolizes freedom of speech. More and more blue ribbons are being placed on home pages everyday. Internet users do this for only one reason, to protect their imaginations. Or as civil rights activist, Harry Belafonte put it, "You can cage the singer but not the song" Microsoft Office. John Goydan sued for divorce from his wife Diane after finding e-mail messages from her on-line lover, whom appeared to be a married man thousands of miles away. Untold thousands are flirting, courting, marrying, and even cheating on-line. "On-line affairs shift the emphasis in a relationship from outward appearances to inner thoughts and feeling. The result: a quick and intense intimacy" Toufexis, 53. Al Cooper, a marriage counselor, said that, "It forces men to do something they don't normally want to engage in: communication. You have to be able to communicate on the Internet" Toufexis, 53. Yet, most romances don't seem to burn after they move off screen mostly because you will never be able to live up to the mental image created by him or her. In addition to reading magazine articles, World Wide Web pages, and books I conducted a survey of people's opinion on censorship. I gathered statistics via e-mail, chat rooms, and bulletin boards. I found that all the adults that replied were against censorship of any kind. Teenagers, on the other hand, were 50-50. This surprised me, I thought that teenagers would be against people censoring the Internet. They tended to look at it from their parents point of view. I would like to ask you to think about censorship and what it stands for, think about where you stand and remember, only you can stop corruption. I shall now conclude with a statement from Benjamin Franklin, "They that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety" Steffens, 11. Instead of asking"”"How much damage will the work in question bring about?" Why not ask"”"How much good" How much joy? "¦ Henry Miller, U.S. author Microsoft Office The media has over hyped sex on the Net"¦ the situation is nowhere near as bad as people are lead to believe. "¦ "Zarniwoop," 19 Bournemouth, England E-mail Censorship is very good, because I do not believe that their should exist a total freedom, a place where there is no law and maniacs are allowed to abuse their 'rights' its like rotten morals"¦ exist no law to censor the indecent materials, its like allow crime to happen without anyone having the power to stop it. "¦ "UFO," 18 South Africa E-mail When truth is no longer free, freedom is no longer real: the truths of the police are the truths of today. "¦ Jacques Prevert, French poet Microsoft Office We should have the right of free speech and we have the right to do 'whatever,' we pay the bills, we shouldn't be told what to say. "¦ "MJ," 15 Peoria, Illinois E-mail I feel that without censorship we would be an over-run society of belligerent animals. It is too bad people do not see beyond the benefit of it all. We should always have some form of censorship. I wouldn't like my children to be exposed to some of the lingo, or acts I see and hear everyday. There should be places where it isn't restricted, like adult places, where there are not a lot of children. But as for schools, restaurants, and public buildings, censor away! "¦ "Vera," 16 Bowling Green, Ohio E-mail Censors tend to do what only psychotics do: they confuse reality with illusion. "¦ David Cronenberg, Canadian filmmaker Microsoft Office Personally, I think that censorship should be the parents responsibility, not the web servers. "¦ "Shroom," 14 Barkansted, Connecticut E-mail I'm the mother of an 11 year old daughter. Bet you think you know what I"m going to say don"t you. It might just surprise you. For the most part I am against censorship of literature, TV, movie, and the net. What is obscene, offensive or distasteful for one person isn"t always the same for another. I believe it is up to the individual to decide what should and what shouldn"t be censored. Parents should be the ones to determine what their underage children can and can"t read, watch or hear. We owe it to our children to provide them with a balanced view of the world. By allowing someone else to make the decision on what my daughter sees in my opinion severely limits her education in all areas of life. It is a decision she and I should make jointly as to exactly how much "reality" she is ready for. "¦ "Beth," 36 Joplin, Missouri E-mail Woe to that nation whose literature is cut short be the intrusion of force. This is not merely interference with freedom of press but the sealing up of a nation's heart, the excision of its memory. "¦ Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Russian novelist Microsoft Office Don't join the book burners. Don't think you are going to conceal faults be concealing evidence that they ever existed. "¦ Dwight D. Eisenhower, U.S. general, Republican president Microsoft Office   

A 43-year-old man from Boston was having a steamy cyber affair with who he thought to be a 23-year-old woman. He later found out the "she," to his dismay, was an 80-year-old man living in a Miami nursing home. Things like this happen everyday, people mask their sex and age...

Words: 1855 View(s): 128 Comment(s): 0
Discuss the ways in which a...Discuss the ways in which a novelist explores the condition of the human heart in a novel you have studied. In the novel "The great Gatsby", the novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald explores the conditions of the human heart through relationships that occur in this story. The relationships between Daisy and Tom Buchanan, Myrtle and Tom, Myrtle and George Wilson and Nick and Jordan, all are flawed by the selfishness of individuals and lack of actual love. Fitzgerald compares this to the time era the novel is set in, the 1920's. This was a time of "false" security in that the economy was going to stay high foreverthe crash soon followed and false hope in the American dream. The relationships like this false sense of security looked good, but were built on nothing and so "crashed". The contrast to this was the relationship between Daisy and Gatsby, although not successful, it was built on something more than the selfish and shallow needs of individuals. The first relationship that is explored in this novel is Daisy and Tom Buchanan. Their relationship is one that looks ideal. Tom is the typical hero, one of the most powerful ends at New Haven, hulking muscle mass with a personality to match and very wealthy. Daisy is the very beautiful, soft spoken and witty girl in which everyone loves. Together they perfect examples of the American dream. But as we see at Nick's first visit to the Buchanan's, there is a sense of real love lacking from their relationship, shown by their interactions. "It's romantic, isn't it, Tom?" The relationship is based on money and the social scene of the wealthy rather than actual love for each other. But because they are similar characters in the way that their values are built on money and wealth, they do stay together and why Daisy doesn't marry Gatsby. ""¦retreated back into their money or vast carelessness, or whatever it was that kept them together,"¦" Tom feels the lack of love from his relationship with Daisy, but is too stupid to actually realise it, and because that is the relationship he "should" according to the American dream be in, will never realise it. We see this in his restless behaviour. ""¦Tom would drift on forever, a little wistfully, for the dramatic turbulence of some irrecoverable football game." This is what makes Tom have mistresses such as Myrtle Wilson. This relationship replaces what lacks from his relationship with Daisy. ""¦no facet or gleam of beauty, but there was an immediately perceptible vitality about her"¦" Although he does love Myrtle and they are very affectionate, he could never marry her as she is not from a wealthy background. The relationship between George and Myrtle is the raw product of this "American dream." Just as shallow and hopeless as other relationships such as Daisy and Tom's, but without the money to cover it up and make it look pretty. Significantly, they live in the Valley of Ashes, which is the depiction of the wealthy peoples souls, dirty and lifeless. The reason Myrtle and George do stay together for that 11 years is because of security and there being nothing else. The emptiness of this relationship is illustrated by Myrtle's selfishness and uncaring to George's feelings when she starts seeing Tom. The irony to this is that she is drawn to Tom by this false sense of hope that he is going to save her. Even though he often treats her badly, ""¦he broke her nose with his open hand." She is drawn to him because he is wealthy and brawn, everything a woman "should" be attracted to. This selfishness and lack of real love is what stops the relationship between Nick and Jordan from being successful. This was dictated by their unpassionate, almost protective personalities. There relationship was never based on anything except keeping each other company and filling a gap they both had. ""¦so I drew up the girl beside me, tightening my arms." There was no real connection between them, that "girl" could have been anyone. Even though Jordan was obviously hurt when Nick wanted to break up with her, this wasn't because she loved him, but because he surprised her that he would do that, being poorer, and also that she did in fact enjoy his company. Nick was in love with Jordan, but knew he just loved the company and because of the previous events that occurred in his move east, he had had enough and knew he had to leave. The one relationship that was built on something more than the selfish needs of individuals was the relationship between Daisy and Gatsby. They shared something special and were actually in love. ""¦they looked back at me, remotely, possessed by intense life." But again, selfishness of an individual plagued the hopes of this one true relationship. Because Gatsby's wealth status did not fit Daisy's ideals American dream He was forced to leave her in search of money. Because he was so in love, he didn't think twice about the ridiculousness of what he was doing,, and how selfish it was of Daisy to expect him to do so. And even though he did get his fortune, this still did not satisfy Daisy. Tom had "old" money, the lifestyle, the personality. This is what Daisy was used to and married Tom for. "Her voice was full of money." It was something Gatsby would never have as we see by her dislike to Gatsby's parties and so, in the end Daisy stays with Tom. I don't think Fitzgerald is trying to say that there is no hope for true love to succeed, He is just saying that the human heart is easily blinded by such things as the American dream. This is exaggerated at this time era because there was so much hope in the economy and in money, that people lost sight of what would really bring them true happiness. The unsuccessfulness of Daisy and Gatsby's relationship really shows us how much of a shame it is that true love is destroyed by selfishness and I think it is Fitzgerald's warning to the reader, not to be blinded by money and other shallow temptations, as we will end up as depressed as the characters in his novel.   

Discuss the ways in which a novelist explores the condition of the human heart in a novel you have studied. In the novel "The great Gatsby", the novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald explores the conditions of the human heart through relationships that occur in this story. The relationships between Daisy and...

Words: 1069 View(s): 141 Comment(s): 0