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Shelley began writing 'Frankenstein' in the company of what has been called 'her male coterie', including her lover Percy Shelley, Lord Byron and his physician John Polidori. It has been suggested that the influence of this group, and particularly that of Shelley and Byron, affected her portrayal of male characters in the novel. As Ann Campbell writes: '[The] characters and plot of Frankenstein reflect . . . Shelley's conflicted feelings about the masculine circle which surrounded her.' Certainly the male characters in 'Frankenstein' are more developed that those of the females. Elizabeth Fay has suggested that the female characters are 'idealised figures' in much of Shelley's work, particularly in the descriptions of Caroline and Elizabeth, the two mother figures in the novel. Caroline is, on surface value, a perfect parent, together with her husband, which renders Victor's irresponsibility in abandoning the creature more unforgivable. She 'possessed a mind of uncommon mould' which was also 'soft and benevolent'; she is compared to a 'fair exotic' flower which is sheltered by Alphonse; she drew 'inexhaustible stores of affection from a very mine of love to bestow' on Victor, and her 'tender caresses' are some of his 'first recollections'. She is the idealised mother, a figure that Shelley viewed wistfully, as her own mother died when she was ten days old to be replaced by a disinterested stepmother. Caroline's parenting provides the care that Frankenstein might well have lacked, had he been left to his father alone "“ his father dismisses Agrippa's work without explanation, thereby setting Victor on his course towards 'destruction'. This is the first introduction of a theme that continues throughout the book, that of the necessity for female figures in parenting and in society. Without a mother figure and left only with Frankenstein who subsumes both parental roles, the creature's life is blighted by his imperfection and lack of companionship. However, Caroline is also the trigger to Alfonse's chivalry, thus presenting him in an improved light and allowing his character to develop at the expense of her own weakness. This is a feminist comment from Shelley, whose mother Mary Wollenstonecraft was a notorious feminist and an important influence. Justine, too, is an 'idealised figure', described during the trial as having a countenance which, 'always engaging, was rendered, by the solemnity of her feelings, exquisitely beautiful.' She is the archetypal innocent, being beautiful, weak and entirely accepting of her fate to the point of martyrdom. She would doubtless incense feminists now, accepting death with equanimity ' "I am resigned to the fate awaiting me" ' at the hands of misjudging and dominant men. She is a somewhat two-dimensional character, being compliant in all things, enduring the mistreatment by her mother and not objecting to the injustice of her condemnation. In this sense she serves merely as a plot device, used to introduce the evil of the creature and to show Frankenstein's cowardice in refusing to defend her in time. Here she is another feminine figure used to further a male character's development, just as Caroline was used to develop the character of Alfonse. She is also a vehicle for Shelley's attack on the contemporary judiciary system, which explains her name. The character of Safie is used by Shelley as a direct attack on sexism. Safie is a stronger character than the other women in the novel, as she defies her father in escaping to join Felix. Shelley comments upon the state of 'bondage' inflicted on females in Islamic society at the time, which Safie objects to, encouraged to 'aspire to the higher powers of intellect, and an independence of spirit' by her mother. Shelley, in applauding this determination and self-respect on the part of women, is condemning a society which oppresses females and upholds males as superior. However, Safie is not merely used for this; she is also presented as a contrast to the creature, who is similarly separated from the De Laceys by a language barrier, but who can never be accepted by them because he lacks her 'angelic beauty'. She is an example of man's intolerance towards ugliness, as her beauty transcends the barrier of language whereas the creature's benevolence cannot. Elizabeth is the most 'idealised figure' of all the women in the novel, afforded the following romantic description: 'The saintly soul of Elizabeth shone like a shrine-dedicated lamp in our peaceful home . . . her smile, her soft voice, the sweet glance of her celestial eyes, were ever there to bless and animate us. She was the living spirit of love to soften and attract.' She is here made to transcend ordinary mortality to become 'celestial' and 'saintly'. This makes her death more appalling and triggers Victor's active fury, whereas the suffering of the innocent Justine did not. The base murder of 'the living spirit of love' can be said to be the creature's revenge against humankind, as the killing of something so natural and integral to humanity kills happiness with it. But whilst Elizabeth is assigned this pivotal role in the novel, she is in herself two-dimensional as a character, having no friends outside of the family and no interests save 'trifling occupations' within the household. She is content to wait for Victor, despite his long absences and frequent and serious depressions. She is the idealised woman at the time of the novel's setting, being submissive, supportive and beautiful. However, the character of Elizabeth can also serve a further purpose. It has been argued by several critics that Elizabeth is the creature's opposite, that she and he together make up Victor. She is his good half and the creature his bad. Both characters are orphans and heavily dependent on Victor. Elizabeth is beautiful, good and female, whereas the creature is ugly, evil and male. The blending of the two create Victor, who has robbed himself of gender by assuming both parental roles. It has been suggested by one critic that Victor has feminine characteristics, being 'sensitive, passionate about literature . . . and becom[ing] enamoured with [other men's] voice[s] and feelings'. This theory can be supported, in that Victor attributes to Elizabeth the ability to 'subdue [him] to a semblance of her own gentleness'. By contrast, the creature unfailingly enrages Victor, causing him to lose self-control and become violent. Whilst the feminine roles are flat and manipulated to affect the character and actions of the male roles, the latter are considerably more defined. As Elizabeth Fay writes, Shelley shows the 'realistic weaknesses and frailties' of men in the novel. Walton is presented as sexist and selfish, mocking his sister's fears for his safety in his opening sentence: 'You will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings.' Margaret is an unsatisfactory audience, as he desires a companion 'whose eyes would reply to [his]'. This companion must necessarily be male, for how could a female possibly communicate adequately with him? However, despite this wish for male companionship, Walton possesses certain feminine characteristics, such as his distaste for violence: ' . . . my best years [having been] spent under your gentle and feminine fosterage, has so refined the groundwork of my character that I cannot overcome an intense distaste to the usual brutality exercised on board ship'. He writes adoringly of 'the stranger's' 'conciliating and gentle' manners, 'unparalleled eloquence', nobility and 'cultivated' mind. Walton's ambition to discover 'uncharted territories' is arrogant, as he desires to acquire 'dominion . . . over the elemental foes of our race'. He craves idolatry and power. Shelley introduces this here so that Walton's later failure towards the close of the novel is celebrated by the reader, who has understood that Victor's arrogance has caused devastation, whereas Walton has paid little heed and is bitter in his failure. Shelley is commenting on the stupidity of male hubris, which she 'sensed in the scientific ambitions of Romantics such as her husband,' as the critic James W. Maerten has suggested. Maerten writes also of Anthony Easthope, who has drawn: 'a circular fortress as a model of the . . . masculine ego. Ego . . . is entrapped in its own defences, unable to escape the barriers it has raised against a universe [which is] an enemy . . . The most praised . . . in our civilisation are those who can contain and control the most monstrous powers: biological pathogens, nuclear fission, toxic waste, vast armies. Such Promethean desires are ultimately the illusions of Icarus.' Victor's ego causes him to desire 'a new species' which would 'bless [him] as its creator and source'. He cannot control the monster that he creates, thereby losing his essential masculinity. His attempt to defy Nature and steal God's power for himself is as fatal as Icarus' stupidity in trying to do what man cannot. This male arrogance is introduced by Alphonse, who assumes the care of Caroline and renders her submissive in gratitude. The blatancy of the strong male and weak female roles here has been condemned by some, who suggest that the imposition of a male role on Victor is a form of filicide. This is responsible for his insecurity which in turn leads to his 'overreaching ego inflation'. A critic has argued that: 'Victor Frankenstein is compulsively self-destructive, driven by forces he cannot recognise to create a son by his own efforts and without the troublesome involvement of a woman . . . [upon which] he is horrified . . . and rejects the creature totally, thereby turning the son into the very monster whose existence he has always denied in himself.' It is possible to corroborate this view to some extent, as Victor's feminine qualities conflict with his identity as a man. Shelley was concerned with the issue of gender, as in her novel 'The Last Man' she created an essentially genderless character, Lionel Verney, and discussed how he only acknowledged his gender when he viewed himself in a mirror. His reflection told him that he was an English gentleman, but without this empirical perception he had no such identity. Elizabeth Fay writes of him that he is a 'feminised ideal', 'combining masculine and feminine traits in such a way as to confute traditional notions of gender'. Robert W. Anderson writes that: 'Frankenstein's creature embodies gender transgression on two levels . . . the first being [his] status as being a surgically constructed male, the second being Victor's non-gender transgression in co-opting the female trait of reproduction, transforming his laboratory into a virtual womb.' The creature has no real gender, despite being created physically as a male. He is denied male dominance over females by Victor, who has made him too ugly to be accepted into human society and then destroys the female mate that he had partially made for him. The creature, like Victor, has feminine characteristics, being profoundly affected by literature and nature, and being sensitive to emotion. He is made male only so that there can be no sexual overtones in the relationship between himself and Victor, and the battle between them can be physical and violent as well as rhetorical. The absence of femininity in the making of the creature is its integral flaw. Despite all of Victor's efforts to make the creature perfect, it will ultimately be ugly, because it is unnatural for a male alone to reproduce. Beauty cannot result of only masculinity. Shelley is condemning a single father in this. The death of her mother left her to the care of her father, whom she adored. He often neglected her, leaving her feeling unwanted. The lack of grief on the part of her husband as their babies died augmented this conviction in men's inability to care for children alone. This reinforces her message throughout the novel of the necessity for women in society. Shelley was forced to ask her husband to claim to be the author of the novel, as women were not accepted as writers at the time. Men alone in science and education are fallible, as she suggested in making Frankenstein's experiment so disastrous. Therefore the oppression of women at the time was irrational and arrogant. Frankenstein represents flawed masculinity, as an example of a society without women. Shelley manipulated masculine and feminine gender identities in her novel to try and persuade her audience that men alone cannot create, whether it be children or art.
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Shelley began writing 'Frankenstein' in the company of what has been called 'her male coterie', including her lover Percy Shelley, Lord Byron and his physician John Polidori. It has been suggested that the influence of this group, and particularly that of Shelley and Byron, affected her portrayal of male characters in the novel. As Ann Campbell writes: '[The] characters and plot of Frankenstein reflect . . . Shelley's conflicted feelings about the masculine circle which surrounded her.' Certainly the male characters in 'Frankenstein' are more developed that those of the females. Elizabeth Fay has suggested that the female...
necessity for women in society. Shelley was forced to ask her husband to claim to be the author of the novel, as women were not accepted as writers at the time. Men alone in science and education are fallible, as she suggested in making Frankenstein's experiment so disastrous.

Therefore the oppression of women at the time was irrational and arrogant. Frankenstein represents flawed masculinity, as an example of a society without women. Shelley manipulated masculine and feminine gender identities in her novel to try and persuade her audience that men alone cannot create, whether it be children or art.

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In Drown, a collection of short...In Drown, a collection of short stories, author Junot Diaz presents readers with an impoverished group of characters through harsh, but vivid language. Through the voice of Yunior, the narrator throughout the majority of the stories, Diaz places the blame for Yunior's negativity and rebellious nature on the disappointment caused by his father and the childhood illusion of America. Diaz, through language and symbolism, forces readers into an emotional bond with Yunior while exposing the illusory nature of the American dream. Although intertwined with each story, "Fiesta, 1980" allows for a more concise discussion of Diaz's purpose. Diaz's language, even at first glance, appears very different from conventional authors: Mami's younger sister- my tia Yrma-finally made it to the United States that year. She and Tio Miguel got themselves an apartment in the Bronx"¦He didn't say nothing to nobody. Drown, 23 Two aspects, his Spanish interjections into the text and his tendency to disregard English rules of grammar, surface in the opening of "Fiesta, 1980." Yunior's narratives contain Spanish words an average of about every other sentence. Diaz uses them to keep readers aware of Yunior's culture and homeland, attempting to stop the "stifling" effect America often has on immigrants' cultures. Also, Yunior's rejection of the norms of English writing, evident in the phrases "got themselves" and "nothing to nobody" in the above quote, gives his narratives a certain rebellious quality. Not only does he rebel against America's tendency to smother cultural values but rebelling against American rules in general, even the rules of grammar. Diaz continues his grammatical attack on the United States' rules with his lack of quotation marks: Papi pulled me to my feet by my ear. If you throw up- I wont I cried, tears in my eyes"¦ Ya, Ramon, ya. It's not his fault, Mami said. All of the conversations are printed in the manner above, without any quotation marks and sometimes even a new paragraph to indicate another speaker. Diaz successfully attacks the United States in Yunior's defense, but through language style rather than blatant statements. Yunior's narration, besides being a political one, also appears very negative, but also extremely personal. His voice is conversational, which has a powerful effect: "¦trooped back into the living room with their plates a-heaping and all the adults ducked back into the living room, where the radio was playing loud-ass bachatas. Drown, 37 In the above quote Yunior invents the words a-heaping and loud-ass, but the reader understands what he means. Yunior's casual wording, essential to the tone, creates the illusion that the reader knows him personally and thus demands an emotional response to his suffering. His negativity, undoubtedly stemming from a combination of his father's abuse and the false hopes of America, adds to the story's sense of intimacy: A third-world childhood could give you that"¦he found me sitting on the couch feeling like hell"¦I wasn't that sort of son. Drown, 25, 29 Yunior's frequent references to his difficult childhood and his current discomforts, "third world", "like hell", "that sort of son" in the above excerpts; never allow the reader a moment's relief from what he experiences. Diaz, having established a "close relationship" between reader and narrator, expects the reader to experience all of this simultaneously with Yunior. The reader suffers a let down in discovering Yunior's unhappiness. Diaz creates the effect with language to contrast the reader's disappointment with Yunior's. Once again regarding Diaz's language style, vulgarity and blatant phrases as well as cultural references add to the power of the story: He was looking at her like she was the last piece of chicken on earth. Drown, 36 The word choice often takes the reader by surprise, as it most likely did in the above quote. However blunt, Diaz creates a vivid picture. The wording, strong and punchy, reflects the difficult situation in which the family must live. Vulgarity has the same effect: It's the only pussy you'll ever get, Rafa said to me in English. Drown, 31 The word 'pussy', especially out of the mouth of a young boy, shocks readers with its bluntness. Besides conveying the family's style of speech, it paints a clear picture of Yunior"s lifestyle, even at an age as young as nine. Diaz does inject occasional imagery that contrasts with the nearly constant blatant vulgarity. In the following quote Mami feels less ambitious to have a good time after Papi comes home from work, ready to fight: That morning, when she had gotten us up for school, Mami told us she wanted to have a good time at the party. I want to dance, she said, but now, with the sun sliding out of the sky like spit off a wall, she seemed ready just to get this over with. Drown, 24 In the above quote the images of the sun sliding from the sky and the spit on a wall are juxtaposed, revealing Diaz's opinion of the United States. The character Mami represents the Dominican Republic, home, where Yunior feels safe. Papi, domineering and selfish, represents America and all of its false promises. The juxtaposed images represent the countries, opposites in Yunior's mind. Yunior feels his homeland slipping away while America takes over, his culture fading on American soil: The fact that I am writing to you in English already falsifies what I wanted to tell you. My subject: how to explain to you that I don't belong to English though I belong no where else. Drown, 1 This poem, shown on the first page of the collection, illustrates Diaz's ideas about America and its tendency to stifle one's culture. The powerful effect "Fiesta, 1980", and Drown as a whole, has on readers can be greatly attributed to Diaz's careful construction of each story, incorporating tough wording and elements of Spanish culture. Secondly, symbolism presents another important aspect of Diaz's writing. The lime-green Volkswagen van helps to convey just how profoundly affected Yunior becomes by disappointment. Green, the color of the van, represents money and hope two things often deceiving to Yunior and his family. Yunior remains so scarred by his continually being let down that when the family finally acquires some possessions, what they have been striving for; he cannot enjoy them: Brand new, lime-green and bought to impress. Oh, we were impressed, but me, every time I was in the VW and Papi went above twenty miles an hour, I vomited"¦that van was like my curse. Mami suspected it was the upholstery. In her mind, American things"¦have an intrinsic badness about them. Drown, 27 In other words, Yunior becomes unable to accept the VW van, or America, after so much trauma caused by broken hopes and abuse. We see this once again at the fiesta. He starved in the Dominican Republic, in the campo mentioned earlier in the novel, but every vision of his homeland in "Fiesta, 1980" appears happy and mystical, but far away: "¦she's [Mami] surrounded by laughing cousins I'll never meet, who are all shiny from dancing, whose clothes are rumpled and loose. You can tell it's night and hot and that mosquitoes have been biting. She sits straight and even in a crowd she stands out, smiling quietly"¦ Drown, 41 The above passage refers to Mami in the Dominican Republic before she married. Yunior fondly reflects his place of birth, contrasting it to the harsh realities of America. When anything goes right in America, like the family party, Yunior finds much awry and again cannot enjoy the good parts of a predominantly bad situation: "¦but when I joined the other kids around the serving table Papi said, Oh no you don't, and took the paper plate out of my hand. His fingers weren't gentle. What's wrong now? Tia asked, handing me another plate. He ain't eating, Papi said"¦ Why can't he eat? Because I said so. Papi, representing America, prevents Yunior from eating. Although, in reality, Yunior is able to eat in America, this symbolizes his inability to enjoy any progress his family makes. Papi's fingers "weren't gentle", once again referring to the difficulty Yunior has accepting America's reality, harsh and invading. Papi's reply "because I said so" alludes to the lack of answers America offers to Yunior's questioning of authority and the broken promises. Diaz's symbolism mainly concerns his ideas about the image of America and the reality immigrants must face after such high hopes. Mami and Papi not only represent different countries, but an internal conflict within Yunior. He wants to believe that their family has finally achieved a level of success, but has become so hardened against hoping that he physically and mentally cannot accept it. Overall, the stories in Drown possess both a sadness and an anger. Yunior's voice, although often vulgar and negative, draws readers into his life. As we read, we form a bond with Yunior. In doing so we move to another level, the political one Diaz wants to express. Thus, in "knowing" Yunior, Diaz's cause also becomes important to readers, exposing the American dream for what it is: an illusion.   

In Drown, a collection of short stories, author Junot Diaz presents readers with an impoverished group of characters through harsh, but vivid language. Through the voice of Yunior, the narrator throughout the majority of the stories, Diaz places the blame for Yunior's negativity and rebellious nature on the disappointment caused...

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King Oedipus is a play in...King Oedipus is a play in which the protagonist, attempts to find the cause of a sickness affecting the city of Thebes. The process through which Oedipus uncovers the details of the disease directly parallels the process used by the television show House M.D, in which Dr. House unravels complex mysteries surrounding a patient's sickness. Dr. House's method of uncovering information is extremely unorthodox--he threatens and manipulates anyone who can help him, often becoming obsessed with solving the medical puzzle. Oedipus follows in the same direction, becoming hell bent on finding the origin of the sickness, assaulting those who withhold information from him and dismissing anyone who opposes him. The mental and physical likeness of the two characters was instrumental in the decision of depicting Oedipus as Dr. House. Scripting was essential in making the theme of the rendition obvious to the audience, as it established the medical tone, aided each actor's portrayal of his or her character and helped determine the look of the play. The scripting of the play was used to mimic the tone of House M.D. The initial script served as a rough outline for the entire production and thus established the overall tone of the play. The first step was to locate any lines dealing with the issue of sickness and emphasise the scenes in which the cause of the sickness is discussed. As a result, the opening lines pertained to the sickness and helped establish the medical theme: "What is the meaning of these prayers for the healing of pain?" Sophocles 25. It was also necessary to sustain the consistency of the medical references and eliminate irrelevant dialogue. To achieve this characters had to written out of the script. The first example of this is the Priest, who was replaced by Creon to create a scene of fast paced dialogue between Oedipus and Creon, again mimicking House M.D's technique of discussing an illness. By selectively choosing lines, Oedipus' egotistical nature became more apparent, thus making it more obvious to the audience that Oedipus was meant to be Dr.House. This process placed emphasis on lines spoken by Oedipus, as his self-proclaimed talent was an identifying mark of hubris--a tragic flaw that both Dr.House and Oedipus constantly display: "You have prayed; and your prayers shall be answered if you will obey me" Sophocles 31; "I have saved this land from ruin. I am content." Sophocles 37; "No god will speak for me." Sophocles 68. Dr.House, much like Oedipus, only displays true hubris during social conflict, when his real thoughts become apparent. uphold Oedipus' arrogant attitude and maintain conflict, it was again necessary to drastically shorten the lines of miscellaneous characters, as they had little or no conflict with Oedipus. For Jocasta Dr.Cuddy in House M.D, Oedipus' wife, it was essential to eliminate much of the dialogue between her and Oedipus that was non-confrontational; the resulting scene between the two characters is much more edgy and engaging as Oedipus and Jocasta exchange remarks in a manner similar to those between Dr.House and Dr.Cuddy: "JOCASTA: For the love of God, believe it, Oedipus!/ OEDIPUSangered: And why should I repent?" Sophocles 43. Jocasta's limited role had another purpose: due to a lack of actors, Jocasta had to be played by an outside helper, thus it was easier for her to be written as an off-stage character. The conflict between the two of them helped to give Jocasta some dominance and masked the fact that she was physically missing. Lastly, the initial scripting included brackets to indicate how a certain line should be delivered, often to emphasise a certain aspect of House M.D. For example, Oedipus is indicated to say certain lines in a bitter voice, as would Dr.House: "OEDIPUSbitter: And while you suffer, none suffers more than I!" Sophocles 27. The initial scripting gave the group a rough outline of what was to be said, but even more important was the way the lines were to be delivered. Each actor had to find a way to portray his or her character that would give a clear resemblance to his or her House M.D counterpart. Of utmost importance was the tone and emotion used to deliver each line. Manish, who played Oedipus, had to use tone to twist the original meaning of lines, changing heartfelt or sympathetic statements into cruel and sarcastic taunts: "What is the matter? Something you fear? Something you desire?/ I would willingly do anything to help you" Sophocles 25. A sarcastic tone is characteristic of Dr.House and perfectly establishes Oedipus' personality as sadistic. It also serves the purpose of establishing Oedipus as the dominant character as he makes other characters seem inferior while also entertaining the audience, building a bond between the audience and Oedipus. Manish also used a range of emotions in his delivery, as Oedipus' choleric nature has him constantly yelling and threatening other characters. The quick temper exhibited showed a clear link to Dr. House, who often loses his temper when confronted: "OEDIPUS: Answer! If I must speak again, you die!" Sophocles 57. The temper also engaged the audience and helped maintain the conflict that was the backbone of the play. Jenny, who played the part of Jocasta, had to be extremely careful in her delivery, as she was an offstage character. To show the depth of her character, Jenny had to change from standing up to Oedipus to being affectionate towards him, just as Dr. Cuddy does to Dr. House. Jenny used a loud dominant tone at first, then slowly begin using a wavering and desperate tone as her character became more worried about Oedipus: "JOCASTA: What is the meaning of this loud argument, you quarrelsome men?" Sophocles 43; "JOCASTA: No! In God"s name-if you want to live, this quest must not go on!/ I implore you, do not do it" Sophocles 55. Kazi, who played Teiresias, used a strong and whimsical tone to establish his character's wise nature. Kazi was chosen to play the prophet because his deep voice made him excellent as opposing Oedipus. He utilized his deep voice to establish dominance and make it clear to the audience that he was not going to be overcome by Oedipus, proving himself to be the first character to stand up against Oedipus: "TEIRESIAS: I tell no more. Rage with what wrath you will." Sophocles 35. Finally, Saad was chosen to be Creon. Visually, he made an excellent counterpart to Oedipus, as he was taller, had a clean-shaven look and appeared very sly. His inquisitive and rational tone was used to deflect the anger present in many of Oedipus' remarks, making the audience consider who was right: "CREON: Reason with yourself, would any man exchange a quiet life"¦for an uneasy throne?". His rational arguments are reminiscent of those put forward by Dr. House's closest friend, Dr. Wilson. At the end of the play, Saad exhibited his sly nature by showing that he shared many of the same qualities as Oedipus, using extreme sarcasm and being extremely condescending towards Oedipus: "CREON: I am not here to scoff at your fall,/ Nor yet to reproach you for your past misdeeds" Sophocles 65. Once each actor decided how he or she wanted to portray his or her character, it was necessary to revisit the script and make numerous changes adhering to the new personality of the character. Each actor's varied use of tone and emotion helped establish the theme of the play while also enhancing the performance. While the scripting and delivery of the play made subtle allusions to House M.D and cleverly paralleled the characters of the show, the look of the play and the appearance of the characters was the most blatant way of making the audience understand the theme. The characters' clothing was the most blunt and direct form of recognition for the audience, thus it had to be carefully planned. To represent Dr. House, Manish wore classic jeans with a dress shirt and a blazer. To make it even more obvious, he used a cane--Dr. House's signature prop--and a bottle of pills. To create the setting of a hospital, many of the characters were dressed like doctors. Saad, depicting Dr. Wilson, wore a lab coat and carried a stethoscope. Brendan and Shivon, meant to be Dr. House's team, both wore lab coats and stuck together, speaking in turns to establish that they were a team. To further show that it was a hospital, a small waiting room was added at the end of the stage, with several extras reading magazines while waiting for a doctor. At the other end of the stage was Dr. House's desk, where Manish used the blackboard to write out the symptoms of an illness, exactly as it seen on House M.D. The look of the play was detrimental to the tone of the play: the lab coats made the discussion of the illness seem much more serious and the congregation of doctors made the quest of searching for a cure plausible. Before any of the visuals were used, a distinguished audio clip was used--the theme song of House M.D. The clip was again an effort to mirror House M.D, but was also used to build tension in the audience. Another important factor of the play was the stage direction. The characters went back and forth across the stage, constantly utilizing different parts of the stage to give the play a moving feel, as House M.D often refuses to stay in one location for more than a few minutes. The look of the play was the easiest way for the audience to realise what the theme of the play was and was executed carefully to give as many visual clues as possible. Scripting was a dynamic process that was constantly altered to keep up with any changes made to the play. Although it was most first used to establish tone, secondly used to accentuate character and used minimally for the look of the play, the significance of each of these elements occurs in the reverse order. That is to say, the look of the play was the most important, as it immediately clarified the theme. Once the blatant visual techniques made the audience obvious to the theme, the audience had a chance to understand the portrayals of the characters and finally was able to follow the subtle scripting parallels. It is impossible to separate each element into when it was considered, since they are all interdependent: throughout the development of the script, the portrayal of the characters is heavily pondered as is the overall look of the play. Similarly, the final portrayal of each character is only perfected through scripting changes and visual decisions. The theme of the rendition was excellently clarified throughout the play because each of the aspects was skilfully interconnected through use of flexible scripting.  

King Oedipus is a play in which the protagonist, attempts to find the cause of a sickness affecting the city of Thebes. The process through which Oedipus uncovers the details of the disease directly parallels the process used by the television show House M.D, in which Dr. House unravels complex...

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Feelings can twist reality in the...Feelings can twist reality in the most peculiar ways. Emotions push the mind to the most stunning conclusions, and stir within the soul the strangest storms. In fact, senses reach their peak in David Wagoner's poetic work "The Best Slow Dancer". In the poem, Wagoner brings out the height of sentiment through the eyes of a teenage boy at a school dance, who overcomes the teenage social hierarchy and his own fear to share in the longed-for dance with one special girl. All the while Wagoner takes his readers into depths of wafting dreaminess, romance, and intimacy they are projected through an unbroken flow of words uninterrupted by punctuation, rhythm, or strict lines. "The Best Slow Dancer" portrays the mental state of a boy as he experiences a dance. It is a short dance, but one that seems to him prolonged for an eternity, the "three-second rule forever/ suspended". The feelings that go through the youth's soul range from extreme delight to just as extreme tension, and the reader may see them all exhibited in the lines of the poem. His surety when with the girl in his embrace is seen when his "countless feet light-footed sure to move as they wished wherever [they] might stagger without her", but then he "tried"¦to tell her [he wasn't] the worst one", the worst of the boys, the one that she would not be seen dead with"”which implies that he is fearful of the fact that she might reject him, "not waving a sister somebody else's partner". The full textual image demonstrates that the boy is with all his heart trying to impress the girl, and gets the dance with her against all odds of popularity and such, and then he treasures the experience, as he says to himself "remember" at the end. All throughout "The Best Slow Dancer", the key ingredient to the image within the reader's mind is the mood set by the poem. The mood is mystical, quixotic, intimate, and continual. This state is accomplished by three techniques"”poetic devices, turns of phrase, and contortion of syntax. The main pair of poetic devices that set up all these moods and humors simultaneously are enjambment and synecdoche. Enjambment is bizarre in this poetic work, especially in descriptions of physical setting or position, such as the setting of the dance, "in the school gym across the key through the glitter/ of mirrored light", or the position of the main character with his "cheek against her temple, her ear just under/ that". This gives the effect of flow, with no pauses and prompts to go on disregarding the line breaks, as if the poem was one continuous sentence. Synecdoche, meanwhile, is used very lavishly in this piece of poetry, to give the impression of romance and intimacy. Instead of just stating blatantly that the boy was close in body to the girl, it describes them in body parts, as in the metaphor "the question mark of [his] spine your hand in hers", and as the boy moved "from thigh to secrets to breast", which implies something private linguistically as well. Along with poetic devices, language usage is a necessity for mood portrayal, as we see with the lack of punctuation that, as with the enjambment, is against accepted grammatical rules and also prompts one to continue to read the poem without pause, as is seen in the description of who the boy is not: The one in the hallway after class the scuffler The double club foot gawker the mouth breather With the wrong haircut who would never kiss her. Also, there are frequent references to school gym setting, such as "the key" and "three-second rule", both sports terms, which may refer to the young age of the characters in this poem, as well as references to possible occurrences of the girl dancing off with someone else because the someone else was better, " older more clever smoother dreamier", which produces the nervous hope of the poem as well. "The Best Slow Dancer", in its fanciful mood and emotional exaltation, may well be examined for meaning beyond the literal words within the text"”namely topics such as hierarchy, societal class, and relationship issues. In this poem, the teenage ladder of popularity has to be overcome by the youth to dance with the girl, for it can be implied that the girl is definitely popular, as well as fickle when it comes to serious love. Evidence of this fact can be derived from the anxiety of the hero of the poem, as he tries to get the girl to see him as better than the worst, and to see that he loves her. He is worried, too, about the possibility of the girl escaping him with somebody superior in every way to him, where again can be used the description of that someone"”" older more clever smoother dreamier". Besides simply teen understanding of popularity, this situation demonstrates avid divisions of class. Society became divided into classes ever since the advent of agriculture and trade, and it persists in the ranks of today's young people"”one's place on the staircase of prestige based on age, wealth, and outward appearance mostly. Along with society's sets and brackets that separate people into type comes the taboo of certain topics in everyday life and conversation. Reverting to the part of "The Best Slow Dancer" where the boy's other hand is touching "the place between her shoulders" and where he "moved from thigh to secrets to breast", these may be analyzed as dealing with the more personal aspects of the female body, as implied especially by the word "secrets". When such things are mentioned, there must be more some sort of important connection between the people involved, in this case the dancing boy and girl. Exploration leads to believe that the boy is taking most any means that he can to show the girl how much he loves her, and how daring he is to prove himself though this be only a school dance in "the school gym across the key". This poem masterfully portrays emotions. It has philosophical traces, linguistic skill and strange but effective use of figurative language as well. The rapture and at the same time anxiety can be traced to the very thoughts of David Wagoner. The triumph over obstacles, breach of all sorts of boundaries, sensuality, and originality involved in this work culminate to form the statement of love, soul, and feeling that will persevere into the future with the youth of today.   

Feelings can twist reality in the most peculiar ways. Emotions push the mind to the most stunning conclusions, and stir within the soul the strangest storms. In fact, senses reach their peak in David Wagoner's poetic work "The Best Slow Dancer". In the poem, Wagoner brings out the height of...

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Gothic Literature was a natural progression...Gothic Literature was a natural progression from romanticism, which had existed in the 18th Century. Initially, such a 'unique' style of literature was met with a somewhat mixed response; although it was greeted with enthusiasm from members of the public, literary critics were much more dubious and sceptical. Gothic writing is a style of literature that relies upon the evocation of moods, feelings and imagery for impact. This style of writing was developed during an age of great scientific discovery "“ such literature marked a reaction against the prevailing 'Age of Enlightenment'. Many Gothic authors opposed the new-found faith and enthusiasm placed in these discoveries, believing that they restricted freedom of imagination. Consequently, Gothic writers inhabited areas where no answers are provided "“ exploiting people's fears and offering answers that are in stark contrast to the otherwise scientific explanations. Gothic writing is a style that depends upon the evocation of moods, which is reflected mainly in the writing style of a novel. 'Dracula' is written in the first person "“ 'I must have been asleep' - with a constant change of narrator within chapters. Wilde, however, wrote in the third person, omniscient, giving us the observer's point of view whilst still showing us the intelligence and class of his characters through the language that they use "“ 'come, Mr Gray, my hansom is outside'. The diary entries or notes used in 'Dracula' are fragmented and have an epistolary structure 'Jonathon Harker's Journal'. This emphasises each of the character's feelings of isolation and loneliness, adding to the appeal of the reader. During the entries, Stoker goes to great lengths to show that his narrators are all rational and logical, 'there was business to be done, and I could allow nothing to interfere with it', and to show that their imaginations do not 'run riot' "“ heightening the fear and interest of the reader, as a supposedly intelligent person is still shown as vulnerable. In 'The Picture of Dorian Gray' Dorian suffers from both actual and psychological isolation from his forced vulnerability. The reason why this happens is due to the increase of evil in him as the plot develops. This is down to the corruptive character of Lord Henry, who increases his 'terribly enthralling' influence over him with the use of his 'yellow book'- 'For years Dorian Gray could not free himself from the influence of this book.' The book becomes like a Holy Scripture to him and he lives a life devoted to bringing together new experiences and sensations with no regard for conventional standards of morality, or the consequences of his actions. He soon understands what has happened, but is unable to do anything about it by this time -'You poisoned me with a book once. I should never forgive that"¦it does harm.' The use of corruptive characters is also apparent in 'Dracula', as the corrupter is actually the Count himself, although Stoker shows his corruption as a more physical and more passionate act than the flattering and cerebral seduction of Lord Henry's "“ 'her breast heaved softly.' Corruptive characters were an important part of gothic writing, as not only does it show an immoral side to society, it also employs some sympathy towards the characters in the eyes of the reader. Stoker presents psychological isolation through the individual diary entries of each character "“ when each character is separated from the others they become isolated and vulnerable to Dracula's attacks. Dracula has little power over them, however, when they are all together, and are able to break his 'thrall'. Unexplained and uncertain events are a significant aspect of gothic text. The focus on mystery in 'Dracula' would have had a substantial effect on the reader in the 1890's, as there was only one previous known author to write about vampires. These nightmare realms of uncertainty are also present in Wilde's novel. His audience was the same as Stoker's, although earlier in the 1890's, and his readers would suffer the same macabre interest in the sensational and supernatural when he described the painting, and how - 'hour by hour, week by week, the thing on the canvas was growing old.' Religion features quite frequently in Dracula, although the only real mention of it in Dorian Gray is when Basil quotes Isaiah when he looks at the portrait. 'Though your sins be as scarlet, yet I will make them as white as snow.' There is also a hidden implication in the 'yellow book' that Lord Henry gives to Dorian as a gift. In Dracula, the 'King-vampire' may be seen to be a parody of Christ. Drinking blood bestows a sort of eternal life, and can be compared to the Catholic mass. To the God-fearing people of the 19th Century these references to Christ and religion would have had a profound effect on the way they viewed the novels. Including religious references in these novels would not only have captured the reader's interest, but also given them the fear that what the authors are describing could be real. Stoker makes it clear to the reader that the vampire is demonic and anti-Christian. He does this by offering perversions of Christianity in the novel. The first of these occurs with the character of Renfield who foreshadows the social disruption and insanity that will accompany Dracula's descent upon England, or, in other words, modern civilization. Before most of the characters experience the wrath of Dracula, Renfield begins to act wild and speaks of the arrival of his lord. This is one of the perversions of Christianity that Stoker employs to show the demonic nature of the vampire. Dr. Seward notes in his diary, 'All he would say was: - 'I don't want to talk to you: you don't count now; the Master is at hand.' The attendant thinks it is some sudden form of religious mania that has seized him. It is here that Renfield acts as a demonic form of John the Baptist. Just as John the Baptist prepared people for the coming of Christ, Renfield prepares people for the coming of his lord and master, Dracula. Another example of a perversion of Christianity is Lucy Westenra. After her blood has been drained several times by the Count, she finally dies on September 20th. An article in the 'Westminster Gazette' dated September 25th says that many children had gone missing and had returned after being 'wounded in the throat'. The children all describe that they had been 'lured away' by the 'bloofer lady.' The newspaper article indicates that the first cases of missing children were reported around September 22nd or 23rd. The reader can assume that the 'bloofer lady' is Lucy Westenra, and this would mean that she rose three days after death. This is a perversion of the Christian Resurrection, and it reminds the reader of the evil from the East that is spreading westward into modern civilization. The folk legends and traditions Van Helsing draws upon 'He may not enter anywhere at first, unless there be some member of the household to bid him to come; though afterwards he can come as he pleases' suggest that the most effective weapons in combating supernatural evil is symbols of unearthly good. In the fight against Dracula, these symbols take the form of the icons of Christian faith, such as the crucifix "“ 'I have placed the crucifix over the head of my bed.' The novel is so invested in the strength and power of these Christian symbols that it reads, at times, like a propagandistic Christian promise of salvation for the innocent. A main theme in both novels could be moral behaviour; though a contrast in these could be that Stoker focuses more on sexual morality. In the personification of Dorian Gray, it is shown how man always struggles with the unwritten laws and rules of modern society and human forbidden desire. Dorian Gray embodies immoral behaviour, not at the beginning but after he decides that he can do whatever he wants, for the painting will take all the burden of his shame. The complete denial of responsibility in Sibyl's death is but the beginning of his moral degradation. He relishes in observing the mutilation of the picture, and therefore his soul. His further meetings with Henry simply magnify this descent into extravagance: "...You were the most unspoiled creature in the whole world. Now, I don't know what has come over you. You talk as if you had no heart, no pity in you. It is all Henry's influence. I see that"¦" Although Dracula has many scenes that seem to revel in sexual language and sensual description, these pleasures are heightened to a Victorian and Christian sense of morality. In writing a novel that implicitly combines sin with sexuality in a moralizing way, Stoker is also given free reign to write incredibly lurid and sensual scenes. The themes of Christian redemption and the triumph of purity are successful, but the sexually loaded scenes that of the three female vampires closing in seductively on a powerless but desiring Jonathan Harker, for example, tend to linger longest in a reader"s mind. Colour is particularly noticeable in both of the novels "“ both the authors use white as a sign of purity and innocence "“ 'All three had brilliant white teeth'. It is the 'white purity' of Dorian's boyhood that Lord Henry finds so captivating, much in the way that Harker had 'some longing' towards the three evil sisters he encountered. Red is also indicative of passion and liveliness "“ 'rose-red youth' in Dorian Gray, and in Dracula it is used more widely for blood, stained purity and passion "“ 'the ruby of their voluptuous lips'. White is used to indicate the goodness and virtue of Dorian Gray -'You are the most unspoiled creature in the whole world.' However, this fades as the picture starts to change. When ordering flowers for Sibyl he asks for 'as few white ones as possible' showing his loss of virtuousness, and the lack of need for it. One of the main contrasts in these two novels is the use of female characters. The main and almost only female character in the entire novel of Dorian Gray is Sibyl Vane. Her death happened on the verge of Dorian's transformation 'why is it that I cannot feel this tragedy as much as I want to?' She is the entire innocent, beauty and purity that are in him. 'She is everything to me'. Sibyl's portrayal of Juliet from Shakespeare's tragedy 'Romeo and Juliet' foreshadows the doomed nature of Sibyl's relationship with Dorian Gray. Women don"t play a substantial or crucial part in the novel. In the novel, women are present, but remain very shallow and stereotypical. Most of the women who do appear are upper class women, except for Sybil Vane. Even though Sybil Vane plays an important part in Dorian"s life for a while, her character remains unimportant, it"s the woman she plays he falls in love with. 'When is she Sybil Vane?' 'Never.' When she fails on stage, it doesn't matter to Dorian who she really is beyond the parts she played. Further in the novel, women seem only present at gatherings and meetings, but they seem neither of any importance to the story nor to the main characters. In contrast, the female characters in 'Dracula' are more dominating figures. The three 'weird sisters' that Harker encounters in Dracula's castle are both his dream and his nightmare "“ they in fact embody both the dream and the nightmare of the Victorian male imagination in general. The sisters represent what the Victorian ideal stipulates women should not be "“ 'deliberately voluptuous' and sexually aggressive 'which was both thrilling and repulsive' "“ thus making their beauty both a promise of sexual fulfilment and a curse. However, this sexual proficiency threatens to undermine the foundations of a male dominated society by compromising men's ability to reason and maintain control. 'Dracula' addresses the fear of things we cannot prove scientifically and rationally, and the ways we still rely on magic, ritual and faith to comfort and even to save us in an age of scientific curiosity and achievement. Stoker"s characters are in love with modern technology: with telegraphs and trains, with typewriters and gramophones 'write it out for him on the typewriter' and primitive recording devices. As well, there are references to scientific and medical advances such as the 'transfusion of blood', which aim to dispel all mystery. The invasion 'Dracula' attempts provides a suggestion that people may be pompous and pretentious in feeling they can know and control everything: there are mysteries, which perhaps cannot be fully grasped. 'Dracula' is defeated by human effort using tools of ritual, not by science or reason: 'God"s madmen' must do 'wild work.' To the reader, this would suggest that relying on such modernity would have a disastrous effect. This would capture the attraction of the reader's of the 19th century as they were beginning to use such progressive things. It would place a fearful belief in their minds that perhaps technology isn't as successful as it is supposed to be. Although 'The Picture of Dorian Gray' is definitely described as a 'Gothic' text, it does not contain many of the features typical to a Gothic text. There is no real particular mention of religion, animals/creatures or even any particularly bleak settings. However, in both novels loved ones and innocent people die, innocence and good is corrupted and there is a connection to sexuality. Both novels create an aspect of mystery for the reader of the 19th century. Stoker's portrayal of a creature little known by the English public of the 1890's would have been of fear inspiring fascination to read about. Though few would have read John Palidori's vampire novel, more perhaps would have heard the tale of Vlad the Impaler. He was a man who supposedly drank human blood or the blood of his war victims, and was in fact a 'Dracule'. This basis in reality would add a sadistic interest to the novel. Wilde's novel, though equally inexplicable, doesn't create the same feeling of terror, but does raise a number of reservations in its reader. Both novels are seemingly successful texts in upholding the interest of the reader through many of the typical conventions of the Gothic tradition.   

Gothic Literature was a natural progression from romanticism, which had existed in the 18th Century. Initially, such a 'unique' style of literature was met with a somewhat mixed response; although it was greeted with enthusiasm from members of the public, literary critics were much more dubious and sceptical. Gothic...

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Man"s fundamental bewilderment and confusion, stems...Man"s fundamental bewilderment and confusion, stems from the fact that man has no answers to the basic existential questions: why we are alive, why we have to die, why there is injustice and suffering, all this serve as the impetus for such a thinking. Man constantly wonders about the truth of life and realizes that the more you expect from it, the more it fails you or may be the more we expect from ourselves the more we find ourselves engaging in a futile battle with the odds. May be the truth is the realization of our limitations and the potency of these odds that press you down with their brutal truths"¦."¦.brutal?, can the truth be brutal. But the truth is the God, ourselves, the destiny that rules us and fashions us, after a strange decree which we fail to unravel. "What do I know about man"s destiny? I could tell you more about radishes." -Samuel Beckett Concerning itself with such questions is the genre of literature is the movement called 'THE THEATRE OF THE ABSURD'. The Theatre of the Absurd 50"s draws on the existentialist writings of Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus. Camus adapted Dostoyevsky"s The Possesed to the stage 1959. Mostly, his writing was concerned with the dilemma of individuals who believe that values are relative but who cannot live without moral commitment. Camus argues that humanity has to resign itself to recognizing that a fully satisfying rational explanation of the universe is beyond its reach; thus the world must ultimately be seen as absurd. The underpinnings of the Theatre of the Absurd are derived from these existentialist ideas that led to Absurdism. Absurdism teaches, much like Camus, that, that which cannot be justified in a rational manner is absurd. Since religion requires a "leap of faith"Kierkegaard it is absurd, just as life itself is absurd. The Theater of the Absurd refers to tendencies in dramatic literature that emerged in Paris during the late 1940s and early "50s in the plays of Arthur Adamov, Fernando Arrabal, Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, Eugene Ionesco, and Jean Tardieu. A term coined by the critic Martin Esslin, "The Theatre of the Absurd" refers to the work of a number of playwrights, mostly written in the 1950s and 1960s. Its roots lie in an essay by the French philosopher Albert Camus. In his "Myth of Sisyphus", written in 1942, he first defined the human situation as basically meaningless and absurd. The "absurd" plays by Samuel Beckett, Arthur Adamov, Eugene Ionesco, Jean Genet, Harold Pinter and others all share the view that man is inhabiting a universe with which he is out of key. Its meaning is indecipherable and his place within it is without purpose. He is bewildered, troubled and obscurely threatened. Seeing man as the very center of the universe an then finally realizing that his position in this vast godless arena is as petty as his existence. Thus the whole idea becomes sheer absurdity"¦.is God for man? Or man for God?. Absurdism is more than just a movement it is an idea, which is commonly associated with existentialism. Beginning in the 19th century, mainly through the influence of Soren Kierkegaard, religion was often described as absurd because it could not be justified on rational principles; rather, it was considered as based on what Kierkegaard called "a leap of faith." In their discussions of consciousness, Martin Heidegger and Jean Paul Sartre described the human consciousness as facing an apparently absurd world--absurd because it finds itself at the crossroads of Being and Nothingness, baffled by the meaninglessness of the human condition. Sartre"s ideas of absurdity, anguish, and disgust are expressed in his plays and novels, especially in Nausea 1938; Eng. trans., 1949. A philosophical basis for the modern theater of the absurd has been established by other existentialists, such as Albert Camus, Karl Jaspers, and Gabriel Marcel. The Theatre of the Absurd does not show man in a historical, social, or cultural context, it does not communicate any general views of human life. It is not concerned with conveying information or presenting the problems or destinies of characters that exists outside the author"s world they are created by author, but have their own created life. It is not concerned with the representation of events, the narration of fates, or the adventures of characters. It is instead interested in the presentation of an individual"s basic situation. "It presents individual human being"s intuition of his basic situation as he experiences it". No doubt that the term 'theater of the absurd' derives from the philosophical use of the word absurd by such existentialist thinkers as Albert CAMUS and Jean Paul SARTRE, but far from concerning itself with the rather nerve straining philosophical studies of abstractions it encompasses in its domain hard and concrete entities of life such as pain, misery, tears, fears, and the never ending desire of man to seek the answers to all the questions; Camus, particularly, argued that humanity had to resign itself to recognizing that a fully satisfying rational explanation of the universe was beyond its reach; in that sense, the world must ultimately be seen as absurd. To the absurdists the whole idea of struggle appeared as the most ridiculous thought. They saw man struggling in sheer hopelessness to get a glimmer of the world that he had dreamt of in some part of his life. All the religions, faiths, beliefs, superstitions; have tried to solve the question that why is there all the imperfection? And sadly enough by reflecting on the situation that prevails around us one can come to a very despondent question-has God failed? And where do we find the answer; alas nowhere! Apparently the absurdists may appear as atheist or agnostics but in reality they were probing into those facets of humanity that concerned itself with self-faith. Their focus might have been on the fact that self-belief leads to faith in God. They were concerning themselves with the question that why has the belief in God and His omni potency disappeared from human minds? Thus the Theatre of the Absurd also seems to have been a reaction to the disappearance of the religious dimension form contemporary life. The Absurd Theatre hopes to achieve its aim of presenting this idea of vanished faith in the self and God by shocking man out of an existence that has become trite, mechanical and complacent. Though at times it may appear masochistic at times but it is felt that there is mystical experience in confronting the limits of human condition. And the absurdists hope to draw the solution of desperation that man confronts from this mysticism drawn from the realization of human limitations. The Theatre of the Absurd was undoubtedly strongly influenced by the traumatic experience of the horrors of the Second World War, which showed the total impermanence of any values, shook the validity of any conventions and highlighted the precariousness of human life and its fundamental meaninglessness and arbitrariness. The trauma of living from 1945 under threat of nuclear annihilation also seems to have been an important factor in the rise of the new theatre. Thus while presenting the brutal realities of life in their most blatant form Absurd plays assumed a highly unusual, innovative form, directly aiming to startle the viewer, shaking him out of this comfortable, conventional life of everyday concerns. The playwrights loosely grouped under the label of the absurd endeavor to convey their sense of bewilderment, anxiety, and wonder in the face of an inexplicable universe. They rely heavily on poetic metaphor as a means of projecting outward their innermost states of mind. Hence, the images of the theater of the absurd tend to assume the quality of fantasy, dream, and nightmare; they do not so much portray the outward appearance of reality as the playwright"s emotional perception of an inner reality. The Theatre of the Absurd diverted human interest from nature and directed it at man and his thinking. This interest in a subject, individual human thinking, and the individual"s situation corresponds with the philosophy of existentialism Heidegger, Jaspers, Camus, Sartre..., which is focused on the subjective, individual"s experience in a concrete fatal situation. While the philosophers deal with the absurdity of human existence rationally, using philosophical language; the absurd dramatists express it in concrete dramatic pictures. They offer us the opportunity to not only think about absurdity, but to feel it and experience it simultaneously with the actors and the author, who transforms his mind into a symbolic dramatic language. Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot is probably the most famous absurd play to date. The characters of the play, are absurd caricatures who of course have problems communicating with one another, and the language they use is often times ludicrous. And, following the cyclical pattern, the play seems to end in the same state it began in, with nothing really changed. And that is perhaps the reality of life itself that it will keep on going round and round till we perish away. At the end the truth that these absurdists presented was that at the end of the road nothing really matters. Eugene ionesco remarked "The universe seems to me infinitely strange and foreign. At such a moment I gaze upon it with a mixture of anguish and euphoria; separate from the universe, as though placed at a certain distance outside it; I look and see pictures, creatures that move in a kind of timeless time and spaceless space emitting sounds that are a kind of language I no longer understand or ever register."   

Man"s fundamental bewilderment and confusion, stems from the fact that man has no answers to the basic existential questions: why we are alive, why we have to die, why there is injustice and suffering, all this serve as the impetus for such a thinking. Man constantly wonders about the truth...

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