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Shelley began writing 'Frankenstein' in the company of what has been called 'her male coterie', including her lover Percy Shelley, Lord Byron and his physician John Polidori. It has been suggested that the influence of this group, and particularly that of Shelley and Byron, affected her portrayal of male characters in the novel. As Ann Campbell writes: '[The] characters and plot of Frankenstein reflect . . . Shelley's conflicted feelings about the masculine circle which surrounded her.' Certainly the male characters in 'Frankenstein' are more developed that those of the females. Elizabeth Fay has suggested that the female characters are 'idealised figures' in much of Shelley's work, particularly in the descriptions of Caroline and Elizabeth, the two mother figures in the novel. Caroline is, on surface value, a perfect parent, together with her husband, which renders Victor's irresponsibility in abandoning the creature more unforgivable. She 'possessed a mind of uncommon mould' which was also 'soft and benevolent'; she is compared to a 'fair exotic' flower which is sheltered by Alphonse; she drew 'inexhaustible stores of affection from a very mine of love to bestow' on Victor, and her 'tender caresses' are some of his 'first recollections'. She is the idealised mother, a figure that Shelley viewed wistfully, as her own mother died when she was ten days old to be replaced by a disinterested stepmother. Caroline's parenting provides the care that Frankenstein might well have lacked, had he been left to his father alone "“ his father dismisses Agrippa's work without explanation, thereby setting Victor on his course towards 'destruction'. This is the first introduction of a theme that continues throughout the book, that of the necessity for female figures in parenting and in society. Without a mother figure and left only with Frankenstein who subsumes both parental roles, the creature's life is blighted by his imperfection and lack of companionship. However, Caroline is also the trigger to Alfonse's chivalry, thus presenting him in an improved light and allowing his character to develop at the expense of her own weakness. This is a feminist comment from Shelley, whose mother Mary Wollenstonecraft was a notorious feminist and an important influence. Justine, too, is an 'idealised figure', described during the trial as having a countenance which, 'always engaging, was rendered, by the solemnity of her feelings, exquisitely beautiful.' She is the archetypal innocent, being beautiful, weak and entirely accepting of her fate to the point of martyrdom. She would doubtless incense feminists now, accepting death with equanimity ' "I am resigned to the fate awaiting me" ' at the hands of misjudging and dominant men. She is a somewhat two-dimensional character, being compliant in all things, enduring the mistreatment by her mother and not objecting to the injustice of her condemnation. In this sense she serves merely as a plot device, used to introduce the evil of the creature and to show Frankenstein's cowardice in refusing to defend her in time. Here she is another feminine figure used to further a male character's development, just as Caroline was used to develop the character of Alfonse. She is also a vehicle for Shelley's attack on the contemporary judiciary system, which explains her name. The character of Safie is used by Shelley as a direct attack on sexism. Safie is a stronger character than the other women in the novel, as she defies her father in escaping to join Felix. Shelley comments upon the state of 'bondage' inflicted on females in Islamic society at the time, which Safie objects to, encouraged to 'aspire to the higher powers of intellect, and an independence of spirit' by her mother. Shelley, in applauding this determination and self-respect on the part of women, is condemning a society which oppresses females and upholds males as superior. However, Safie is not merely used for this; she is also presented as a contrast to the creature, who is similarly separated from the De Laceys by a language barrier, but who can never be accepted by them because he lacks her 'angelic beauty'. She is an example of man's intolerance towards ugliness, as her beauty transcends the barrier of language whereas the creature's benevolence cannot. Elizabeth is the most 'idealised figure' of all the women in the novel, afforded the following romantic description: 'The saintly soul of Elizabeth shone like a shrine-dedicated lamp in our peaceful home . . . her smile, her soft voice, the sweet glance of her celestial eyes, were ever there to bless and animate us. She was the living spirit of love to soften and attract.' She is here made to transcend ordinary mortality to become 'celestial' and 'saintly'. This makes her death more appalling and triggers Victor's active fury, whereas the suffering of the innocent Justine did not. The base murder of 'the living spirit of love' can be said to be the creature's revenge against humankind, as the killing of something so natural and integral to humanity kills happiness with it. But whilst Elizabeth is assigned this pivotal role in the novel, she is in herself two-dimensional as a character, having no friends outside of the family and no interests save 'trifling occupations' within the household. She is content to wait for Victor, despite his long absences and frequent and serious depressions. She is the idealised woman at the time of the novel's setting, being submissive, supportive and beautiful. However, the character of Elizabeth can also serve a further purpose. It has been argued by several critics that Elizabeth is the creature's opposite, that she and he together make up Victor. She is his good half and the creature his bad. Both characters are orphans and heavily dependent on Victor. Elizabeth is beautiful, good and female, whereas the creature is ugly, evil and male. The blending of the two create Victor, who has robbed himself of gender by assuming both parental roles. It has been suggested by one critic that Victor has feminine characteristics, being 'sensitive, passionate about literature . . . and becom[ing] enamoured with [other men's] voice[s] and feelings'. This theory can be supported, in that Victor attributes to Elizabeth the ability to 'subdue [him] to a semblance of her own gentleness'. By contrast, the creature unfailingly enrages Victor, causing him to lose self-control and become violent. Whilst the feminine roles are flat and manipulated to affect the character and actions of the male roles, the latter are considerably more defined. As Elizabeth Fay writes, Shelley shows the 'realistic weaknesses and frailties' of men in the novel. Walton is presented as sexist and selfish, mocking his sister's fears for his safety in his opening sentence: 'You will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings.' Margaret is an unsatisfactory audience, as he desires a companion 'whose eyes would reply to [his]'. This companion must necessarily be male, for how could a female possibly communicate adequately with him? However, despite this wish for male companionship, Walton possesses certain feminine characteristics, such as his distaste for violence: ' . . . my best years [having been] spent under your gentle and feminine fosterage, has so refined the groundwork of my character that I cannot overcome an intense distaste to the usual brutality exercised on board ship'. He writes adoringly of 'the stranger's' 'conciliating and gentle' manners, 'unparalleled eloquence', nobility and 'cultivated' mind. Walton's ambition to discover 'uncharted territories' is arrogant, as he desires to acquire 'dominion . . . over the elemental foes of our race'. He craves idolatry and power. Shelley introduces this here so that Walton's later failure towards the close of the novel is celebrated by the reader, who has understood that Victor's arrogance has caused devastation, whereas Walton has paid little heed and is bitter in his failure. Shelley is commenting on the stupidity of male hubris, which she 'sensed in the scientific ambitions of Romantics such as her husband,' as the critic James W. Maerten has suggested. Maerten writes also of Anthony Easthope, who has drawn: 'a circular fortress as a model of the . . . masculine ego. Ego . . . is entrapped in its own defences, unable to escape the barriers it has raised against a universe [which is] an enemy . . . The most praised . . . in our civilisation are those who can contain and control the most monstrous powers: biological pathogens, nuclear fission, toxic waste, vast armies. Such Promethean desires are ultimately the illusions of Icarus.' Victor's ego causes him to desire 'a new species' which would 'bless [him] as its creator and source'. He cannot control the monster that he creates, thereby losing his essential masculinity. His attempt to defy Nature and steal God's power for himself is as fatal as Icarus' stupidity in trying to do what man cannot. This male arrogance is introduced by Alphonse, who assumes the care of Caroline and renders her submissive in gratitude. The blatancy of the strong male and weak female roles here has been condemned by some, who suggest that the imposition of a male role on Victor is a form of filicide. This is responsible for his insecurity which in turn leads to his 'overreaching ego inflation'. A critic has argued that: 'Victor Frankenstein is compulsively self-destructive, driven by forces he cannot recognise to create a son by his own efforts and without the troublesome involvement of a woman . . . [upon which] he is horrified . . . and rejects the creature totally, thereby turning the son into the very monster whose existence he has always denied in himself.' It is possible to corroborate this view to some extent, as Victor's feminine qualities conflict with his identity as a man. Shelley was concerned with the issue of gender, as in her novel 'The Last Man' she created an essentially genderless character, Lionel Verney, and discussed how he only acknowledged his gender when he viewed himself in a mirror. His reflection told him that he was an English gentleman, but without this empirical perception he had no such identity. Elizabeth Fay writes of him that he is a 'feminised ideal', 'combining masculine and feminine traits in such a way as to confute traditional notions of gender'. Robert W. Anderson writes that: 'Frankenstein's creature embodies gender transgression on two levels . . . the first being [his] status as being a surgically constructed male, the second being Victor's non-gender transgression in co-opting the female trait of reproduction, transforming his laboratory into a virtual womb.' The creature has no real gender, despite being created physically as a male. He is denied male dominance over females by Victor, who has made him too ugly to be accepted into human society and then destroys the female mate that he had partially made for him. The creature, like Victor, has feminine characteristics, being profoundly affected by literature and nature, and being sensitive to emotion. He is made male only so that there can be no sexual overtones in the relationship between himself and Victor, and the battle between them can be physical and violent as well as rhetorical. The absence of femininity in the making of the creature is its integral flaw. Despite all of Victor's efforts to make the creature perfect, it will ultimately be ugly, because it is unnatural for a male alone to reproduce. Beauty cannot result of only masculinity. Shelley is condemning a single father in this. The death of her mother left her to the care of her father, whom she adored. He often neglected her, leaving her feeling unwanted. The lack of grief on the part of her husband as their babies died augmented this conviction in men's inability to care for children alone. This reinforces her message throughout the novel of the necessity for women in society. Shelley was forced to ask her husband to claim to be the author of the novel, as women were not accepted as writers at the time. Men alone in science and education are fallible, as she suggested in making Frankenstein's experiment so disastrous. Therefore the oppression of women at the time was irrational and arrogant. Frankenstein represents flawed masculinity, as an example of a society without women. Shelley manipulated masculine and feminine gender identities in her novel to try and persuade her audience that men alone cannot create, whether it be children or art.
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Shelley began writing 'Frankenstein' in the company of what has been called 'her male coterie', including her lover Percy Shelley, Lord Byron and his physician John Polidori. It has been suggested that the influence of this group, and particularly that of Shelley and Byron, affected her portrayal of male characters in the novel. As Ann Campbell writes: '[The] characters and plot of Frankenstein reflect . . . Shelley's conflicted feelings about the masculine circle which surrounded her.' Certainly the male characters in 'Frankenstein' are more developed that those of the females. Elizabeth Fay has suggested that the female...
necessity for women in society. Shelley was forced to ask her husband to claim to be the author of the novel, as women were not accepted as writers at the time. Men alone in science and education are fallible, as she suggested in making Frankenstein's experiment so disastrous.

Therefore the oppression of women at the time was irrational and arrogant. Frankenstein represents flawed masculinity, as an example of a society without women. Shelley manipulated masculine and feminine gender identities in her novel to try and persuade her audience that men alone cannot create, whether it be children or art.

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King Oedipus is a play in...King Oedipus is a play in which the protagonist, attempts to find the cause of a sickness affecting the city of Thebes. The process through which Oedipus uncovers the details of the disease directly parallels the process used by the television show House M.D, in which Dr. House unravels complex mysteries surrounding a patient's sickness. Dr. House's method of uncovering information is extremely unorthodox--he threatens and manipulates anyone who can help him, often becoming obsessed with solving the medical puzzle. Oedipus follows in the same direction, becoming hell bent on finding the origin of the sickness, assaulting those who withhold information from him and dismissing anyone who opposes him. The mental and physical likeness of the two characters was instrumental in the decision of depicting Oedipus as Dr. House. Scripting was essential in making the theme of the rendition obvious to the audience, as it established the medical tone, aided each actor's portrayal of his or her character and helped determine the look of the play. The scripting of the play was used to mimic the tone of House M.D. The initial script served as a rough outline for the entire production and thus established the overall tone of the play. The first step was to locate any lines dealing with the issue of sickness and emphasise the scenes in which the cause of the sickness is discussed. As a result, the opening lines pertained to the sickness and helped establish the medical theme: "What is the meaning of these prayers for the healing of pain?" Sophocles 25. It was also necessary to sustain the consistency of the medical references and eliminate irrelevant dialogue. To achieve this characters had to written out of the script. The first example of this is the Priest, who was replaced by Creon to create a scene of fast paced dialogue between Oedipus and Creon, again mimicking House M.D's technique of discussing an illness. By selectively choosing lines, Oedipus' egotistical nature became more apparent, thus making it more obvious to the audience that Oedipus was meant to be Dr.House. This process placed emphasis on lines spoken by Oedipus, as his self-proclaimed talent was an identifying mark of hubris--a tragic flaw that both Dr.House and Oedipus constantly display: "You have prayed; and your prayers shall be answered if you will obey me" Sophocles 31; "I have saved this land from ruin. I am content." Sophocles 37; "No god will speak for me." Sophocles 68. Dr.House, much like Oedipus, only displays true hubris during social conflict, when his real thoughts become apparent. uphold Oedipus' arrogant attitude and maintain conflict, it was again necessary to drastically shorten the lines of miscellaneous characters, as they had little or no conflict with Oedipus. For Jocasta Dr.Cuddy in House M.D, Oedipus' wife, it was essential to eliminate much of the dialogue between her and Oedipus that was non-confrontational; the resulting scene between the two characters is much more edgy and engaging as Oedipus and Jocasta exchange remarks in a manner similar to those between Dr.House and Dr.Cuddy: "JOCASTA: For the love of God, believe it, Oedipus!/ OEDIPUSangered: And why should I repent?" Sophocles 43. Jocasta's limited role had another purpose: due to a lack of actors, Jocasta had to be played by an outside helper, thus it was easier for her to be written as an off-stage character. The conflict between the two of them helped to give Jocasta some dominance and masked the fact that she was physically missing. Lastly, the initial scripting included brackets to indicate how a certain line should be delivered, often to emphasise a certain aspect of House M.D. For example, Oedipus is indicated to say certain lines in a bitter voice, as would Dr.House: "OEDIPUSbitter: And while you suffer, none suffers more than I!" Sophocles 27. The initial scripting gave the group a rough outline of what was to be said, but even more important was the way the lines were to be delivered. Each actor had to find a way to portray his or her character that would give a clear resemblance to his or her House M.D counterpart. Of utmost importance was the tone and emotion used to deliver each line. Manish, who played Oedipus, had to use tone to twist the original meaning of lines, changing heartfelt or sympathetic statements into cruel and sarcastic taunts: "What is the matter? Something you fear? Something you desire?/ I would willingly do anything to help you" Sophocles 25. A sarcastic tone is characteristic of Dr.House and perfectly establishes Oedipus' personality as sadistic. It also serves the purpose of establishing Oedipus as the dominant character as he makes other characters seem inferior while also entertaining the audience, building a bond between the audience and Oedipus. Manish also used a range of emotions in his delivery, as Oedipus' choleric nature has him constantly yelling and threatening other characters. The quick temper exhibited showed a clear link to Dr. House, who often loses his temper when confronted: "OEDIPUS: Answer! If I must speak again, you die!" Sophocles 57. The temper also engaged the audience and helped maintain the conflict that was the backbone of the play. Jenny, who played the part of Jocasta, had to be extremely careful in her delivery, as she was an offstage character. To show the depth of her character, Jenny had to change from standing up to Oedipus to being affectionate towards him, just as Dr. Cuddy does to Dr. House. Jenny used a loud dominant tone at first, then slowly begin using a wavering and desperate tone as her character became more worried about Oedipus: "JOCASTA: What is the meaning of this loud argument, you quarrelsome men?" Sophocles 43; "JOCASTA: No! In God"s name-if you want to live, this quest must not go on!/ I implore you, do not do it" Sophocles 55. Kazi, who played Teiresias, used a strong and whimsical tone to establish his character's wise nature. Kazi was chosen to play the prophet because his deep voice made him excellent as opposing Oedipus. He utilized his deep voice to establish dominance and make it clear to the audience that he was not going to be overcome by Oedipus, proving himself to be the first character to stand up against Oedipus: "TEIRESIAS: I tell no more. Rage with what wrath you will." Sophocles 35. Finally, Saad was chosen to be Creon. Visually, he made an excellent counterpart to Oedipus, as he was taller, had a clean-shaven look and appeared very sly. His inquisitive and rational tone was used to deflect the anger present in many of Oedipus' remarks, making the audience consider who was right: "CREON: Reason with yourself, would any man exchange a quiet life"¦for an uneasy throne?". His rational arguments are reminiscent of those put forward by Dr. House's closest friend, Dr. Wilson. At the end of the play, Saad exhibited his sly nature by showing that he shared many of the same qualities as Oedipus, using extreme sarcasm and being extremely condescending towards Oedipus: "CREON: I am not here to scoff at your fall,/ Nor yet to reproach you for your past misdeeds" Sophocles 65. Once each actor decided how he or she wanted to portray his or her character, it was necessary to revisit the script and make numerous changes adhering to the new personality of the character. Each actor's varied use of tone and emotion helped establish the theme of the play while also enhancing the performance. While the scripting and delivery of the play made subtle allusions to House M.D and cleverly paralleled the characters of the show, the look of the play and the appearance of the characters was the most blatant way of making the audience understand the theme. The characters' clothing was the most blunt and direct form of recognition for the audience, thus it had to be carefully planned. To represent Dr. House, Manish wore classic jeans with a dress shirt and a blazer. To make it even more obvious, he used a cane--Dr. House's signature prop--and a bottle of pills. To create the setting of a hospital, many of the characters were dressed like doctors. Saad, depicting Dr. Wilson, wore a lab coat and carried a stethoscope. Brendan and Shivon, meant to be Dr. House's team, both wore lab coats and stuck together, speaking in turns to establish that they were a team. To further show that it was a hospital, a small waiting room was added at the end of the stage, with several extras reading magazines while waiting for a doctor. At the other end of the stage was Dr. House's desk, where Manish used the blackboard to write out the symptoms of an illness, exactly as it seen on House M.D. The look of the play was detrimental to the tone of the play: the lab coats made the discussion of the illness seem much more serious and the congregation of doctors made the quest of searching for a cure plausible. Before any of the visuals were used, a distinguished audio clip was used--the theme song of House M.D. The clip was again an effort to mirror House M.D, but was also used to build tension in the audience. Another important factor of the play was the stage direction. The characters went back and forth across the stage, constantly utilizing different parts of the stage to give the play a moving feel, as House M.D often refuses to stay in one location for more than a few minutes. The look of the play was the easiest way for the audience to realise what the theme of the play was and was executed carefully to give as many visual clues as possible. Scripting was a dynamic process that was constantly altered to keep up with any changes made to the play. Although it was most first used to establish tone, secondly used to accentuate character and used minimally for the look of the play, the significance of each of these elements occurs in the reverse order. That is to say, the look of the play was the most important, as it immediately clarified the theme. Once the blatant visual techniques made the audience obvious to the theme, the audience had a chance to understand the portrayals of the characters and finally was able to follow the subtle scripting parallels. It is impossible to separate each element into when it was considered, since they are all interdependent: throughout the development of the script, the portrayal of the characters is heavily pondered as is the overall look of the play. Similarly, the final portrayal of each character is only perfected through scripting changes and visual decisions. The theme of the rendition was excellently clarified throughout the play because each of the aspects was skilfully interconnected through use of flexible scripting.  

King Oedipus is a play in which the protagonist, attempts to find the cause of a sickness affecting the city of Thebes. The process through which Oedipus uncovers the details of the disease directly parallels the process used by the television show House M.D, in which Dr. House unravels complex...

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Hemingway's Portrayal of Masculinity When...Hemingway's Portrayal of Masculinity When thinking of masculinity in literature, one author has who has become synonymous with manliness comes to mind, Ernest Hemingway. Critics have spent countless hours studying his writing in order to gain insight into his world of manly delights, including his views on sex, war, and sport. His views can be seen through his characters, his themes and even his style of writing. The characters in Hemingway's stories reveal much about how he feels about men and the role they should play in society. Most of Hemingway's male characters can be split into one of two groups. The first of which is the "Code" Hero. This is the tough, macho guy who chooses to live his life by following a "code of honor, courage, chivalry, honestly, and the ability to bear pain with resistance and dignity, and does not whine when defeated" Scott, 217. This hero is Hemingway's ideal man, whom every man should want to become. Robert Penn Warren writes of the "code" hero: [Hemingway's] heroes are not squealers, welchers, compromisers, or cowards, and when they confront defeat they realize that the stance they take, the stoic endurance, the stiff upper lip means a kind of victory. If they are to be defeated they are defeated upon their own terms; some of them have even courted their defeat; and certainly they have maintained, even in the practical defeat, an ideal of themselves "“ some definition of how a man should behave, formulated or unformulated "“ by which they have lived. They represent some notion of a code, some notion of honor, that makes a man a man, and that distinguishes him from people who merely follow their random impulses and who are, by consequence, "messy." Warren, 79 Hemingway also seems to associate acts of violence with masculinity. Nathan Scott Jr. writes of Hemingway's manliest characters: Whatever they do, whether it be bullfighting or fishing or prizefighting or hunting lions in the African bush or blowing up bridges as a military saboteur "“ is done with consummate skill and with pride of craft; they are tough and competent: they can be counted on in a tight squeeze, and they do not cheat or squeal or flinch at the prospect of danger. Scott, 217 Examples of the "code" hero in Hemingway's work include Manuel the bullfighter, in "The Undefeated" he fights with a noble dignity even when he is jeered by the crowd and gored by the bull, along with Wilson, the big game hunter from "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" who shows no fear when confronted with a charging lion. But perhaps the greatest figure of masculinity found in Hemingway's work is Santiago from The Old Man and the Sea. He keeps his composure and maintains dignity after the fish that he has been fighting is lost to the sharks. The other male character used often by Hemingway is the coward or the "messy man". This is the man who follows no code and has no honor or bravery. He is often dominated by a woman, by far the most humiliating condition according to Hemingway. In The Sun Also Rises, Hemingway writes "Cowardess is the worst kind of luck any man could ever have" showing his despicable view towards any man lacking masculine qualities. One of the best examples of the coward is portrayed in "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" by Francis. He is dominated by his wife and looked down upon by manly hunter Wilson. But as the story goes on, Macomber overcomes his cowardliness and becomes the sought after "code" hero for the short while before his death. The hunting expedition serves as an opportunity for Francis to learn the code and reassert his power over his wife. The male characters used by Hemingway in his stories say a lot about his own views of masculinity. Also, Hemingway was considered to be "vitally concerned with re-establishing what he felt were the proper rules of man and women in their relationship to each other" Fiedler, 305. This is shown in his portrayal of women in his stories. He views women in his work in one of two ways. The first of which is his view of the powerful, manipulative "bitch" who uses sexual allure to assert her power in an attempt to rob her male counterpart of his strength, integrity, and his entire manhood. The other representation of women in his work is as a "mindless sex object who exists solely to satisfy the man, sexually or otherwise" Holder, 104. These two views have led to Hemingway being seen as a sexist by many feminist readers. His opinions on the role of women in society say a lot about his view on masculinity. One of the biggest reasons leading to Hemingway's reputation as a strongly masculine author is the style with which he writes. Philip Young says that Hemingway's style is the perfect voice of his content. That style, moreover, is the end of aim, of the man. It is the means of being the man, the style is the man. The strictly disciplined controls exerted over the hero and his nervous system are precise parallels to the strictly disciplined sentences he uses. Young, 35 Even Hemingway's style can be described as masculine. For example, Strychancz claims that his use of "brute, rapid, joyous jab of blunt period upon period give off a rigidity of effect that can only be seen as masculine" Strychancz, 149. Hemingway's use of short, simple, powerful statements in his writing leave the reader with a sense of brute strength that can be associated with the brute strength of a man. Many of the themes presented in the works of Hemingway can be described as male-oriented and extremely masculine. The concept that a real man does not whine or complain when put into a position of pain, but takes his downfall with a sense of grace and dignity is a recurring theme seen throughout Hemingway's stories. There is also the idea that because the hero lives by his code, he is able to "live properly in the world of violence, disorder, and misery in which he inhabits" Baker, 15. The young waiter who hopes to one-day become a noble bullfighter in "The Capital of the World" illustrates this point. After performing gallantly, he takes his defeat with a sense of pride and chivalry allowing him to die the only real death in Hemingway's mind, the death of a real man.   

Hemingway's Portrayal of Masculinity When thinking of masculinity in literature, one author has who has become synonymous with manliness comes to mind, Ernest Hemingway. Critics have spent countless hours studying his writing in order to gain insight into his world of manly delights, including his views on sex, war,...

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The computer industry is flourishing because...The computer industry is flourishing because of the advent of new, powerful processors. Recently, Intel Corp. released its Pentium II-450 MHz chip: the fastest processor on the planet. But because the chip is overpriced, Intel is also marketing the downgraded version of a PII, the inexpensive Celeron-333 which has a 128K cache compared to the PII's 512K cache. To potential computer buyers, this situation presents a dilemma because they must decide whether to opt for price i.e. buy the Celeron or speed i.e. buy the PII-450. In an attempt to answer this question, Lincoln Spector of PC World and Christopher Yates of PC Week analyze the two chips in their articles entitled Double Feature and Intel Celeron Cache in With New Power, published in October and August of 1998 respectively. In this paper, a rhetorical and discourse analysis will be performed on the two articles to examine the similar and different strategies used by Spector and Yates in presenting their arguments. The strategies will determine which article is more convincing. Since the articles are present in magazines that pertain to the genre of computer and computer writing, it is first also necessary to analyze the genre. Comparing and contrasting the magazines can obtain an introduction to the way material is presented and organized. The criteria for the analysis include the types of articles present in the magazines. In addition, analyzing the sources of evidence used to support the claims can provide crucial information to the kinds of appeals i.e. logos, ethos, or pathos used by the authors writing in the genre of computer writing. Other similar factors such as article length, ads, and the advertisers can also be examined. But the demographic data of the magazines is of utmost importance because it describes the audience and thus, defines the way authors write for their audience. PC World and PC Week have a circulation of 1,125,000 and 305,443 respectively. The former is published monthly and the latter is printed weekly. Eighty-eight percent of the audience of PC World is male and the remainder is female, with ages ranging from 25 to 54 years. Thirteen percent of both magazines" readers are employed by the computer industry, while 59% of PC World"s compared to 13% of PC Week"s readers work in some sort of management SRDS 445. In addition, Online survey results show that most readers of PC World have a college education with 31.1% holding a bachelors, 15.3% a masters, and 3.9% a doctorate degree. The high educational statistics indicate why the average annual income of the readers is $73,884. Because demographics for PC Week were unavailable, it is hard to make comparisons with PC World"s. But because most of the readers are employed in management and other technical areas, one may assume that the readers of PC Week have a college education. Because the readers are diverse in terms of their employment status, the magazines contain a variety of articles. Although different types of articles are present in each magazine, they all focus on the subject of computers. In general, PC World concentrates more on the hardware components of computers than PC Week does. The articles describe people"s opinions and performance results of new products, give advice to inexperienced computer buyers, and provide answers to problems that computer users may face. For example, a typical editorial may compare the capabilities of a new Ethernet LAN card to those existing on the market. Or the article may explain how to create a homepage by incorporating JavaScript into HTML HyperText Markup Language. On the other hand, PC Week centers on the business and the news aspect of computers. In general, its articles report on the current events occurring in the computer industry. They also examine the various rumors encompassing many corporations. One article may talk about the latest developments on the Microsoft Corp. lawsuit, while another could address the rumors and the possibility of a merger between two giant corporations like Oracle and Creative Labs. But whatever the article type may be, the claims in the articles must be verified by concrete evidence. In the genre of computer writing, statistics and data are the main source of evidence that is used to support the claims in the articles. Thus, the use of logos is prevalent. Statistics in this paper implies the use of numbers and experimental data. Certified lab results displayed in the form of graphs are used to convince the readers that PC World provides accurate information. In addition, flowcharts and diagrams effectively communicate complex ideas. Numbers such as percentages and price figures are abundant throughout the magazine. On the other hand, PC Week uses statistics in moderation. Unlike PC World, which uses them to explain all its statements, PC Week uses them to emphasize the main points of its articles only. PC Week also quotes many CEOs of multi-billion dollar corporations to prove its assertions. Both magazines sometimes include statistics in their ads. The similarities that exist between the magazines are the ads and pictures, the advertisers, and the article length. About one-third of each magazine is dedicated to ads. The products advertised include software like Adobe PhotoShop and hardware like modems, printers, and network hubs. Specifications, prices, and pictures of these products are featured. For example, a Compaq ad in PC World will print a photo of one of its computer models and say, Model 6300: Intel Pentium II Processor @ 350 MHz, 32 MB SDDRAM"¦$1719.00 173. Fancy pictures of motherboards, dialog boxes, and zip drives help capture the audience"s attention and coerce them into reading the articles or the ads. The advertisers of ads that are placed between articles and in the opening pages of the magazines are rich corporate firms like Hewlett Packard, Dell, and IBM. Ads of small companies like TigerDirect Sys., which have smaller revenues, are crammed with other advertisers towards the end of the magazine. Most of the articles in the magazines range from a quarter of a page to a page maximum. However, each issue focuses on three to four main topics. For example, the Y2K Year 2000 problem can be analyzed in four to five pages. These articles are nicknamed Topics of the Month. One such topic of the month is the performance analysis of the Celeron chip against the PII-450 chip. The author of Double Feature, Lincoln Spector of PC World, argues that although the PII-450 is a fast chip, it is overpriced. He supports the new Celeron-333 chip, which provides quality performance at an economical price 55. To convince the audience of his viewpoint, Spector makes effective use of organization, tone, his role as a writer, and language in writing his article. Using several ways to present his evidence, Spector maintains the reader"s interest and skillfully persuades him or her to believe the article. The author presents his evidence by using different methods that appeal to the logical senses of the reader. The first strategy used is comparing and contrasting the two chips. Comparing and contrasting not only provides background information on the chips, but it also helps focus the reader"s attention on the author"s thesis. Spector reports, [Celeron]"¦run[s] like a [PII]-333 but shows up in systems starting at just $999 55. He further mentions the Celeron is a price/performance winner, thanks to its built-in secondary cache, a crucial feature that the original Celeron lacked 55. To contrast the PII and the Celeron, Spector says, PII-333"s cache"¦operates at half the processor"s speed. In contrast, the Celeron"s cache"¦functions at full [processor speed] 57. Because of the logic of the argument that the Celeron runs as fast as a PII and is relatively cheaper, the reader is convinced in Spector"s argument that Celeron chips are a better deal. To strengthen his argument further, Spector makes use of rebuttals to claims that support the PII-450. By using rebuttals as evidence to tarnish the reputation of the PII chip, Spector is successful in reinforcing his point in the reader"s mind. Although he acknowledges that the PII-450 performed 8% faster than"¦[the] PII-400, he describes the boost as unnoticeable and insignificant 56 for the $140 to $300 [the reader will spend] for a PC that"s not much faster on business apps 55. When it comes to games, Spector appears impressed by the PII-450 for it outstripped [the] fastest PII-400"¦ 56. However, he dismisses this event because the results were due in large part to the impressive Millennium G2000 graphics card that [the PII-450] machines use[d] 56. The use of rebuttals allows Spector to brush off the superiority of the PII. Spector provides the final blow with statistics and data. Abundant statistics and charts are present in the article to help Spector support his thesis. The statistics include percentage values like 8 percent faster and 3 percent variation 56, computer prices such as $2675 Compaq Deskpro [and] $999 Avanta E333 57, and other numbers like 99 frames per second [and] score of 176 56. In addition to statistics, Spector uses precise, graphical, and well-organized charts that show actual lab results to indicate the performance of the Celeron against the PII. Legends and other information necessary to understand the charts are provided. At a single glance, the reader sees that the Celeron performed as well as a PII-333 with scores of 171 and 172, respectively. However, the PII-450 received an insurmountable score of 198 56. Upon assessing the scores, the reader might question Spector"s credibility for there is a huge difference. However, an anticipating Spector, uses another chart entitled, What Your Dollar Delivers to show that the Celeron-333 start at low prices of just $999 while the PII-450 begin at prices of $2700 57. By using test results and statistics, Spector"s credibility skyrockets because he is successful in dispelling any doubts the reader might have about the Celeron. Although Spector succeeds in logically convincing the reader of his goal, he still needs to develop his credibility. How does the reader know that the information he has provided is valid? By mentioning pitfalls, Spector shows his concern for his reader. He develops a relationship similar to parents advising their children on first-time experiences. He addresses the opposing viewpoints. Although Spector favors the Celeron, he provides the pros and cons of buying either chip. He warns the reader like everything before the PII-350, the Celeron still chugs along a 66-MHz system bus 58. In addition, the reader won"t be able to add [upgrade] future Pentium chips [on a Celeron system]. If [he or she doesn"t] like this limitation, buy a PII-350 or better"¦ 59. If the reader is planning on buying a PII chip, Spector cautions him or her by saying, confirm with the vendor [the PII] has no potential BIOS problems 59. Spector"s reputation increases immensely when he explains that problems were encountered during the testing of the chips. He states, due to certain conflicts"¦we were unable to complete"¦test[s] for the HP and Compaq machines 56. This helps assure the author"s interest in the reader and vice-versa. It also establishes Spector"s credibility and makes him an expert on the subject. To help facilitate the reader"s understanding of the author"s argument, Spector logically organizes his article. In doing so, he takes a step-by-step approach to the subject. This holds the reader"s attention and makes it easy for him or her to follow along without getting distracted. He starts off by comparing and contrasting the two chips. Next, he moves on to analyze the PII-450. To deter the attention of the reader from the PII, Spector uses a catchy subtitle Big Bargain. Using a tantalizing introductory sentence, he focuses the reader"s attention on the Celeron: But maybe you don"t need an expensive computer at all. With Intel"s new improved Celeron chip"¦ 56. The core of his argument rests in the following paragraphs where he advocates the Celeron. He concludes his article by promoting the best Celeron system deals. Yet, he also shows how the situation would be should the reader chose to buy a PII system. Spector leaves it for the reader to decide which chip he or she should buy. Spector plays the role of an investigative expert. Like a reporter, his tone is informative and mainly neutral. Since he doesn"t appeal to the reader"s emotions, he doesn"t use any pathos to convince them. Without the use of pathos, Spector is able to distance himself from the topic and does a good job maintaining neutrality. He isn"t biased against a chip. Though he favors the Celeron chip, based on the factors of price and performance, he is unperturbed by the prospect of his reader buying a PII. He is even courageous to say that, if you want every bit of performance currently available, a PII-450"¦may be worth the expense 59. But he reiterates that the [Celeron] systems strike a smart balance between low price and fast performance"¦A good PC value is much more satisfying 59. Spector"s neutrality gains him respect from the reader because it allows the reader to contemplate the evidence presented by Spector and come to his or her own conclusions. The language used by Spector in presenting his evidence makes the task of decision-making easier. The language used by the author is relatively simple. There is some computer terminology like secondary level cache, bus speed, and graphics port accelerator that the reader may not understand 56. Moreover, there are many products like Microsoft DirectX or STB Velocity 128zx that may be unknown 56. Based on the context clues provided, Spector assumes that the reader will be able to understand their meanings. The sentences are short and precise. They allow Spector to move quickly from point to point without getting bogged down. Vocabulary is relatively simple with the toughest words being tempo and outstripped 56. A high school student should have no problem in reading the article. Words like Celeron and PII are repeated several times to help the author differentiate between the two chips. Simple language enables Spector to write an effective article. An article in PC Week also addresses the same topic. Christopher Yates, the author of Intel Celeron Cache in With New Power, argues that both the Celeron and the PII-450 produce excellent performance results. Like Spector, Yates tries to make effective use of organization, tone, his role as a writer and language in writing his article. However, some of these factors work against Yates preventing him from writing an effective article. Yates makes a similar argument to Spector"s, but fails to provide an in-depth analysis of the two chips or give advice as to which chip the reader should buy. However, Yates praises both of the chips immensely saying that the largest performance improvement comes from Intel"s revved-up Celeron"¦[and] Intel has also turned up the heat on its [PII], now available at 450 MHz 35. Unlike Spector, who uses various strategies to present evidence for his argument, Yates is not very creative. Like Spector, Yates uses logos as his primary means to convince the reader of his argument. However, Yates"s only form of evidence comes from the few statistics and a single chart that support his claim. The chart presents lab results of tests conducted on the chips. Additional information necessary to understand the visual aid is available. As with Spector"s article, the use of statistics helps Yates gain some credibility from his reader. He says, the L2-equipped Celeron was"¦33 percent faster than the non L2-equipped Celeron 35 while the PII-450 performed as high as 20% over the [PII-400] 35. In addition to using percentages, Yates also uses computer prices like $1,349 for the 3000 GL [Celeron equipped] and $2,400 for the Deskpro EN [PII-450 equipped] to show that the Celeron is cheaper than a PII. Backing up his argument with the use of statistics helps Yates to gain some credibility for a moment. As the article proceeds, Yates begins to lose his credibility. After a couple of paragraphs, he gets sidetracked. Yates dedicates two whole paragraphs differentiating between the two kinds of Celeron. He says, all non-cache versions of Celeron are"¦[while the] Celeron processor with 128KB L2 cache will all be"¦ 35. Although one might see this as background information necessary to get acquainted to the subject, many readers like I will get annoyed because it doesn"t pertain to Yates"s argument. It shows that Yates has little knowledge on the subject. Yates gets back on track but deviates again in his conclusion. This time Yates talks about the expansion upgrade capabilities of the computers that he mentions in his article. He says, expansion in all three devices is more than adequate with at least two PCI slots and two ISA slots"¦ 41. His conclusion coupled with unwise organization leaves the reader without a clue of the author"s main point. Yates organizes his article into parts to help divide the contents of his subject. Like Spector, he tries to use a step-by-step approach so that he can move efficiently. Although organization plays an effective role in helping focus the reader"s attention on a particular subtopic like distinguishing between the two kinds of Celeron, it doesn"t provide the overall coherence. Yates first introduces the Celeron and the PII. In the next section, he contrasts the two types of Celerons, which is irrelevant and in doing so, initiates the first point of alienation. He then proceeds to analyze three models of computers equipped with the Celeron and the PII chips. In the end, he talks about the expansion capabilities of the computers. Yates, unlike Spector, ends up talking about too many things at the same time without being able to interconnect them. But although his article has many faults, Yates is successful in maintaining a neutral tone. Yates"s article is informative. The role played by Yates is that of a news reporter. His article begins with a typical, dull, straightforward statement one would find in a newspaper: Two new processors form Intel Corp. boost performance on PCs from IBM and Compaq Computer Corp. to new heights 35. The article provides a lot of sometimes-irrelevant information and doesn"t portray any feelings. Thus, Yates, like Spector, doesn"t use pathos in his article. He doesn"t develop a close relationship with the reader because he doesn"t provide any advice on the chips. A feeling of separation occurs in the reader's mind because he or she feels that Yates is just throwing out facts without showing any concern for his audience. This has a dramatic impact because the reader is always alienated from the subject and never gains full interest. This is also due to the complex language Yates uses. Yates assumes that the reader is familiar with basic computer terminology like L2-equipped, expansion, and non-cache chip 40. Unlike Spector, he takes time to define some of these words. Unfortunately, the strategy works against him because Yates wastes too much time on explaining, which distracts the reader. Like Spector, Yates also uses short sentences to keep the article flowing at a fast pace. However, the vocabulary level is much more complex. Many words like miniscule, disparity, and nomenclature which may not be part of the reader"s vocabulary are present 35. Yates provides plenty of context clues for experienced readers to decipher the meaning of the word. For example, by looking at the miniscule savings just aren"t worth the performance hit, the reader should be able to figure out the meaning of miniscule. Yates also uses many abbreviations like Corp., PCI, and ISA to save paper space. He assumes that the reader is familiar with them. Finally, he repeats the words Celeron and PII throughout the article to help differentiate between the chip that is being discussed. Overall, Yates doesn"t do a good job in presenting his argument. Between the two articles, Lincoln Spector"s Double Feature was more effective. The use of various sources of evidence, a neutral tone, logical organization, and simple language helps the reader easily understand Spector"s topic. Although Yates"s article shares some of these characteristics, Spector does a better job than Yates in analyzing and giving advice on the two chips. After reading the articles, I am convinced of Spector"s credibility. Upon seeing the way Yates writes, I think that he has little knowledgeable on the subject. Thus, inexperienced computer buyers interested in gaining insight on the Celeron and the PII should read Double Feature. Reading this article will help prepare them better to face the challenge of buying the right computer.   

The computer industry is flourishing because of the advent of new, powerful processors. Recently, Intel Corp. released its Pentium II-450 MHz chip: the fastest processor on the planet. But because the chip is overpriced, Intel is also marketing the downgraded version of a PII, the inexpensive Celeron-333 which has a...

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