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Outline Difference between a syllabus and a curriculum. An account of the salient factors we have to consider for constructing a syllabus. 1. Introduction. 2. Syllabus and curriculum A. Definition of syllabus B. Definition of curriculum C. Difference between syllabus and curriculum a. Basic difference b. Differences in detail approaches 3. Factors to construct a syllabus A. Type A: What is to be learn B. Type B. How is to be learn C. Van EK's necessary component D. Selection of the content E. Organization of the content F. Components to design a syllabus a. Set A b. Set B c. Set C d. Set D G. McDonough about syllabus design H. Criteria for selection and grading a. Structural b. Topic c. Functional 4. The need for a syllabus A. Should a syllabus be explicit, and if so, to whom? B. Basic organizing principles 5. Creating and reinterpreting a syllabus 6. Conclusion Introduction: Throughout the 1970s while language teaching theorists and practititioners excited themselves with course design for Specific Purpose language teaching, and while needs of adult migrants and private sectors or industrial language learners were extensively examined, the majority of learners of English continued to struggle with large classes, limited text books, few contact hours, and years of unintensive study. The work of many teachers had either been ignored by syllabus or curriculum designers, or had been interfered with by insensitive and too rapid application of ideas from ESP theory or Council of Europe discussion by administrations who did not fully realize the implications of the innovations so proudly presented. As a result, several national educational systems have 'gone communicative' or 'gone functional-notional', and then retreated after a brief trial period whatever they had before. It seemed worthwhile, therefore, to convene a symposium at TESOL Convention in Toronto in 1983 specifically to examine the role of syllabuses in normal state education. And it is also seemed worthwhile not to rush too quickly into arguments about the detailed design of syllabuses, but to clear the ground first on the definition, function and purpose of the syllabuses, for many of the difficulties in discussion of for example Wilkins' influential 'Notional Syllabuses 1976' result from the enormously varying interpretations of the term syllabus. Since a language is highly complex and pervasive, all of it which can hardly be determined cannot be taught at a time. Moreover al the phenomena related to the language might not be relevant or necessary to be taught to the learner/group of learners. Therefore, successful teaching of the language evidently requires a selection and then an arrangement of the teaching items/materials depending on the prior definition of the objectives, proficiency level to be developed in the learner, duration of the program, and the like, on the one hand, and on the other, upon the consideration of the learner's needs, lacks, aptitudes, motivation, age, personality memory transfer of training, cognitive style, and so forth. The selection and the sequencing absolutely take place in the syllabus planning stage. With the advent of much complicate theories of language and language learning, as well as recognition of the diversity of the learners' needs, wants, and aspirations, the concept of syllabus for SL/FL teaching has taken on new importance. It has also become highly elaborated, and has been examined at length, particularly in the context of ESP programs, and generally ELT planning. Thus the syllabus is now viewed as an instrument by which the teacher, with the help of the syllabus designer, can achieve a degree of fit between the needs and aims of the learner as social being and as individual and the activities, which will occur in the classroom. A syllabus is required to produce efficiency of two kinds-pragmatic and pedagogical. The former is concerned with the economy of time and money. It needs the setting of instructions to be planned, and that not all learners are to be given the same treatment. So syllabuses differ according to the practical factors present in given situation. The latter kind of efficiency is related to the economy in the management of the learning process. Instruction provided in an institutional setting is assumed to be a more efficient method of dealing with learning than allowing the learner to proceed in a non-structured environment. It is then clear that the syllabus of any kind is viewed as providing a better control of the learning process, generally by the institution and/or the teacher, but in some instance control can be and should be exercised also by the learner himself/herself. The degree and the type of control that the syllabus exercises depend on the institution-as-society. That is, in a highly democratic institution, the syllabus has to be determined and constructed by consensus. Definition of syllabus: This term covers the teaching learning items, materials, equipments and the evaluation tools. A finished syllabus is an overall plan the learning process. It must specify what components, or learning items, must be available, or learned by a certain time; what is the most efficient sequence in which the are learned; what items can be learned simultaneously; what items are available from the stock, and the whole process is determined by consideration of how long it takes to produce or learn a component or item. The process is under continual scrutiny by means of stock checks, or tests and examinations. If we point out the main ideas of syllabus it comes as follows: 1. A syllabus is a specification of work of a particular department in a school or college, and it might be broken down into subsections, which will define the work of a particular group or class. 2. In practice, it is often linked to time semesters, terms, weeks, or courses, which are tied to these. But this link is not essential, and may be counter productive in that the time is teacher based rather than learner based. But a syllabus must specify a starting point, which should be related to a realistic assessment of the level of beginning students, and ultimate goals, which may or may not be realized by the end of the course, depending on the abilities of the learners and their progress in a particular course. 3. It will specify some kind of sequence based on- a. Sequencing intrinsic to a theory of language learning or to the structure of specified material relatable to language acquisition; b. Sequencing constrained by administrative needs, materials. 4. A syllabus is a document of administrative convenience and will only be partly justified on theoretical grounds. Hence it will be negotiable and adjustable, enshrining the most useful experience of the past in order to ease the workload of the present. 5. A syllabus can only specify what is taught; it cannot organize what is learnt. It can, methodologically, allow for opportunities for acquisition and/or learning, but such opportunities cannot spelt out in detail as they will reflect the personalities of learners and continuing relationships established as the class progresses. 6. Not to have a syllabus is to refuse to allow one's assumptions to be scrutinized or to enable different teachers to relate their work to each other's. It is consequently an essential feature of work in a democratic profession or as part of democratic education. Definition of curriculum: It is considered to be a broader term used in a institution to cover politics, plans, teaching, learning items, materials, equipments, logistics everything. The first view of curriculum shows a concern with objectives and content, which are two of four elements in the traditional model of the curriculum. The second view of adds methods to the model. The methods are the means by which the ends-the objectives-are to be achieved and this forms the basis of a process view of a curriculum. The third perspective adds a fourth and final element evaluation. This brings to us the situational model of curriculum. Evaluation, as feedback, will also form a component of the construction systems model, since quality control will be an important element of any production system. It is through monitoring and feedback that planned and actual outcomes can be compared and appropriate remedial action taken to repair failures or deficits. Thus feedback will have a formative effect on action. The third perspective may represent a more realistic approach, since it takes accounts of existing systems before initiating proposals for change. The systematic changes and the installation of the new elements will, of course, require planning and the effective use of systems in order to realize new objectives, so that each of the first two approaches will make important contributions to an overall process of curriculum development. Difference between curriculum and syllabus: Some confusion exists over the distinction between syllabus and curriculum, since the terms are used differently on either side of the Atlantic. Curriculum is a very general concept, which involves consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, social and administrative factors, which contribute to the planning of an educational programme. Syllabus, on the other hand, refers the subpart of curriculum, which is concerned with a specification of what units will be taught. The European term 'syllabus' and its North American counterpart 'curriculum' often seem to be very close in meaning and sometimes further apart, depending on the context in which they are used. In a distinction that is commonly drawn in Britain, 'syllabus' refers to the content or subject matter of an individual subject, whereas 'curriculum' stands for the totality of content to be taught and aims to be realized within one school or educational system. In the USA 'curriculum' tends the synonymous with 'syllabus' in the British sense. Curriculum should not simply be seen as a kind of super syllabus because there is a qualitative difference between the two. On the one hand, curriculum may be viewed as the programme of activities, the course to learn by pupils in being educated. On the other, curriculum may be defined as all learning, which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. That is one school of thought regards the curriculum as a plan, while the other views it as activities. Allen distinguishes at least six aspects of levels of curriculum: 1. Concept formation 2. Administrative decision making 3. Syllabus planning 4. Materials design 5. Classroom activities 6. Evaluation Shaw confidently makes a line of distinction between the curriculum and the syllabus as he defines 'syllabus' as a statement of the plan for any part of curriculum, excluding the element of curriculum evaluation itself. And he concludes that the syllabus should be viewed in the context of an ongoing curriculum development process. Therefore, the terms are synonymous in USA, but in Britain a syllabus is a part of a curriculum made of many parts. But I should take the term syllabus as a part of a curriculum when the language is learned or taught as an integrated or supporting subject with others, or in a department of a different subject for example, Business Administration or Drama and Dramatics. And I would like to consider the 'syllabus' as an independent framework when an SL/FL is taught or learned autonomously as a subject in a department or an institution. Here any syllabus is most typically a plan of what is to be achieved through teaching and students' learning. Factors to construct a syllabus: The distinction and association occurs in the sector of syllabus are important to explain the factors of syllabub designing. The syllabus is a form of support for the teaching activity that is planned in the classroom and a form of guidance in the construction of appropriate teaching materials. It is concerned, from this point of view, with what is to be done in the classroom, not necessarily with what is perceived to be taught or learnt thereby; its role is essentially to make it possible of one teacher to draw the experience of another. All these important aspects come when we have to design a syllabus with the necessary materials. And certainly there is a process to design a syllabus in a proper way. The two main approaches of syllabus, which are considered for constructing it, are summarized below that are suggested by Davies 1976: Type A: What is to be learnt? Interventionist External to the learner Other directed Determined by authority Teacher as decision maker Content = what the subject is to expert Content= a gift to the learner or teacher or knower Objectives defined in advance Subject emphasis Assessment by achievement or by mastery Doing things to the learner Type B: How is to be learnt? Internal to the learner Inner directed or self-fulfilling Negotiated between learners and readers Learner and teacher as joint decision maker Content= what the subject is to the learner Content= what the learner brings and wants Objectives described afterwords Process emphasis Assessment in relationship to learner's criteria of success Doing things for or with the learners Several different factors related to the networks of psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and pedagogy claim to be taken into consideration for framing a syllabus. The syllabus is indeed concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned, frequently set down in some written form as prescription for actions by teachers and learners. It is also concerned with the achievements of ends, often, though not always, associated with the pursuance of particular means. It is necessarily, though not obviously, imbued with particular educational philosophies, views of the subject matter, and how it may best be learned, beliefs about the relationship between the teachers and learners, all of which underpinned by particular definitions of a desirable social order and world view. Now it is patent that the factors, which are considered for constructing a syllabus, are manipulated by the syllabus and vice-versa. Van Ek lists the following necessary components of a language syllabus: a. The situation in which the SL/FL will be used, including the topics which will be dealt with; b. The language activities in which the learners will be engaged c. The language function which the learner will fulfill d. What the learner will be able to do with respect to each topic e. The general notions which the learners will be able to handle f. The specific topic notions which the learner will be able to handle g. The language form which the learner will be able to use h. The degree of scale with which the learner will be able to perform Here the social, psychological and pedagogical factors are confidently advocated as preconsiderations for syllabus construction. That is, the selections of the teaching items, and then their sequencing are obviously affected and even controlled by the social and psychological factors of the learner as a social being and as an individual. And the factors ultimate relate to the pedagogical factors and the overall concept of the syllabus planning. Selection and Organization: In the account of syllabus the focus is also on selection and organization of content, whereas, as we firmly consider, there are other approaches to syllabus which shift attention to methodology and evaluation. As a consequence of the foregoing review and discussion, it is obvious to propound a collection of typical components actively considered in designing a syllabus. Typical Components: Set A 1. Statements about the learner: a. Age, sex, motivation, attitude, aptitude, learning style, educational level, type of institution, previous attainment etc; b. Specific features- derived, elite, mono/bi/multi-lingual/cultural. 2. Statement about aims and needs: a. Reason for SL/FL learning/ teaching; b. Skill- all or two or "¦.. to be taught; c. Specific features, if any. 3. Starting and target level needs, and the determination of deficiencies, if any. 4. Information about duration/offer: a. Length of courses, number of classes per week, total duration; b. Homework, self-study; a. Qualification; b. Training; c. Competency; d. Seriousness, punctuality, honesty, sincerity, regularity and the like; e. Friendly, polite, sympathetic, humorous, democratic etc. Typical Components: Set B 1. Content: a. Specification of content; b. Grammar, vocabulary and others. 2. Time Terms/ semesters/courses/years 3. Sequence of teaching items Which to be taught, which second/next. Typical Components: Set C 1. Methodology: Which method to apply-Direct method or Audioligual method or Communicative Language Teaching Approach or eclectic method. 2. Aids and equipment: Chalk board, market board, OHP, VCR, TV, computer, cassette player and the like. 3. Books and material. Typical components: Set D 1. Examination 2. Other Educational levels The relation between preceding and following courses. 3. Relation to teacher training: Short or long-term training. According to McDonough the syllabus designers seem to have a relatively homogenous idea of the order of difficulty of various grammatical devices of simple English. Some kind of empirical validation of this, or empirical challenge is required, because despite gradual replacement of structural criteria by communicational criteria of sequencing in recent textbooks, the presentation of grammatical construction is still ordered according to intuitive ideas of relative difficulty. An early attempt to work out the implications of such findings of organizing language syllabuses was made by Valdman 1974, who discussed whether the process of pidginization could be used as a basis for grading teaching materials. But there is a problem that a little language would contain stigmatized forms, which could become fossilized. To avoid this Valdman proposed the 'Focus Approach' which Pieneman summarizes as follows: 1. The learners are allowed to use reduced and deviant forms in communicative activities. 2. However, these forms will not be brought in focus in the syllabus. 3. The learners are exposed to a fully formed input filtered only by the application of pedagogical norms. 4. The syllabus will be graded according to what is easy to acquire. Halliday, McIntosh and Strevens have noted a surprising lack of published guidance on syllabus grading, a number of criteria have been proposed and have become accepted through use and these are listed below according to focus: structural, topic and functional. Structural: Frequency, coverage ability, simplicity/complexity, learnability/ teachablity, combinability, contrast, productiveness, generalizability, natural order of acquisition. Topic: Interest and activity, need, pedagogic merit, relevance, depth of treatment, practicality, utility. Functional: Need: immediate and long-term, utility, coverage and generalizability, interest, complexity of form. Alternatives Priorities in Design: The predesigned content syllabus captures the designers selection form, and organization of the target language and its use in certain situation. The designer draws the map beginning at the destination. The result being that the whole of the rest of the map- the route through the new language and performance- is most often shaped and constrained by its own objectives and predetermined outcomes. An alternative orientation would prioritize the route itself: a focus upon the means towards the learning of new language. Here the designer would give priority to the changing process of learning and the potential of the classroom-to the psychological and social resources applied to a new language by learners in the classroom context. One result of this change of focus would be that the syllabus would be the plan for gradual creation of the real syllabus of the classroom, jointly and explicitly undertaken by teachers and learners. Such a plan would be about designing a syllabus, and therefore, a guide for the map-making capacities of its users. The need for syllabus design: Since language is highly complex and cannot be taught all the time, successful teaching requires that there should be a selection of materials depending on the prior definition of the objectives, proficiency level, and duration of the course. This syllabus takes place in syllabus planning stage. It is the appropriate strategy of presentation. It is the natural growth hypothesis, then, which appears to constitute the most serious challenge to traditional concepts of syllabus planning, and for this reason, it is worthwhile to exploring it in a little more detail. In assessing the role of the non-analytic growth model it is convenient to consider it first in the context of informal task-related programme where there is a serious commitment to the achievement of fluency in a rich target language environment. The principle of organizing a general syllabus can be structural, functional, experiential, or some combination of the three. We need this form to make the students able to communicate properly with the subject they are assigned to. The control over the text material should be exercised in a more subtle and flexible way than can normally be achieved by means of a traditional structural syllabus. Creating and reinterpreting syllabus: Although, we may follow a predesigned syllabus, every teacher inevitably interprets and reconstructs that syllabus so that it becomes possible to implement it in the classroom. Similarly learners create individual learning syllabuses from their own particular starting points and their own perceptions of the language, learning and the classroom. We may regard learners either as people who are trying to redraw the predesigned plan, or we may see learners as uncovering the route for the first time in a sense, discovering the new language as if it had never been explored. The classroom is therefore, the meeting place or point of interaction between the predisgned syllabus and individual learners syllabuses. This interaction will generate the real syllabus- or the syllabus in action-which is jointly constructed by the teachers and learners together. In the lesson-to-lesson reality of language teaching, we are continually concerned with three syllabuses: the teacher's version of the predesigned plan, the individual learner syllabuses, and the unfolding syllabus of the classroom- this last being the synthesis of the other two. One important implication of this for syllabus design is that a 'good' predesigned syllabus is one, which is positively amenable to the alternative interpretation and open to reconstruction through interactive in the classroom. Conclusion: More recent research into SLA has indicated a natural acquisition order, thus giving rise to the possibility of developing structural selection and grading principles in tune with this natural order. Pieneman has suggested modifying grading to bring the two in line, though without requiring learners to produce correct forms before they are ready to do so. To construct a syllabus the designer has to have adequate experience of the social, psychological and educational factors directly or indirectly related to the teaching program. Here is no scope for adopting any arbitrary or notional matter. As the rationale behind designing of the syllabus transforms into component part, the syllabus designer becomes bound to follow the established criteria for selecting and ordering the content, choosing the methods, prescribing the material and equipment, recommending the teacher's qualifications and determining the assessment system. When it is done the syllabus might be approximate or result in the expected or required success. While, non-deviate input will be provided, focus on current forms in learner output will be planned to coincide with the learner's stage of readiness to produce such forms. As yet, however, the kind of detailed evidence on which to base such a progression is lacking, although the accumulation of research may result in the evolution of new criteria for organizing language input to learners to avoid some of the learning problems, which appear to have arisen from syllabuses planned according to traditional criteria for structural sequencing. Anyway, a proper designed syllabus, followed by the accurate process, is the right path for the learners.
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Outline Difference between a syllabus and a curriculum. An account of the salient factors we have to consider for constructing a syllabus. 1. Introduction. 2. Syllabus and curriculum A. Definition of syllabus B. Definition of curriculum C. Difference between syllabus and curriculum a. Basic difference b. Differences in detail approaches 3. Factors to construct a syllabus A. Type A: What is to be learn B. Type B. How is to be learn C. Van EK's necessary component D. Selection of the content E. Organization of the content F. Components to design a syllabus a. Set A b. Set B c....
will be provided, focus on current forms in learner output will be planned to coincide with the learner's stage of readiness to produce such forms. As yet, however, the kind of detailed evidence on which to base such a progression is lacking, although the accumulation of research may result in the evolution of new criteria for organizing language input to learners to avoid some of the learning problems, which appear to have arisen from syllabuses planned according to traditional criteria for structural sequencing. Anyway, a proper designed syllabus, followed by the accurate process, is the right path for the learners.
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Every fortnight I was faced with...Every fortnight I was faced with the taunting experience of retrieving the eggs and every fortnight the task became more and more daring. Each morning at Nonis grandmother house a war between the chickens and I emerged from the normally silent yard, a war that separated all good from the world and emphasized death, destruction and danger. Every morning at Nonis house the boy that I was turned into a manly structure, ready for battle. The sun beamed through the old wooden shutters as the light splashed across his dormant eyes, beckoning him to awaken and absorb the early morning warmth. Each ray of light produced a comforting sensation persuading the boy to emerge from his overnight coma and venture out beneath the newborn sun. The warmth soon turned to a chill as a noise from the far corner of the backyard seized everything that was pleasant. The chicken sounds were calling him, reminding him of his duty"¦..tempting him. Awakening very slowly the boy began to prepare himself for battle, just the way his grandfather had told of his experiences. The boy began to prepare himself both physically and mentall, knowing that one mistake could be the difference between failure and success. The young boy was ready and the beast that lived inside of him was to be exposed to a morning of frightful duties. The young boy was now the beast and the beast was the young boy and with the two minds combined a war was about to begin. He marched with enormous confidence until he reached the large back door that was the gateway to either treasures or torment. A fear inside him was released as he opened the door and proceeded with his mission to recover the prized treasure. He had all senses alert and functioning, ready for any enemy attack from the large, distrustful chickens. His knees and elbows slid along the wet dew of the morning grass like a snake carefully maneuvering its body, hiding from any danger. In front of him was a large cluster of grapevines that blocked any vision or path towards the enemies" barracks. There was no way around the large tangled knot, as this method would expose his route of attack to the enemy. Having no other option the cunning boy had no choice but to go through the vines. His body becoming a large grapevine, ducking and weaving through the tangled domain. The vines did not appreciate his presence and every meter he gained a new gash tore open the bare skin on his legs. He sensed the pressure build as he reached the forefront of the enemy barracks. Before him was a large rusted structure which foreshadowed any positive aspects which had arisen from the attack. The enemy headquarters oozed with a vibe of danger and evil. He decided not to turn back and thus moved onwards. His mission was established and all his knowledge and expertise was then crafted into an attempt to conquer what was rightfully his. He slowly invaded the enemy fortress that was covered by a wide expanse of rust and debree. Slowly and quietly he maneuvered his way around the shed, carefully he did not to make any sudden movements or sounds so as to alert the enemy. He held his position momentarily and observed if there was any movement evident inside the enemy fortress. He stalked the enemy and he felt the enemy stalking him. He then reached the opening of the fortress. A large corrugated iron door separated the young boy from victory and this large barrier to entry was an unexpected obstacle and delay. The door was so big that the latch to grant access into the disgusting pit was not accessible. His plans were disrupted and so he used all of his knowledge to overcome this unexpected occurrence. There wasn"t into the fortress and this small dilemma began to be extremely costly time-wise. Due to this loss in time my enemy slowly began to gain advantage over me and I knew that I had to act quickly in order to save my mission. In the far bottom corner of the shed I could see a small opening. Obviously my enemy also had flaws in his defence and I quickly took advantage of this. Squeezing through the hole was quite difficult and painful. The sharp rusted edges of the corrugated iron grinded through my skin and tore away my clothes leaving large wounds which needed treatment. Treatment, however, was unavailable in this time of dangerous battle so there was no option but to continue my mission, keeping strong thoughts throughout. Entering the shed a foul stench filled the surrounding atmosphere and released foul toxins that began to effect my alertness and consciousness. The combination of wet chickens and fresh faeces were the enemies" main source of attack. Each breath I took had to be restricted because of the foul smell which engulfed the atmosphere around me. I had to overcome this restraint on my body and continue on. Although remaining strong I was still feared by the enemy, who I could sense was close. Entering a small hidden room I could see a white figure sitting in a large basket covered with shadows of hell. Looking over to the monstrous creature I could see it watching me"¦waiting for me"¦.ready to attack. I was in the creature"s territory and this was a major disadvantage so I had to use all of my knowledge and skill to minimise the disadvantage. I was within three meters of the enemy now and my body began to react in ways which were uncontrollable. I could not breathe nor move and even in this stagmented state I was beginning to tremble and sweat, my heart beating helplessly"¦.self-possessed. My only hope was to use military power against this beast because every minute I waited the creature gained an advantage over me. Both the chicken and I knew this was so. Calmly, I reached into my back pocket and pulled out the weapon to victory, a fully systematic super soaker two hundred ready to end this war of wars. Focusing my scope I had the chicken in view and my sniper skills were about to be unleashed. I had the edge over my enemy. Now the enemy was the prey and I was the predator. My mind was focused and with one swift action I enforced a bodily blow to the enemy, sending screeches of help from the struggling victim. The chicken looked into my eyes and deep into its eyes I could see red flames, symbolising a fury of hatred. The chicken now only had attack in its mind and it slowly stumbled towards me for the kill. Anticipating it"s every move I unleashed a second blow to the head of the chicken, sending it into shock. The enemy lay helplessly on the floor pleading for its life. It was now a fight against time to find the treasure, before new lines of attack arrived. Treasure and victory were my main objectives now. Leaping and hoping towards the basket I could see a white glow that flowed over the rims of the basket. Picking up the treasure created a wonderful sensation. The smooth curves rubbed against my hands leaving no scratches or marks but a warm silky feeling. The dark surroundings were lightened by the luminous light which the object possessed. My cold hands were soon created into warm pads of delicacy by the inner scorch that the treasure pulsated. Thoughts of victory and success emerged in my mind and with a small teardrop emerging I called this treasure my EGG. The war had been won. It was now time to return home and once again face the family I had missed so much during battle.   

Every fortnight I was faced with the taunting experience of retrieving the eggs and every fortnight the task became more and more daring. Each morning at Nonis grandmother house a war between the chickens and I emerged from the normally silent yard, a war that separated all good from the...

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Racism in African society and its...Racism in African society and its effect on the character of Hally in "MASTER HAROLD" "¦AND THE BOYS. In the play "Master Harold" "¦and the Boys, Hally demonstrates, through repeated acts and expressions, the sentiment of the entire African society at the time the play takes place. In 1950, the policy of apartheid was beginning to be practiced in South Africa. The Population Registration Act was passed, which divided the population into four racial groups Post 112. The Group Area Act of 1950 controlled ownership of property by different races. The 1950 amendment to the Immorality Act prohibited sexual contact between different races. These are the attitudes of the time. Yet, in the beginning of the play, the reader does not sense the separation of Hally and the two black men that later is blatantly portrayed. In fact, we come to learn that Sam and Hally are so close that Hally would actually spend a lot of his time as a child in Sam's room, where they and Willie would play and talk often. So, for part of the play, Sam and Hally reminisce of the old days. For example, there was one time when Sam built a kite out of brown paper and tomato-box wood pasted together with flour and water and with a tail of Hally's mother's old stockings. Hally loved the kite once it was in the air and had a lot of fun with it. Hally almost wishes that he could return to those times because that was a time when "life felt the right size". Fugard 379 Unfortunately, Hally's mood changes drastically throughout the play. When his mother calls from the hospital with news that his father may coming home, Hally quickly becomes very sharp with the two black men. For example, he says to Sam "Tell me something I don't know, Sam. What the hell do you think I was saying to my Mom? All I can say is fuck-it-all." Fugard 387 One of the first derogatory remarks that Hally makes towards Sam comes shortly after Hally's first telephone conversation with his mom. He says "Don't try to be clever, Sam. It doesn't suit you." Fugard 397 We can determine by his mood shift and by his attitude on the phone with his mother, that Hally doesn't want his father to return home for some reason. We find out that his father is a drunken cripple, who has caused Hally shame for most of his life. The play recalls one instance which caused a young Hally to be ashamed of his father. Sam had to carry Hally's father home from a bar because he had passed out drunk. "A crowded main street with all the people watching a little boy following his drunk father on a nigger's back!" Fugard 649. Sam realized that the drunk was no person to be teaching Hally to be a man. That is why he made the kite. So Hally would have something to look up to and be proud of, instead of ashamed. When they were flying the kite together, Sam tied it to a bench and said he couldn't stay. Hally was too young to realize it at the time, but that was a white-only bench. Sam could not stay. This is one example of the restrictions put up between blacks and whites in South Africa during the time of apartheid. The Separate Amenities Act would subject a black man to fines of up to fifty pounds or as much as three months in jail, simply for sitting on a white-only bench. That is the circumstances that Hally grew up around which forced him to have the same kinds of racist views as the rest of the society he lived in. Another of Hally's actions that demonstrated his attitude towards blacks is when he strikes Willie with his ruler. He is only seventeen, and hitting a grown man with a ruler. He can get away with it only because a black man dare not touch a white boy, for fear of the consequences. In the beginning of the play, Sam describes what it is like for black people in jail in South Africa. They are beaten with a cane and humiliated. "They make you lie down on a bench. One policeman pulls down your trousers and holds your ankles, another one pulls your shirt over your head and holds your arms"¦" Fugard 166 Obviously, Hally feels he can treat black men the same way, hitting and humiliating them. After this incident, the three begin talking about ballroom dancing, and they think of it as a perfect world in which "nobody trips or stumbles or bumps into anybody else." Fugard 542 They create their own perfect world with their imaginations, which ballroom dancing symbolizes for them. All is well between them until another call comes from Hally's mother. His father would be coming home. Hally's mood once again takes a violent turn for the worse. Sam, overhearing Hally's conversation with his mom, expresses concern in the issue. Hally only tells him to mind his own business. Soon, Hally begins to talk badly of his father. Sam knows that Hally will say something he regrets, so he tries to warn Hally to quit while he's ahead. Instead, Hally turns his anger on Sam. This is when he makes the next in a series of racial comments. He says that his father is Sam's boss, and when same says that isn't true, because he gets paid by Hally's mom, Hally says "He's a white man and that's good enough for you." Fugard 608 Soon after, Hally tells his father's joke about a nigger's arse not being "fair". He tells Sam he wants to be called "Master Harold" from now on, as a sign of respect. The irony of this situation is quite evident. "Master Harold is a boy, and the 'boys' are men." Post 116 So, Hally changes from the beginning of the play when he seems to have a respect and even a love for Sam, to requiring respect of him. His attitude of superiority over the black man is summed up with his most disrespectful action towards Sam, spitting in his face. Throughout the entire play, Hally never apologizes for his disrespect towards Sam, nor does he even show remorse. The reason is that he doesn't see his behavior is wrong. The society he belonged to deliberately sets out to humiliate black people," Durbach 69 and this created an indifference in the members of that society. In South Africa at this time, there was nothing wrong with a white boy hitting a black man. But if a black man had raised a hand against a white boy, he would have been severely punished. Although the two seem to have a friendly relationship, Hally can choose at any time to threaten Sam with the power he has over him. HALLY: To begin with, why don't you also start calling me Master Harold, like Willie. SAM: ["¦] And if I don't? HALLY: You might just lose your job. Fugard 620-624 And it would be just that easy for Hally to have Sam fired. The reason for Hally's disregard of Sam's feelings is the shame he feels about his father. He feels like he has to humiliate someone else in order to feel less ashamed of himself. So he "echoes his father's bigotry" Durbach 71. Hally brings his feelings of shame and self-doubt and tries to unload them on Sam through insults and abuse. He says it is to be a sign of respect. Here, respect loses meaning in the normal context of the word. It is not really respect, but rather correction by threat. Hally is totally safe in anything he says or does towards the two black men simply because he is a white boy in a society that hates black people. So, all the frustration and anger he has inside him as a result of how ashamed he feels of his father is misdirected onto Sam, the man who actually played the role of "father" better than anyone else. Even to the end of the play, Sam is still trying to persuade Hally to take back his racist comments and actions. He does not use violence, but rather "moral suasion and exemplary behavior" Durbach 74. He behaves like a real man in order to teach the real boy how a man behaves. The irony of the situation is that the black men are expected by society to treat the white boy as their "master" so to speak. They are supposed to treat him like a full grown man, while Hally refers to them occasionally as "the boys". In actuality, the "boys" are teaching Hally to be a man. Sam keeps trying, even offering his hand to Hally before Hally turns it down, and walks into the rain leaving Sam to feel like a failure, because he has failed in what he had set out to do with the young Hally, years ago. To "induce change in a morally receptive child" Durbach 76. When Sam offers his hand to Hally, asking him to come down off that white-only bench, which symbolizes the whole of the racist ideals which Hally demonstrates. Sam has hope for Hally, but an attitude ingrained on him from his birth is not one so easily left behind. Sam never blames Hally, realizing that he is just a "casualty of his upbringing" Durbach 76. So, Hally gets away with everything he does to disrespect the pair of black men, and at the end of the day feels no better about himself than he did before. Sam's inaction did not have the effect on Hally he might have hoped for. But Sam loved the boy, and wanted to teach him the right attitude to have. Unfortunately, the effect society had on Hally's character was too deep. So Hally is just a product of his circumstances, and nothing more.   

Racism in African society and its effect on the character of Hally in "MASTER HAROLD" …AND THE BOYS. In the play "Master Harold" …and the Boys, Hally demonstrates, through repeated acts and expressions, the sentiment of the entire African society at the time the play takes place. In 1950, the...

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Losing someone who cannot be replaced...Losing someone who cannot be replaced by anyone else is harder than losing millions of dollars. I have been deep affected by my experiences learning to overcome all of the emotional disturbances, inding that there are things that cannot be forgotten, and gaining knowledge about the uniqueness of the friendship. When my best friend told me that he had lung cancer, my life changed completely. I knew was going to lose him, but I didn't know it would be so hard to overcome the feelings that he left me with. We were friends, not just regular friends, but we were best friends, which explains everything. We would do everything together, such as play soccer, play piano and guitar, walk on the street and act crazy, run away from home and hide somewhere, ditch school and throw a party on Monday. We had the best time together, but unfortunately life took all that from me. Sometimes I ask myself why it had to be him, my best friend, a person who trusted with everything, a person who knew what to do to make me happy, a person who was the best part of my life. He would give everything in order to strengthen our friendship. He was a friend who will always be in my heart. It was the night of April 14, 1999. I will never forget that day. He came to me showered in tears. He looked very sad. "What's going on, why are you so depressed?" I asked. "I'm, I'm going, and I'm going to"¦" He said slowly. He stopped talking, I didn't know what was going on in reality, but he knew it, because within the last couple of months he was having trouble breathing. That didn't bother him much until that moment when he visited a doctor. I looked at his eyes, and I saw his blue colored eyes blurring into shadows of a dream. I understood what was going on, but I didn't cry, because I knew if did, that would really hurt his feelings. I looked at him again and said, "Everything will be just fine; you just have to take proper care of yourself." Inside of me, the flame of sadness kept burning and I was barely keeping my tears from falling, but I knew I was strong enough to handle myself. That moment was followed by a joke, which I don't really remember. In order to make him laugh and make his emotions go away, I began telling some really good jokes. He started to laugh very hard, but he coughed too. That was the last time I saw him laughing that hard, that happy, that sad at the same time. On the same night I got a call from him, asking me to go and see him, because he wasn't feeling very well. We were always there for one another, so I went there. He looked all white, and his blue eyes didn't see to be very happy. I was trying to fool myself, and kept repeating in my mind that everything was going to be all right. I couldn't make myself to believe that it was really going to happen. It was 2:30am when he finally told everyone to go and leave the two of us alone. He started talking. "I know what's going to happen next, but you don't worry"¦ I'll be alright, because God is going to take care of me. And don't be sad. It's not like we're not going to see each other again?" He asked me to hold his hand hard, and he also told me that our friendship will last forever no matter what happens. He gave me a letter and said, "Whenever you feel its time to read this, just open it." I closed my eyes, and within seconds I felt his pulse stop pumping, and a dark cold ran inside of my hands. He just left everything. His blue eyes were already close, and I couldn't do anything else to make them look back at me. At that second I couldn't control myself anymore. The salty tears glided down my face. I didn't talk. I just went crazy and I started screaming, but I didn't say a word. I became crazy. I couldn't breath, because he was the air I was breathing, he was the happiness that was keeping me alive, he was the friend that I respected more tan a brother, more than anybody else. And now he's not there anymore, he's gone. It's just the letter and me"¦ Two weeks had passed after his death, and I was still depressed, angry, sick, and almost lifeless. I couldn't understand what was going on around me. Everything was an illusion. I wasn't eating, drinking, nor doing anything. For twenty-four hours I was lying on my bed, thinking about what am I going to do. I couldn't talk to anyone, because I didn't want to. I wanted to be alone all day, remember the good times we had. And I finally decided to open the letter he gave me. IN the letter he said, "Don't be silly and don't cry. I know how you fee, but you know what, you're life is not over yes. You have to understand that life is tough, and you just have to get used to it, fight it, and get whatever you want. I know that life is beautiful, and I only had a short time to experience it. You got to get yourself ready to continue your life, because only than I can look down at you with pride. You have to understand the fact that you're the person who makes everyone smile, you share their problems, understand, ad love. You have to be yourself. I will miss you, and I know you won't forget me"¦ I guess this is goodbye, but I don't want to say that, I'll just say I'll see you later bro'." After reading the letter, my heart filled with lightness. The idea of continuing my life, as he had said, gave me the power to start everything from the beginning. I learned many lessons from this event. For instance, that true friends can never be replaced by anyone else, and they're never forgotten. I understood that the friendship is a gift, and nothing in the world can come between real friendship. Yes, I had a lot of emotional disturbances within myself, but at the end, I actually understood that everything happens for a reason. I have accepted the fact that my friend is not with me anymore, but I'm sure that he will always live inside of me. As long as he's in my memories, he's part of me, and I take his presence as a source of pride.   

Losing someone who cannot be replaced by anyone else is harder than losing millions of dollars. I have been deep affected by my experiences learning to overcome all of the emotional disturbances, inding that there are things that cannot be forgotten, and gaining knowledge about the uniqueness of the friendship....

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Man"s fundamental bewilderment and confusion, stems...Man"s fundamental bewilderment and confusion, stems from the fact that man has no answers to the basic existential questions: why we are alive, why we have to die, why there is injustice and suffering, all this serve as the impetus for such a thinking. Man constantly wonders about the truth of life and realizes that the more you expect from it, the more it fails you or may be the more we expect from ourselves the more we find ourselves engaging in a futile battle with the odds. May be the truth is the realization of our limitations and the potency of these odds that press you down with their brutal truths"¦."¦.brutal?, can the truth be brutal. But the truth is the God, ourselves, the destiny that rules us and fashions us, after a strange decree which we fail to unravel. "What do I know about man"s destiny? I could tell you more about radishes." -Samuel Beckett Concerning itself with such questions is the genre of literature is the movement called 'THE THEATRE OF THE ABSURD'. The Theatre of the Absurd 50"s draws on the existentialist writings of Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus. Camus adapted Dostoyevsky"s The Possesed to the stage 1959. Mostly, his writing was concerned with the dilemma of individuals who believe that values are relative but who cannot live without moral commitment. Camus argues that humanity has to resign itself to recognizing that a fully satisfying rational explanation of the universe is beyond its reach; thus the world must ultimately be seen as absurd. The underpinnings of the Theatre of the Absurd are derived from these existentialist ideas that led to Absurdism. Absurdism teaches, much like Camus, that, that which cannot be justified in a rational manner is absurd. Since religion requires a "leap of faith"Kierkegaard it is absurd, just as life itself is absurd. The Theater of the Absurd refers to tendencies in dramatic literature that emerged in Paris during the late 1940s and early "50s in the plays of Arthur Adamov, Fernando Arrabal, Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, Eugene Ionesco, and Jean Tardieu. A term coined by the critic Martin Esslin, "The Theatre of the Absurd" refers to the work of a number of playwrights, mostly written in the 1950s and 1960s. Its roots lie in an essay by the French philosopher Albert Camus. In his "Myth of Sisyphus", written in 1942, he first defined the human situation as basically meaningless and absurd. The "absurd" plays by Samuel Beckett, Arthur Adamov, Eugene Ionesco, Jean Genet, Harold Pinter and others all share the view that man is inhabiting a universe with which he is out of key. Its meaning is indecipherable and his place within it is without purpose. He is bewildered, troubled and obscurely threatened. Seeing man as the very center of the universe an then finally realizing that his position in this vast godless arena is as petty as his existence. Thus the whole idea becomes sheer absurdity"¦.is God for man? Or man for God?. Absurdism is more than just a movement it is an idea, which is commonly associated with existentialism. Beginning in the 19th century, mainly through the influence of Soren Kierkegaard, religion was often described as absurd because it could not be justified on rational principles; rather, it was considered as based on what Kierkegaard called "a leap of faith." In their discussions of consciousness, Martin Heidegger and Jean Paul Sartre described the human consciousness as facing an apparently absurd world--absurd because it finds itself at the crossroads of Being and Nothingness, baffled by the meaninglessness of the human condition. Sartre"s ideas of absurdity, anguish, and disgust are expressed in his plays and novels, especially in Nausea 1938; Eng. trans., 1949. A philosophical basis for the modern theater of the absurd has been established by other existentialists, such as Albert Camus, Karl Jaspers, and Gabriel Marcel. The Theatre of the Absurd does not show man in a historical, social, or cultural context, it does not communicate any general views of human life. It is not concerned with conveying information or presenting the problems or destinies of characters that exists outside the author"s world they are created by author, but have their own created life. It is not concerned with the representation of events, the narration of fates, or the adventures of characters. It is instead interested in the presentation of an individual"s basic situation. "It presents individual human being"s intuition of his basic situation as he experiences it". No doubt that the term 'theater of the absurd' derives from the philosophical use of the word absurd by such existentialist thinkers as Albert CAMUS and Jean Paul SARTRE, but far from concerning itself with the rather nerve straining philosophical studies of abstractions it encompasses in its domain hard and concrete entities of life such as pain, misery, tears, fears, and the never ending desire of man to seek the answers to all the questions; Camus, particularly, argued that humanity had to resign itself to recognizing that a fully satisfying rational explanation of the universe was beyond its reach; in that sense, the world must ultimately be seen as absurd. To the absurdists the whole idea of struggle appeared as the most ridiculous thought. They saw man struggling in sheer hopelessness to get a glimmer of the world that he had dreamt of in some part of his life. All the religions, faiths, beliefs, superstitions; have tried to solve the question that why is there all the imperfection? And sadly enough by reflecting on the situation that prevails around us one can come to a very despondent question-has God failed? And where do we find the answer; alas nowhere! Apparently the absurdists may appear as atheist or agnostics but in reality they were probing into those facets of humanity that concerned itself with self-faith. Their focus might have been on the fact that self-belief leads to faith in God. They were concerning themselves with the question that why has the belief in God and His omni potency disappeared from human minds? Thus the Theatre of the Absurd also seems to have been a reaction to the disappearance of the religious dimension form contemporary life. The Absurd Theatre hopes to achieve its aim of presenting this idea of vanished faith in the self and God by shocking man out of an existence that has become trite, mechanical and complacent. Though at times it may appear masochistic at times but it is felt that there is mystical experience in confronting the limits of human condition. And the absurdists hope to draw the solution of desperation that man confronts from this mysticism drawn from the realization of human limitations. The Theatre of the Absurd was undoubtedly strongly influenced by the traumatic experience of the horrors of the Second World War, which showed the total impermanence of any values, shook the validity of any conventions and highlighted the precariousness of human life and its fundamental meaninglessness and arbitrariness. The trauma of living from 1945 under threat of nuclear annihilation also seems to have been an important factor in the rise of the new theatre. Thus while presenting the brutal realities of life in their most blatant form Absurd plays assumed a highly unusual, innovative form, directly aiming to startle the viewer, shaking him out of this comfortable, conventional life of everyday concerns. The playwrights loosely grouped under the label of the absurd endeavor to convey their sense of bewilderment, anxiety, and wonder in the face of an inexplicable universe. They rely heavily on poetic metaphor as a means of projecting outward their innermost states of mind. Hence, the images of the theater of the absurd tend to assume the quality of fantasy, dream, and nightmare; they do not so much portray the outward appearance of reality as the playwright"s emotional perception of an inner reality. The Theatre of the Absurd diverted human interest from nature and directed it at man and his thinking. This interest in a subject, individual human thinking, and the individual"s situation corresponds with the philosophy of existentialism Heidegger, Jaspers, Camus, Sartre..., which is focused on the subjective, individual"s experience in a concrete fatal situation. While the philosophers deal with the absurdity of human existence rationally, using philosophical language; the absurd dramatists express it in concrete dramatic pictures. They offer us the opportunity to not only think about absurdity, but to feel it and experience it simultaneously with the actors and the author, who transforms his mind into a symbolic dramatic language. Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot is probably the most famous absurd play to date. The characters of the play, are absurd caricatures who of course have problems communicating with one another, and the language they use is often times ludicrous. And, following the cyclical pattern, the play seems to end in the same state it began in, with nothing really changed. And that is perhaps the reality of life itself that it will keep on going round and round till we perish away. At the end the truth that these absurdists presented was that at the end of the road nothing really matters. Eugene ionesco remarked "The universe seems to me infinitely strange and foreign. At such a moment I gaze upon it with a mixture of anguish and euphoria; separate from the universe, as though placed at a certain distance outside it; I look and see pictures, creatures that move in a kind of timeless time and spaceless space emitting sounds that are a kind of language I no longer understand or ever register."   

Man"s fundamental bewilderment and confusion, stems from the fact that man has no answers to the basic existential questions: why we are alive, why we have to die, why there is injustice and suffering, all this serve as the impetus for such a thinking. Man constantly wonders about the truth...

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