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Outline Difference between a syllabus and a curriculum. An account of the salient factors we have to consider for constructing a syllabus. 1. Introduction. 2. Syllabus and curriculum A. Definition of syllabus B. Definition of curriculum C. Difference between syllabus and curriculum a. Basic difference b. Differences in detail approaches 3. Factors to construct a syllabus A. Type A: What is to be learn B. Type B. How is to be learn C. Van EK's necessary component D. Selection of the content E. Organization of the content F. Components to design a syllabus a. Set A b. Set B c. Set C d. Set D G. McDonough about syllabus design H. Criteria for selection and grading a. Structural b. Topic c. Functional 4. The need for a syllabus A. Should a syllabus be explicit, and if so, to whom? B. Basic organizing principles 5. Creating and reinterpreting a syllabus 6. Conclusion Introduction: Throughout the 1970s while language teaching theorists and practititioners excited themselves with course design for Specific Purpose language teaching, and while needs of adult migrants and private sectors or industrial language learners were extensively examined, the majority of learners of English continued to struggle with large classes, limited text books, few contact hours, and years of unintensive study. The work of many teachers had either been ignored by syllabus or curriculum designers, or had been interfered with by insensitive and too rapid application of ideas from ESP theory or Council of Europe discussion by administrations who did not fully realize the implications of the innovations so proudly presented. As a result, several national educational systems have 'gone communicative' or 'gone functional-notional', and then retreated after a brief trial period whatever they had before. It seemed worthwhile, therefore, to convene a symposium at TESOL Convention in Toronto in 1983 specifically to examine the role of syllabuses in normal state education. And it is also seemed worthwhile not to rush too quickly into arguments about the detailed design of syllabuses, but to clear the ground first on the definition, function and purpose of the syllabuses, for many of the difficulties in discussion of for example Wilkins' influential 'Notional Syllabuses 1976' result from the enormously varying interpretations of the term syllabus. Since a language is highly complex and pervasive, all of it which can hardly be determined cannot be taught at a time. Moreover al the phenomena related to the language might not be relevant or necessary to be taught to the learner/group of learners. Therefore, successful teaching of the language evidently requires a selection and then an arrangement of the teaching items/materials depending on the prior definition of the objectives, proficiency level to be developed in the learner, duration of the program, and the like, on the one hand, and on the other, upon the consideration of the learner's needs, lacks, aptitudes, motivation, age, personality memory transfer of training, cognitive style, and so forth. The selection and the sequencing absolutely take place in the syllabus planning stage. With the advent of much complicate theories of language and language learning, as well as recognition of the diversity of the learners' needs, wants, and aspirations, the concept of syllabus for SL/FL teaching has taken on new importance. It has also become highly elaborated, and has been examined at length, particularly in the context of ESP programs, and generally ELT planning. Thus the syllabus is now viewed as an instrument by which the teacher, with the help of the syllabus designer, can achieve a degree of fit between the needs and aims of the learner as social being and as individual and the activities, which will occur in the classroom. A syllabus is required to produce efficiency of two kinds-pragmatic and pedagogical. The former is concerned with the economy of time and money. It needs the setting of instructions to be planned, and that not all learners are to be given the same treatment. So syllabuses differ according to the practical factors present in given situation. The latter kind of efficiency is related to the economy in the management of the learning process. Instruction provided in an institutional setting is assumed to be a more efficient method of dealing with learning than allowing the learner to proceed in a non-structured environment. It is then clear that the syllabus of any kind is viewed as providing a better control of the learning process, generally by the institution and/or the teacher, but in some instance control can be and should be exercised also by the learner himself/herself. The degree and the type of control that the syllabus exercises depend on the institution-as-society. That is, in a highly democratic institution, the syllabus has to be determined and constructed by consensus. Definition of syllabus: This term covers the teaching learning items, materials, equipments and the evaluation tools. A finished syllabus is an overall plan the learning process. It must specify what components, or learning items, must be available, or learned by a certain time; what is the most efficient sequence in which the are learned; what items can be learned simultaneously; what items are available from the stock, and the whole process is determined by consideration of how long it takes to produce or learn a component or item. The process is under continual scrutiny by means of stock checks, or tests and examinations. If we point out the main ideas of syllabus it comes as follows: 1. A syllabus is a specification of work of a particular department in a school or college, and it might be broken down into subsections, which will define the work of a particular group or class. 2. In practice, it is often linked to time semesters, terms, weeks, or courses, which are tied to these. But this link is not essential, and may be counter productive in that the time is teacher based rather than learner based. But a syllabus must specify a starting point, which should be related to a realistic assessment of the level of beginning students, and ultimate goals, which may or may not be realized by the end of the course, depending on the abilities of the learners and their progress in a particular course. 3. It will specify some kind of sequence based on- a. Sequencing intrinsic to a theory of language learning or to the structure of specified material relatable to language acquisition; b. Sequencing constrained by administrative needs, materials. 4. A syllabus is a document of administrative convenience and will only be partly justified on theoretical grounds. Hence it will be negotiable and adjustable, enshrining the most useful experience of the past in order to ease the workload of the present. 5. A syllabus can only specify what is taught; it cannot organize what is learnt. It can, methodologically, allow for opportunities for acquisition and/or learning, but such opportunities cannot spelt out in detail as they will reflect the personalities of learners and continuing relationships established as the class progresses. 6. Not to have a syllabus is to refuse to allow one's assumptions to be scrutinized or to enable different teachers to relate their work to each other's. It is consequently an essential feature of work in a democratic profession or as part of democratic education. Definition of curriculum: It is considered to be a broader term used in a institution to cover politics, plans, teaching, learning items, materials, equipments, logistics everything. The first view of curriculum shows a concern with objectives and content, which are two of four elements in the traditional model of the curriculum. The second view of adds methods to the model. The methods are the means by which the ends-the objectives-are to be achieved and this forms the basis of a process view of a curriculum. The third perspective adds a fourth and final element evaluation. This brings to us the situational model of curriculum. Evaluation, as feedback, will also form a component of the construction systems model, since quality control will be an important element of any production system. It is through monitoring and feedback that planned and actual outcomes can be compared and appropriate remedial action taken to repair failures or deficits. Thus feedback will have a formative effect on action. The third perspective may represent a more realistic approach, since it takes accounts of existing systems before initiating proposals for change. The systematic changes and the installation of the new elements will, of course, require planning and the effective use of systems in order to realize new objectives, so that each of the first two approaches will make important contributions to an overall process of curriculum development. Difference between curriculum and syllabus: Some confusion exists over the distinction between syllabus and curriculum, since the terms are used differently on either side of the Atlantic. Curriculum is a very general concept, which involves consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, social and administrative factors, which contribute to the planning of an educational programme. Syllabus, on the other hand, refers the subpart of curriculum, which is concerned with a specification of what units will be taught. The European term 'syllabus' and its North American counterpart 'curriculum' often seem to be very close in meaning and sometimes further apart, depending on the context in which they are used. In a distinction that is commonly drawn in Britain, 'syllabus' refers to the content or subject matter of an individual subject, whereas 'curriculum' stands for the totality of content to be taught and aims to be realized within one school or educational system. In the USA 'curriculum' tends the synonymous with 'syllabus' in the British sense. Curriculum should not simply be seen as a kind of super syllabus because there is a qualitative difference between the two. On the one hand, curriculum may be viewed as the programme of activities, the course to learn by pupils in being educated. On the other, curriculum may be defined as all learning, which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. That is one school of thought regards the curriculum as a plan, while the other views it as activities. Allen distinguishes at least six aspects of levels of curriculum: 1. Concept formation 2. Administrative decision making 3. Syllabus planning 4. Materials design 5. Classroom activities 6. Evaluation Shaw confidently makes a line of distinction between the curriculum and the syllabus as he defines 'syllabus' as a statement of the plan for any part of curriculum, excluding the element of curriculum evaluation itself. And he concludes that the syllabus should be viewed in the context of an ongoing curriculum development process. Therefore, the terms are synonymous in USA, but in Britain a syllabus is a part of a curriculum made of many parts. But I should take the term syllabus as a part of a curriculum when the language is learned or taught as an integrated or supporting subject with others, or in a department of a different subject for example, Business Administration or Drama and Dramatics. And I would like to consider the 'syllabus' as an independent framework when an SL/FL is taught or learned autonomously as a subject in a department or an institution. Here any syllabus is most typically a plan of what is to be achieved through teaching and students' learning. Factors to construct a syllabus: The distinction and association occurs in the sector of syllabus are important to explain the factors of syllabub designing. The syllabus is a form of support for the teaching activity that is planned in the classroom and a form of guidance in the construction of appropriate teaching materials. It is concerned, from this point of view, with what is to be done in the classroom, not necessarily with what is perceived to be taught or learnt thereby; its role is essentially to make it possible of one teacher to draw the experience of another. All these important aspects come when we have to design a syllabus with the necessary materials. And certainly there is a process to design a syllabus in a proper way. The two main approaches of syllabus, which are considered for constructing it, are summarized below that are suggested by Davies 1976: Type A: What is to be learnt? Interventionist External to the learner Other directed Determined by authority Teacher as decision maker Content = what the subject is to expert Content= a gift to the learner or teacher or knower Objectives defined in advance Subject emphasis Assessment by achievement or by mastery Doing things to the learner Type B: How is to be learnt? Internal to the learner Inner directed or self-fulfilling Negotiated between learners and readers Learner and teacher as joint decision maker Content= what the subject is to the learner Content= what the learner brings and wants Objectives described afterwords Process emphasis Assessment in relationship to learner's criteria of success Doing things for or with the learners Several different factors related to the networks of psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and pedagogy claim to be taken into consideration for framing a syllabus. The syllabus is indeed concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned, frequently set down in some written form as prescription for actions by teachers and learners. It is also concerned with the achievements of ends, often, though not always, associated with the pursuance of particular means. It is necessarily, though not obviously, imbued with particular educational philosophies, views of the subject matter, and how it may best be learned, beliefs about the relationship between the teachers and learners, all of which underpinned by particular definitions of a desirable social order and world view. Now it is patent that the factors, which are considered for constructing a syllabus, are manipulated by the syllabus and vice-versa. Van Ek lists the following necessary components of a language syllabus: a. The situation in which the SL/FL will be used, including the topics which will be dealt with; b. The language activities in which the learners will be engaged c. The language function which the learner will fulfill d. What the learner will be able to do with respect to each topic e. The general notions which the learners will be able to handle f. The specific topic notions which the learner will be able to handle g. The language form which the learner will be able to use h. The degree of scale with which the learner will be able to perform Here the social, psychological and pedagogical factors are confidently advocated as preconsiderations for syllabus construction. That is, the selections of the teaching items, and then their sequencing are obviously affected and even controlled by the social and psychological factors of the learner as a social being and as an individual. And the factors ultimate relate to the pedagogical factors and the overall concept of the syllabus planning. Selection and Organization: In the account of syllabus the focus is also on selection and organization of content, whereas, as we firmly consider, there are other approaches to syllabus which shift attention to methodology and evaluation. As a consequence of the foregoing review and discussion, it is obvious to propound a collection of typical components actively considered in designing a syllabus. Typical Components: Set A 1. Statements about the learner: a. Age, sex, motivation, attitude, aptitude, learning style, educational level, type of institution, previous attainment etc; b. Specific features- derived, elite, mono/bi/multi-lingual/cultural. 2. Statement about aims and needs: a. Reason for SL/FL learning/ teaching; b. Skill- all or two or "¦.. to be taught; c. Specific features, if any. 3. Starting and target level needs, and the determination of deficiencies, if any. 4. Information about duration/offer: a. Length of courses, number of classes per week, total duration; b. Homework, self-study; a. Qualification; b. Training; c. Competency; d. Seriousness, punctuality, honesty, sincerity, regularity and the like; e. Friendly, polite, sympathetic, humorous, democratic etc. Typical Components: Set B 1. Content: a. Specification of content; b. Grammar, vocabulary and others. 2. Time Terms/ semesters/courses/years 3. Sequence of teaching items Which to be taught, which second/next. Typical Components: Set C 1. Methodology: Which method to apply-Direct method or Audioligual method or Communicative Language Teaching Approach or eclectic method. 2. Aids and equipment: Chalk board, market board, OHP, VCR, TV, computer, cassette player and the like. 3. Books and material. Typical components: Set D 1. Examination 2. Other Educational levels The relation between preceding and following courses. 3. Relation to teacher training: Short or long-term training. According to McDonough the syllabus designers seem to have a relatively homogenous idea of the order of difficulty of various grammatical devices of simple English. Some kind of empirical validation of this, or empirical challenge is required, because despite gradual replacement of structural criteria by communicational criteria of sequencing in recent textbooks, the presentation of grammatical construction is still ordered according to intuitive ideas of relative difficulty. An early attempt to work out the implications of such findings of organizing language syllabuses was made by Valdman 1974, who discussed whether the process of pidginization could be used as a basis for grading teaching materials. But there is a problem that a little language would contain stigmatized forms, which could become fossilized. To avoid this Valdman proposed the 'Focus Approach' which Pieneman summarizes as follows: 1. The learners are allowed to use reduced and deviant forms in communicative activities. 2. However, these forms will not be brought in focus in the syllabus. 3. The learners are exposed to a fully formed input filtered only by the application of pedagogical norms. 4. The syllabus will be graded according to what is easy to acquire. Halliday, McIntosh and Strevens have noted a surprising lack of published guidance on syllabus grading, a number of criteria have been proposed and have become accepted through use and these are listed below according to focus: structural, topic and functional. Structural: Frequency, coverage ability, simplicity/complexity, learnability/ teachablity, combinability, contrast, productiveness, generalizability, natural order of acquisition. Topic: Interest and activity, need, pedagogic merit, relevance, depth of treatment, practicality, utility. Functional: Need: immediate and long-term, utility, coverage and generalizability, interest, complexity of form. Alternatives Priorities in Design: The predesigned content syllabus captures the designers selection form, and organization of the target language and its use in certain situation. The designer draws the map beginning at the destination. The result being that the whole of the rest of the map- the route through the new language and performance- is most often shaped and constrained by its own objectives and predetermined outcomes. An alternative orientation would prioritize the route itself: a focus upon the means towards the learning of new language. Here the designer would give priority to the changing process of learning and the potential of the classroom-to the psychological and social resources applied to a new language by learners in the classroom context. One result of this change of focus would be that the syllabus would be the plan for gradual creation of the real syllabus of the classroom, jointly and explicitly undertaken by teachers and learners. Such a plan would be about designing a syllabus, and therefore, a guide for the map-making capacities of its users. The need for syllabus design: Since language is highly complex and cannot be taught all the time, successful teaching requires that there should be a selection of materials depending on the prior definition of the objectives, proficiency level, and duration of the course. This syllabus takes place in syllabus planning stage. It is the appropriate strategy of presentation. It is the natural growth hypothesis, then, which appears to constitute the most serious challenge to traditional concepts of syllabus planning, and for this reason, it is worthwhile to exploring it in a little more detail. In assessing the role of the non-analytic growth model it is convenient to consider it first in the context of informal task-related programme where there is a serious commitment to the achievement of fluency in a rich target language environment. The principle of organizing a general syllabus can be structural, functional, experiential, or some combination of the three. We need this form to make the students able to communicate properly with the subject they are assigned to. The control over the text material should be exercised in a more subtle and flexible way than can normally be achieved by means of a traditional structural syllabus. Creating and reinterpreting syllabus: Although, we may follow a predesigned syllabus, every teacher inevitably interprets and reconstructs that syllabus so that it becomes possible to implement it in the classroom. Similarly learners create individual learning syllabuses from their own particular starting points and their own perceptions of the language, learning and the classroom. We may regard learners either as people who are trying to redraw the predesigned plan, or we may see learners as uncovering the route for the first time in a sense, discovering the new language as if it had never been explored. The classroom is therefore, the meeting place or point of interaction between the predisgned syllabus and individual learners syllabuses. This interaction will generate the real syllabus- or the syllabus in action-which is jointly constructed by the teachers and learners together. In the lesson-to-lesson reality of language teaching, we are continually concerned with three syllabuses: the teacher's version of the predesigned plan, the individual learner syllabuses, and the unfolding syllabus of the classroom- this last being the synthesis of the other two. One important implication of this for syllabus design is that a 'good' predesigned syllabus is one, which is positively amenable to the alternative interpretation and open to reconstruction through interactive in the classroom. Conclusion: More recent research into SLA has indicated a natural acquisition order, thus giving rise to the possibility of developing structural selection and grading principles in tune with this natural order. Pieneman has suggested modifying grading to bring the two in line, though without requiring learners to produce correct forms before they are ready to do so. To construct a syllabus the designer has to have adequate experience of the social, psychological and educational factors directly or indirectly related to the teaching program. Here is no scope for adopting any arbitrary or notional matter. As the rationale behind designing of the syllabus transforms into component part, the syllabus designer becomes bound to follow the established criteria for selecting and ordering the content, choosing the methods, prescribing the material and equipment, recommending the teacher's qualifications and determining the assessment system. When it is done the syllabus might be approximate or result in the expected or required success. While, non-deviate input will be provided, focus on current forms in learner output will be planned to coincide with the learner's stage of readiness to produce such forms. As yet, however, the kind of detailed evidence on which to base such a progression is lacking, although the accumulation of research may result in the evolution of new criteria for organizing language input to learners to avoid some of the learning problems, which appear to have arisen from syllabuses planned according to traditional criteria for structural sequencing. Anyway, a proper designed syllabus, followed by the accurate process, is the right path for the learners.
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Outline Difference between a syllabus and a curriculum. An account of the salient factors we have to consider for constructing a syllabus. 1. Introduction. 2. Syllabus and curriculum A. Definition of syllabus B. Definition of curriculum C. Difference between syllabus and curriculum a. Basic difference b. Differences in detail approaches 3. Factors to construct a syllabus A. Type A: What is to be learn B. Type B. How is to be learn C. Van EK's necessary component D. Selection of the content E. Organization of the content F. Components to design a syllabus a. Set A b. Set B c....
will be provided, focus on current forms in learner output will be planned to coincide with the learner's stage of readiness to produce such forms. As yet, however, the kind of detailed evidence on which to base such a progression is lacking, although the accumulation of research may result in the evolution of new criteria for organizing language input to learners to avoid some of the learning problems, which appear to have arisen from syllabuses planned according to traditional criteria for structural sequencing. Anyway, a proper designed syllabus, followed by the accurate process, is the right path for the learners.
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Grendel has a sarcastic and cynical...Grendel has a sarcastic and cynical mind, which serves to entertain both him and the reader. Through his expositions of situations, we see humor where others would simply see violence, and irony where others only fact. These others are the humans, the Danes, unwitting neighbors of Grendel, forced to stand night after night of slaughter. What is a traumatic and terrifying experience for them, is simply a game to Grendel, and the reader. Grendel bursts in on the Danes, ready to kill, and they squeak. They are funny in their fear, laughable in their drunken fighting. The reader is focused on Grendel's perception of the Danes. The deaths go by easily, because of the humor involved. It does not cross the reader's mind that these are people Grendle is killing. The humor allows the reader to sympathize with Grendel's position, that of the predator. The prey is not meaningful, only nutritious and entertaining. It is a macabre humor, which accentuates how no death is noble, it is simply death. By making the Danes un-heroic and un-ideal, cowards and drunkards, the author is presenting the reality through the humor. In contrast to the drunken lurching of the others, Unferth comes toward Grendel with speeches and bravery. He is a puffed up as a peacock, proud and ready to die for his king, his people, his ideal. Grendel simply states, "He was one of those." Grendel sees Unferth with a clear and unbiased mind. He is ridiculous. His exaggerated heroism, his words, even his first move, to scuttle sideways like a crab from thirty feet away, is laughable. Grendle does with him what he does with no other Dane in the story, he talks. Unferth offers Grendle death, and Grendle sends back taunts. The reason this scene is funny is because the taunts are sharply accurate. The self-sacrificing hero is shown to be a spotlight loving fool, serving only his own reputation. Grendel continues talking to Unferth, making the poor wretch angrier by the moment. At one point, he compares Unferth to a harvest virgin. Unferth attempts to begin his own speeches, but is always cut off by Grendel, who has another barb to throw at him. Finally, Unferth screams and charges, his voice breaking. This scene, of escalating argument, presents a different type of humor. While the first was a slapstick, exaggerated and dark humor, the argument is more sarcastic, intelligent and cutting. It exposes the cruel reality of the hero; he serves only himself and his fame when helping others. When Unferth charges him, Grendel does the unthinkable. He throws an apple at him. Unferth is astonished, and even loses his heroic vocabulary. He continues charging, and Grendel continues the barrage of apples. This scene is pure humiliation for Unferth, pure delight for Grendel, and entertaining for the reader. Grendel, murderer and monster, is hitting the hero with simple red apples. By doing this, he is breaking any type of significance the battle could ever have. The bards cannot sing of how the monster threw apples. It is symbolically important that Grendel throws apples. Unferth symbolizes a virgin, pure in ideal and purpose. The apple brought down the first virgin, Eve, as these apples bring him down. They represent the truth, the knowledge that Grendle is pelting him with. The hero ends up on the floor crying, and Grendel remarks to him "Such is life"¦such is dignity." This remark holds no pity, only scorn, and is funny in its viciousness. Most of the humor in the novel is followed by some of the most chilling and melancholic pieces of prose. This contrast of the humoristic with the somber makes the despair Grendel feels a more striking emotion. Before being completely exposed to nihilism and solitude by the Dragon, Grendel is compared to a bunny rabbit because he was startled. The monster that terrified the Danes is terrified by the Dragon, who continues poking fun at him and his fear. The reader is presented with the impotent figure of Grendel, trying desperately to react in some way to the dragon's laughter, and not knowing how. He gets angry, which immediately makes the dragon deadly serious. What follows is the dragon stating in turn his truths about life and snide side remarks on humanity. The humor allows the reader to connect slightly with Grendel's feelings as they transition from the comedy to the drama, sometimes in a jarring fashion. This same transition occurs in the interaction of Grendel and Unferth. The Dane is a broken man, both physically and mentally. He cries. He has a broken nose. The humor is lost as the reader begins to feel pity for him. Once we feel connected to the being suffering, the humor evaporates, leaving behind the message, ideals are false. The humor sets up the atmosphere and the elements of the message, but it is only in the alternate tone that the message is truly established. Grendel's humor is the truth in some aspects and a farce in others. It contrasts sharply with the Dane's views but it is a valid view. At the same time, the humor in Grendel hides a deep despair and the root messages. Grendel makes fun of Unferth, but is more like Unferth that he could possibly guess. Unferth represents the hero brought down by the monster, and the shattering of his own beliefs. Grendel is a monster who has no beliefs, and is brought down by an unnamed hero. The dragon spares Grendel, while Unferth is by Grendel. Unferth is a cast out among the men, and Grendle is a cast out to all human society. Unferth seeks desperately to die in the fight, and regain some type of honor. Grendel seeks the fight for some type of recognition from the Danes. In a way, when Grendel makes fun of Unferth, he is hurting that part of himself he dislikes. He, through Unferth, is hitting at the pretensions human society and at his own imperfections. Killing him would have been unsatisfying, and would not have allowed Grendel his victory. In using humor, Grendel has marked a person, a human being. It is his victory because he has finally connected with someone, his opposite. Even the fact that the battle is through humor presents a part of the victory. He does not need to use the hero"s methods, but uses his own. his words and wit, to win the battle.   

Grendel has a sarcastic and cynical mind, which serves to entertain both him and the reader. Through his expositions of situations, we see humor where others would simply see violence, and irony where others only fact. These others are the humans, the Danes, unwitting neighbors of Grendel, forced to stand...

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Racism in African society and its...Racism in African society and its effect on the character of Hally in "MASTER HAROLD" "¦AND THE BOYS. In the play "Master Harold" "¦and the Boys, Hally demonstrates, through repeated acts and expressions, the sentiment of the entire African society at the time the play takes place. In 1950, the policy of apartheid was beginning to be practiced in South Africa. The Population Registration Act was passed, which divided the population into four racial groups Post 112. The Group Area Act of 1950 controlled ownership of property by different races. The 1950 amendment to the Immorality Act prohibited sexual contact between different races. These are the attitudes of the time. Yet, in the beginning of the play, the reader does not sense the separation of Hally and the two black men that later is blatantly portrayed. In fact, we come to learn that Sam and Hally are so close that Hally would actually spend a lot of his time as a child in Sam's room, where they and Willie would play and talk often. So, for part of the play, Sam and Hally reminisce of the old days. For example, there was one time when Sam built a kite out of brown paper and tomato-box wood pasted together with flour and water and with a tail of Hally's mother's old stockings. Hally loved the kite once it was in the air and had a lot of fun with it. Hally almost wishes that he could return to those times because that was a time when "life felt the right size". Fugard 379 Unfortunately, Hally's mood changes drastically throughout the play. When his mother calls from the hospital with news that his father may coming home, Hally quickly becomes very sharp with the two black men. For example, he says to Sam "Tell me something I don't know, Sam. What the hell do you think I was saying to my Mom? All I can say is fuck-it-all." Fugard 387 One of the first derogatory remarks that Hally makes towards Sam comes shortly after Hally's first telephone conversation with his mom. He says "Don't try to be clever, Sam. It doesn't suit you." Fugard 397 We can determine by his mood shift and by his attitude on the phone with his mother, that Hally doesn't want his father to return home for some reason. We find out that his father is a drunken cripple, who has caused Hally shame for most of his life. The play recalls one instance which caused a young Hally to be ashamed of his father. Sam had to carry Hally's father home from a bar because he had passed out drunk. "A crowded main street with all the people watching a little boy following his drunk father on a nigger's back!" Fugard 649. Sam realized that the drunk was no person to be teaching Hally to be a man. That is why he made the kite. So Hally would have something to look up to and be proud of, instead of ashamed. When they were flying the kite together, Sam tied it to a bench and said he couldn't stay. Hally was too young to realize it at the time, but that was a white-only bench. Sam could not stay. This is one example of the restrictions put up between blacks and whites in South Africa during the time of apartheid. The Separate Amenities Act would subject a black man to fines of up to fifty pounds or as much as three months in jail, simply for sitting on a white-only bench. That is the circumstances that Hally grew up around which forced him to have the same kinds of racist views as the rest of the society he lived in. Another of Hally's actions that demonstrated his attitude towards blacks is when he strikes Willie with his ruler. He is only seventeen, and hitting a grown man with a ruler. He can get away with it only because a black man dare not touch a white boy, for fear of the consequences. In the beginning of the play, Sam describes what it is like for black people in jail in South Africa. They are beaten with a cane and humiliated. "They make you lie down on a bench. One policeman pulls down your trousers and holds your ankles, another one pulls your shirt over your head and holds your arms"¦" Fugard 166 Obviously, Hally feels he can treat black men the same way, hitting and humiliating them. After this incident, the three begin talking about ballroom dancing, and they think of it as a perfect world in which "nobody trips or stumbles or bumps into anybody else." Fugard 542 They create their own perfect world with their imaginations, which ballroom dancing symbolizes for them. All is well between them until another call comes from Hally's mother. His father would be coming home. Hally's mood once again takes a violent turn for the worse. Sam, overhearing Hally's conversation with his mom, expresses concern in the issue. Hally only tells him to mind his own business. Soon, Hally begins to talk badly of his father. Sam knows that Hally will say something he regrets, so he tries to warn Hally to quit while he's ahead. Instead, Hally turns his anger on Sam. This is when he makes the next in a series of racial comments. He says that his father is Sam's boss, and when same says that isn't true, because he gets paid by Hally's mom, Hally says "He's a white man and that's good enough for you." Fugard 608 Soon after, Hally tells his father's joke about a nigger's arse not being "fair". He tells Sam he wants to be called "Master Harold" from now on, as a sign of respect. The irony of this situation is quite evident. "Master Harold is a boy, and the 'boys' are men." Post 116 So, Hally changes from the beginning of the play when he seems to have a respect and even a love for Sam, to requiring respect of him. His attitude of superiority over the black man is summed up with his most disrespectful action towards Sam, spitting in his face. Throughout the entire play, Hally never apologizes for his disrespect towards Sam, nor does he even show remorse. The reason is that he doesn't see his behavior is wrong. The society he belonged to deliberately sets out to humiliate black people," Durbach 69 and this created an indifference in the members of that society. In South Africa at this time, there was nothing wrong with a white boy hitting a black man. But if a black man had raised a hand against a white boy, he would have been severely punished. Although the two seem to have a friendly relationship, Hally can choose at any time to threaten Sam with the power he has over him. HALLY: To begin with, why don't you also start calling me Master Harold, like Willie. SAM: ["¦] And if I don't? HALLY: You might just lose your job. Fugard 620-624 And it would be just that easy for Hally to have Sam fired. The reason for Hally's disregard of Sam's feelings is the shame he feels about his father. He feels like he has to humiliate someone else in order to feel less ashamed of himself. So he "echoes his father's bigotry" Durbach 71. Hally brings his feelings of shame and self-doubt and tries to unload them on Sam through insults and abuse. He says it is to be a sign of respect. Here, respect loses meaning in the normal context of the word. It is not really respect, but rather correction by threat. Hally is totally safe in anything he says or does towards the two black men simply because he is a white boy in a society that hates black people. So, all the frustration and anger he has inside him as a result of how ashamed he feels of his father is misdirected onto Sam, the man who actually played the role of "father" better than anyone else. Even to the end of the play, Sam is still trying to persuade Hally to take back his racist comments and actions. He does not use violence, but rather "moral suasion and exemplary behavior" Durbach 74. He behaves like a real man in order to teach the real boy how a man behaves. The irony of the situation is that the black men are expected by society to treat the white boy as their "master" so to speak. They are supposed to treat him like a full grown man, while Hally refers to them occasionally as "the boys". In actuality, the "boys" are teaching Hally to be a man. Sam keeps trying, even offering his hand to Hally before Hally turns it down, and walks into the rain leaving Sam to feel like a failure, because he has failed in what he had set out to do with the young Hally, years ago. To "induce change in a morally receptive child" Durbach 76. When Sam offers his hand to Hally, asking him to come down off that white-only bench, which symbolizes the whole of the racist ideals which Hally demonstrates. Sam has hope for Hally, but an attitude ingrained on him from his birth is not one so easily left behind. Sam never blames Hally, realizing that he is just a "casualty of his upbringing" Durbach 76. So, Hally gets away with everything he does to disrespect the pair of black men, and at the end of the day feels no better about himself than he did before. Sam's inaction did not have the effect on Hally he might have hoped for. But Sam loved the boy, and wanted to teach him the right attitude to have. Unfortunately, the effect society had on Hally's character was too deep. So Hally is just a product of his circumstances, and nothing more.   

Racism in African society and its effect on the character of Hally in "MASTER HAROLD" …AND THE BOYS. In the play "Master Harold" …and the Boys, Hally demonstrates, through repeated acts and expressions, the sentiment of the entire African society at the time the play takes place. In 1950, the...

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The Great Gatsby, written by Scott...The Great Gatsby, written by Scott F. Fitzgerald in the 1920's is the epitome of the Jazz Age, a phrase coined by the author himself. In the novel, Fitzgerald uses many literary elements to accurately portray the time period in which he lived including setting, characters, diction, and many symbols, which form the majority of the analytical portion of the story. In fact, many of the characters in the book double as a symbol, in order to strengthen a particular motif or theme within the novel. The most apparent, recurring and powerful theme in the book is the corruption of the American Dream during the Jazz Age. Even though many scholars believe that Fitzgerald is promoting the Dream, he is actually condemning it and what it stands for. This theme is used in conjunction with the motif of appearance versus reality to criticize further the "single green light, minute and far away" 25 that many Americans have strived for: financial success, fame, power and glory. Fitzgerald masterfully uses the character Gatsby to show the illusion that is the American Dream that, in reality, is an extremely corrupt and greedy practice during the extravagant and flagrant era of the 1920's. Primarily, Fitzgerald uses Gatsby to show the corruption and the greed that consumes and destroys the followers of the Dream. When Gatsby realizes that he is not able to be with Daisy in his youth because of his social class, he decides to pave his own way by climbing to her social class. Formerly James Gatz, "he [invents] the sort of Jay Gatsby that a seventeen-year-old boy would be likely to invent, and to this conception he was faithful to the end" 95, beginning his search for a higher social class. Gatsby is willing to give up the institution of family and his heritage in order to gain monetary wealth like many of the immigrants coming over to America to make a living. This vice of Gatsby's assist the reader's negative view towards the main character and further criticizes the idea of the American Dream, because of the priority of money over family values. After his departure from Cody, Gatsby earns his money from obviously crooked proceedings. Even with his crimes not being known, it can be assumed that he is a villain and breaks existing laws. This can be seen when his party guests speculate over whether he "killed a man" or if "he was a German spy in the war" 47. This corrupt portrayal of Gatsby is confirmed later in the story through the shady character of Meyer Wolfsheim, the Jewish 'gambler' with cufflinks made from the "finest specimens of human molars" 70, showing yet again the corruption that Gatsby uses to gain his wealth; whereas The Dream advocates hard work to gain your success and wealth. Although Gatsby himself is a very disillusioned man, Fitzgerald also expresses his loathing toward the American Dream by what Gatsby is actually chasing, Daisy. After Gatsby recounts to Nick his story of past times with Daisy, Nick responds to a motivated Gatsby by declaring that one cannot repeat the past, as Gatsby is trying to do. Disillusioned, Gatsby defends his actions when he says "can't repeat the past?"¦ of course you can", attempting to counter Nick's statement. Through this quote, Fitzgerald reveals the impossibility of the American Dream, which for Gatsby, is Daisy. The followers of the Dream are mislead and will never realize their goal, the same way as Gatsby cannot repeat his past times with his dream. Later, at one of the climactic sections of the book, Daisy is forced to choose between Tom and Jay. Eventually she states, that she "did love him once- but she loved [Tom] too" 126, and eventually choosing to flee Long Island with Tom. Through her actions, Fitzgerald shows the fleeting American Dream, the dreamer never achieving his goal, just as Gatsby never claims Daisy for his own. Daisies voice is highly significant in displaying the corrupt value of the Dream, which is solely based on gaining material goods and nothing else. After meeting Daisy at Nicks house, Nick observes how her "voice held him most, with its fluctuating feverish warmth, because it could not be over-dreamed- that voice was a deathless song" 93. Daisy's voice here entrances Gatsby, and is the one thing that Gatsby will never stop loving about her. Fitzgerald is probably alluding to the sirens, the ancient mythical creatures that sang sailors to their deaths by captivating them with their magical voices; and thus giving a highly critical view to Daisy and her "deathless" voice. Further on in the novel, Nick realizes what it is about Daisy's voice that fascinates Gatsby so much. "It [is] full of money-that [is] the inexhaustible charm" 115 that draws Gatsby closer to her, that is her power over him. Gatsby is entranced by material goods, like much of the population during the prosperous twenties, and Fitzgerald uses these quotes to exploit the defects of greed and materialism in his character. By developing Gatsby and his goals, Fitzgerald exposes the fantasy of the American Dream and the corruption within it. Even though millions of immigrants came to America in pursuit of economic wealth, to turn their 'rags to riches', nearly none of them succeeded in achieving the Dream that so many sought. The Dream is truly a dream, something that one would think of subconsciously when asleep. Monetary wealth is never gained easily and as Fitzgerald demonstrates, requires corrupt means to achieve, completely destroying the illusion that is the American Dream, "the green light, the orgastic future that year by year recedes before us. It eluded us then, but that's no matter"”tomorrow we will run faster, stretch out our arms farther. . . . And then one fine morning"” So we beat on, boats against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the [unreachable] past" 171.   

The Great Gatsby, written by Scott F. Fitzgerald in the 1920's is the epitome of the Jazz Age, a phrase coined by the author himself. In the novel, Fitzgerald uses many literary elements to accurately portray the time period in which he lived including setting, characters, diction, and many symbols,...

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Erich Fromm and Shirley Jackson have...Erich Fromm and Shirley Jackson have both written wonderful true-life affecting essays and should be awarded for them. I appreciate both stories and feel they both set tales to learn from and live by. As a combined theme for both I 'ld say "human consciousness is more then a gift". And read on to see what I mean. In Erich Fromm we notice a compassionate concern for the unfolding of life. Fromm claims that "the growing process of the emergence of the individual from his original ties, a process which we may call 'individuation,' seems to have reached its peak in modern history in the centuries between the Reformation and the present." Of course, the beginning of change is not the cause of all our problems but it did magnify them because now the existence of humanity itself has become a problem according to the way I am reading into Fromm's story.Then when you shift you focus towards Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery", it depicts an ordinary day with anticipation of yearly appointments. Her description awakens you to a pleasant sunny day, flowers blooming, and everyone united around the town square. All are gathered to cast lots for the right to another year"s meeting. From the onset, this story quickly takes you into a dismal, gloomy atmosphere. The first hint comes in the first paragraph when they indicated that The Lottery will only take two hours and be over with in time for dinner." 78 This was one meeting no one was eager to attend. These two stories are different from one another in text but are same in form. Fromm later on talks about animals living completely within nature and proclaims that they are guided by instinctive behavior. He continues and says humans have lost such instinctive mechanisms. This is where Jackson's simplicity of life fall's in. She brings up Fromm's ideas of animals in a form of a meeting that took place. This meeting took place every year in the town square where all other happy and significant town occasions were held; it was not your usual gathering of friends, bringing covered dishes, balloons and clowns for the kids. A celebration it was not, but just the opposite. This story reveals the dark side of human nature. It"s flaws, lack of compassion, selfishness and "anybody but me" attitude. If you had had the opportunity to talk with my late grandmother she would characterize it as being "set in your way." When a person is set in his or her way, no one can change it. This town was set in it"s way, undoubtedly by the first villagers" that had settled there;79 who had to made killing a tradition, something that would be carried out from generation to generation. Being set in your own way doesn"t necessary have to be bad? Just imagine, if the tradition was something more positive that promote life rather than destroy it. Traditions, rituals are made from rules established. The rules could be rules of a home, a city, county, state or nation. Then again imagination can do wonders and living life is just part of nature. And that's where Fromm brings our attention to "living life". He states that although the animals are living within nature, they at the same time going above it and are conscious of themselves. Which I think is very true. Setting themselves over against nature they have lost their unity and feel unbearably alone, lost, and powerless. This same process can be seen in the development of individual human beings. Each of us initially feels at one with our environment, but then becomes gradually more aware of our individuality. Fromm determines, therefore, that "on the one side of the growing process of individuation is the growth of self-strength," but on the other side of this process is a "growing aloneness." Then again with Jackson's story one has to gaze from a distance. At first glance, one would think by reading "The Lottery," that it was to tell of someone"s great chance of fortune. After all it begins with the setting of a beautiful day. The sun was out, flowers are blooming and the grass green. However, as you continue to read, you began to question the hurriedness of getting this over with. I mean if it was a "The Lottery" as we know it today, you"re awaiting for anticipation for it to start and know that if you win, it"s a beginning and not an end. After all, how long could it take to pick a piece of paper out of the box and read off the winner, right? Wrong! When you began seeing the scenario presented, "little boys were gathering rocks and making a pile" - for a lottery? 78 People were half-heartedly smiling instead of laughing. These children stood aside grasping the hands of their brothers or sisters. The adults later arrived and they "stood away from the pile of rocks." 78 The Villagers kept their distance when the "Black Box" arrived and were hesitant when they asked for help in setting it up. This box confirmed that this was not a pleasant tradition. Its arrival announced doomed - the "Black Box." You could not get away from this black box, the description of it, it"s significance, it"s tradition and its pride, and it's color, it declining significance. Which brings me to the question of color, how exactly is it viewed and do we see it as self-conscious when little kids always run away from darker colors. Fromm answers my question by stating, if the human being is self-conscious," he realizes his powerlessness and the limitations of his existence. He visualizes his own end: death." Yet we cannot go back to the pre-human state of harmony with nature without giving up our humanity. Fromm claims, therefore, that a human being "must proceed to develop his reason until he becomes the master of nature, and of himself." But how come the nature of the people in "The Lottery" is so different? This Black Box they talk about, to me symbolized the brokenness of this town. The Box itself was not the original box, but it was pieces of the original box "There was a story that the present box had been made with some pieces of the box that had preceded it, the one that had been constructed when the first people settled down to make a village here. 79 Old Man Warner; Tessie Hutchinson; Mrs. Dunbar; Mrs. Delacroix and Mrs. Graves, I believe, were part of the first people who settled in this town and developed this ritual or tradition. Old Man Warner is seventy-seven. How has he escaped the "Black Box" all those years is simply not just a miracle. He criticizes anyone who talks of ending the Lottery. He knew that the challenge of this tradition would mean change. When you are set in your way, you are stubborn to change. Oftentimes one"s stubborness holds another in bondage. Many times traditions or rituals are carried out just because that"s all one knew. For example, a young girl asked her mother, why do you cut off the end of the roast before cooking it. The mother didn"t know why she did it. All she knew is that her mother did it all her life. So she asked her mother and her mother said, "Because it wouldn"t fit in the roasting pan I had." You might feel that these are contradictions but even if these possibilities that Fromm talks about create new contradictions, humans should be able to resolve these problems either progressively or regressively. In the struggle between the love for life and the love of death, neither tendency is ever present in its pure form, that is, holiness or insanity. In most cases there is to be found a mixture of both forms of love, and our spirit orients itself towards whichever one dominates. For Fromm, of course, the question of which form will ultimately gain the upper hand is largely settled because unlike Freud, he contends that there is and inherent, qualitative predisposition toward life to be found in all living substances. This he labels the "death instinct" as "a malignant phenomenon which grows and takes over to the extent to which the Eros does not unfold. "In contrast, for instance, to Conrad Lorenz, Fromm desires to show that the problem of human life does not lie in a reduction of instinctive reactions, but rather, that human aggression is conditioned by society and works in collaboration with the biological necessities of humanity. As the writing of Fromm repeatedly show, the fundamental problem of humanity is indeed grounded in its character, but not in deficiently instinctive behavior. This is also to be seen in Fromm's denial of the existence of original sin. "The Bible leaves no doubt that it does not consider man as either good or evil, but endowed with both tendencies"¦Yet it is very significant that in the story of the 'fall' the Bible never calls Adam's act a sin." What Adam can be reprimanded for, however, according to Fromm, is his disobedience. If, therefore, disobedience is sin, admits Fromm, then Adam and Eve sinned. Yet for Fromm disobedience is virtually a liberating act: The act of disobedience done by Adam and Eve free and opened their eyes. They recognized each other as strangers and the world outside them as strange and even hostile. Their acts of disobedience broke the primary bond with nature and made them individuals. "Original sin," far from corrupting man, set him free; it was the beginning of history. Man had to leave the Garden of Eden in order to learn to rely on his own powers and to become fully human. Fromm offers with these comments an idealistic interpretation of the fall that leaves no place for the concept of original sin. He believes he is supported in this interpretation by the Old Testament tradition because even the prophets confirm the idea that humans have aright to be disobedient. Only after their disobedience can human beings establish a harmony between themselves, other persons, and nature through the forces of reason and love. Fromm even believes that humanity, through new acts of disobedience, has progressed in its development. This applies to humans' spiritual as well as intellectual development because they liberate themselves from authorities that would not tolerate any new thoughts or any new freedoms for the individual. But in the end of all this I feel that Jackson's "The Lottery" brings up it's main theme as being " how traditions lose their meaning due to human forgetfulness" which links very well to Fromm's thoughts on how humans can accept change and not know how to put it to use.   

Erich Fromm and Shirley Jackson have both written wonderful true-life affecting essays and should be awarded for them. I appreciate both stories and feel they both set tales to learn from and live by. As a combined theme for both I 'ld say "human consciousness is more then a gift"....

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