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Outline Difference between a syllabus and a curriculum. An account of the salient factors we have to consider for constructing a syllabus. 1. Introduction. 2. Syllabus and curriculum A. Definition of syllabus B. Definition of curriculum C. Difference between syllabus and curriculum a. Basic difference b. Differences in detail approaches 3. Factors to construct a syllabus A. Type A: What is to be learn B. Type B. How is to be learn C. Van EK's necessary component D. Selection of the content E. Organization of the content F. Components to design a syllabus a. Set A b. Set B c. Set C d. Set D G. McDonough about syllabus design H. Criteria for selection and grading a. Structural b. Topic c. Functional 4. The need for a syllabus A. Should a syllabus be explicit, and if so, to whom? B. Basic organizing principles 5. Creating and reinterpreting a syllabus 6. Conclusion Introduction: Throughout the 1970s while language teaching theorists and practititioners excited themselves with course design for Specific Purpose language teaching, and while needs of adult migrants and private sectors or industrial language learners were extensively examined, the majority of learners of English continued to struggle with large classes, limited text books, few contact hours, and years of unintensive study. The work of many teachers had either been ignored by syllabus or curriculum designers, or had been interfered with by insensitive and too rapid application of ideas from ESP theory or Council of Europe discussion by administrations who did not fully realize the implications of the innovations so proudly presented. As a result, several national educational systems have 'gone communicative' or 'gone functional-notional', and then retreated after a brief trial period whatever they had before. It seemed worthwhile, therefore, to convene a symposium at TESOL Convention in Toronto in 1983 specifically to examine the role of syllabuses in normal state education. And it is also seemed worthwhile not to rush too quickly into arguments about the detailed design of syllabuses, but to clear the ground first on the definition, function and purpose of the syllabuses, for many of the difficulties in discussion of for example Wilkins' influential 'Notional Syllabuses 1976' result from the enormously varying interpretations of the term syllabus. Since a language is highly complex and pervasive, all of it which can hardly be determined cannot be taught at a time. Moreover al the phenomena related to the language might not be relevant or necessary to be taught to the learner/group of learners. Therefore, successful teaching of the language evidently requires a selection and then an arrangement of the teaching items/materials depending on the prior definition of the objectives, proficiency level to be developed in the learner, duration of the program, and the like, on the one hand, and on the other, upon the consideration of the learner's needs, lacks, aptitudes, motivation, age, personality memory transfer of training, cognitive style, and so forth. The selection and the sequencing absolutely take place in the syllabus planning stage. With the advent of much complicate theories of language and language learning, as well as recognition of the diversity of the learners' needs, wants, and aspirations, the concept of syllabus for SL/FL teaching has taken on new importance. It has also become highly elaborated, and has been examined at length, particularly in the context of ESP programs, and generally ELT planning. Thus the syllabus is now viewed as an instrument by which the teacher, with the help of the syllabus designer, can achieve a degree of fit between the needs and aims of the learner as social being and as individual and the activities, which will occur in the classroom. A syllabus is required to produce efficiency of two kinds-pragmatic and pedagogical. The former is concerned with the economy of time and money. It needs the setting of instructions to be planned, and that not all learners are to be given the same treatment. So syllabuses differ according to the practical factors present in given situation. The latter kind of efficiency is related to the economy in the management of the learning process. Instruction provided in an institutional setting is assumed to be a more efficient method of dealing with learning than allowing the learner to proceed in a non-structured environment. It is then clear that the syllabus of any kind is viewed as providing a better control of the learning process, generally by the institution and/or the teacher, but in some instance control can be and should be exercised also by the learner himself/herself. The degree and the type of control that the syllabus exercises depend on the institution-as-society. That is, in a highly democratic institution, the syllabus has to be determined and constructed by consensus. Definition of syllabus: This term covers the teaching learning items, materials, equipments and the evaluation tools. A finished syllabus is an overall plan the learning process. It must specify what components, or learning items, must be available, or learned by a certain time; what is the most efficient sequence in which the are learned; what items can be learned simultaneously; what items are available from the stock, and the whole process is determined by consideration of how long it takes to produce or learn a component or item. The process is under continual scrutiny by means of stock checks, or tests and examinations. If we point out the main ideas of syllabus it comes as follows: 1. A syllabus is a specification of work of a particular department in a school or college, and it might be broken down into subsections, which will define the work of a particular group or class. 2. In practice, it is often linked to time semesters, terms, weeks, or courses, which are tied to these. But this link is not essential, and may be counter productive in that the time is teacher based rather than learner based. But a syllabus must specify a starting point, which should be related to a realistic assessment of the level of beginning students, and ultimate goals, which may or may not be realized by the end of the course, depending on the abilities of the learners and their progress in a particular course. 3. It will specify some kind of sequence based on- a. Sequencing intrinsic to a theory of language learning or to the structure of specified material relatable to language acquisition; b. Sequencing constrained by administrative needs, materials. 4. A syllabus is a document of administrative convenience and will only be partly justified on theoretical grounds. Hence it will be negotiable and adjustable, enshrining the most useful experience of the past in order to ease the workload of the present. 5. A syllabus can only specify what is taught; it cannot organize what is learnt. It can, methodologically, allow for opportunities for acquisition and/or learning, but such opportunities cannot spelt out in detail as they will reflect the personalities of learners and continuing relationships established as the class progresses. 6. Not to have a syllabus is to refuse to allow one's assumptions to be scrutinized or to enable different teachers to relate their work to each other's. It is consequently an essential feature of work in a democratic profession or as part of democratic education. Definition of curriculum: It is considered to be a broader term used in a institution to cover politics, plans, teaching, learning items, materials, equipments, logistics everything. The first view of curriculum shows a concern with objectives and content, which are two of four elements in the traditional model of the curriculum. The second view of adds methods to the model. The methods are the means by which the ends-the objectives-are to be achieved and this forms the basis of a process view of a curriculum. The third perspective adds a fourth and final element evaluation. This brings to us the situational model of curriculum. Evaluation, as feedback, will also form a component of the construction systems model, since quality control will be an important element of any production system. It is through monitoring and feedback that planned and actual outcomes can be compared and appropriate remedial action taken to repair failures or deficits. Thus feedback will have a formative effect on action. The third perspective may represent a more realistic approach, since it takes accounts of existing systems before initiating proposals for change. The systematic changes and the installation of the new elements will, of course, require planning and the effective use of systems in order to realize new objectives, so that each of the first two approaches will make important contributions to an overall process of curriculum development. Difference between curriculum and syllabus: Some confusion exists over the distinction between syllabus and curriculum, since the terms are used differently on either side of the Atlantic. Curriculum is a very general concept, which involves consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, social and administrative factors, which contribute to the planning of an educational programme. Syllabus, on the other hand, refers the subpart of curriculum, which is concerned with a specification of what units will be taught. The European term 'syllabus' and its North American counterpart 'curriculum' often seem to be very close in meaning and sometimes further apart, depending on the context in which they are used. In a distinction that is commonly drawn in Britain, 'syllabus' refers to the content or subject matter of an individual subject, whereas 'curriculum' stands for the totality of content to be taught and aims to be realized within one school or educational system. In the USA 'curriculum' tends the synonymous with 'syllabus' in the British sense. Curriculum should not simply be seen as a kind of super syllabus because there is a qualitative difference between the two. On the one hand, curriculum may be viewed as the programme of activities, the course to learn by pupils in being educated. On the other, curriculum may be defined as all learning, which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. That is one school of thought regards the curriculum as a plan, while the other views it as activities. Allen distinguishes at least six aspects of levels of curriculum: 1. Concept formation 2. Administrative decision making 3. Syllabus planning 4. Materials design 5. Classroom activities 6. Evaluation Shaw confidently makes a line of distinction between the curriculum and the syllabus as he defines 'syllabus' as a statement of the plan for any part of curriculum, excluding the element of curriculum evaluation itself. And he concludes that the syllabus should be viewed in the context of an ongoing curriculum development process. Therefore, the terms are synonymous in USA, but in Britain a syllabus is a part of a curriculum made of many parts. But I should take the term syllabus as a part of a curriculum when the language is learned or taught as an integrated or supporting subject with others, or in a department of a different subject for example, Business Administration or Drama and Dramatics. And I would like to consider the 'syllabus' as an independent framework when an SL/FL is taught or learned autonomously as a subject in a department or an institution. Here any syllabus is most typically a plan of what is to be achieved through teaching and students' learning. Factors to construct a syllabus: The distinction and association occurs in the sector of syllabus are important to explain the factors of syllabub designing. The syllabus is a form of support for the teaching activity that is planned in the classroom and a form of guidance in the construction of appropriate teaching materials. It is concerned, from this point of view, with what is to be done in the classroom, not necessarily with what is perceived to be taught or learnt thereby; its role is essentially to make it possible of one teacher to draw the experience of another. All these important aspects come when we have to design a syllabus with the necessary materials. And certainly there is a process to design a syllabus in a proper way. The two main approaches of syllabus, which are considered for constructing it, are summarized below that are suggested by Davies 1976: Type A: What is to be learnt? Interventionist External to the learner Other directed Determined by authority Teacher as decision maker Content = what the subject is to expert Content= a gift to the learner or teacher or knower Objectives defined in advance Subject emphasis Assessment by achievement or by mastery Doing things to the learner Type B: How is to be learnt? Internal to the learner Inner directed or self-fulfilling Negotiated between learners and readers Learner and teacher as joint decision maker Content= what the subject is to the learner Content= what the learner brings and wants Objectives described afterwords Process emphasis Assessment in relationship to learner's criteria of success Doing things for or with the learners Several different factors related to the networks of psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, and pedagogy claim to be taken into consideration for framing a syllabus. The syllabus is indeed concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned, frequently set down in some written form as prescription for actions by teachers and learners. It is also concerned with the achievements of ends, often, though not always, associated with the pursuance of particular means. It is necessarily, though not obviously, imbued with particular educational philosophies, views of the subject matter, and how it may best be learned, beliefs about the relationship between the teachers and learners, all of which underpinned by particular definitions of a desirable social order and world view. Now it is patent that the factors, which are considered for constructing a syllabus, are manipulated by the syllabus and vice-versa. Van Ek lists the following necessary components of a language syllabus: a. The situation in which the SL/FL will be used, including the topics which will be dealt with; b. The language activities in which the learners will be engaged c. The language function which the learner will fulfill d. What the learner will be able to do with respect to each topic e. The general notions which the learners will be able to handle f. The specific topic notions which the learner will be able to handle g. The language form which the learner will be able to use h. The degree of scale with which the learner will be able to perform Here the social, psychological and pedagogical factors are confidently advocated as preconsiderations for syllabus construction. That is, the selections of the teaching items, and then their sequencing are obviously affected and even controlled by the social and psychological factors of the learner as a social being and as an individual. And the factors ultimate relate to the pedagogical factors and the overall concept of the syllabus planning. Selection and Organization: In the account of syllabus the focus is also on selection and organization of content, whereas, as we firmly consider, there are other approaches to syllabus which shift attention to methodology and evaluation. As a consequence of the foregoing review and discussion, it is obvious to propound a collection of typical components actively considered in designing a syllabus. Typical Components: Set A 1. Statements about the learner: a. Age, sex, motivation, attitude, aptitude, learning style, educational level, type of institution, previous attainment etc; b. Specific features- derived, elite, mono/bi/multi-lingual/cultural. 2. Statement about aims and needs: a. Reason for SL/FL learning/ teaching; b. Skill- all or two or "¦.. to be taught; c. Specific features, if any. 3. Starting and target level needs, and the determination of deficiencies, if any. 4. Information about duration/offer: a. Length of courses, number of classes per week, total duration; b. Homework, self-study; a. Qualification; b. Training; c. Competency; d. Seriousness, punctuality, honesty, sincerity, regularity and the like; e. Friendly, polite, sympathetic, humorous, democratic etc. Typical Components: Set B 1. Content: a. Specification of content; b. Grammar, vocabulary and others. 2. Time Terms/ semesters/courses/years 3. Sequence of teaching items Which to be taught, which second/next. Typical Components: Set C 1. Methodology: Which method to apply-Direct method or Audioligual method or Communicative Language Teaching Approach or eclectic method. 2. Aids and equipment: Chalk board, market board, OHP, VCR, TV, computer, cassette player and the like. 3. Books and material. Typical components: Set D 1. Examination 2. Other Educational levels The relation between preceding and following courses. 3. Relation to teacher training: Short or long-term training. According to McDonough the syllabus designers seem to have a relatively homogenous idea of the order of difficulty of various grammatical devices of simple English. Some kind of empirical validation of this, or empirical challenge is required, because despite gradual replacement of structural criteria by communicational criteria of sequencing in recent textbooks, the presentation of grammatical construction is still ordered according to intuitive ideas of relative difficulty. An early attempt to work out the implications of such findings of organizing language syllabuses was made by Valdman 1974, who discussed whether the process of pidginization could be used as a basis for grading teaching materials. But there is a problem that a little language would contain stigmatized forms, which could become fossilized. To avoid this Valdman proposed the 'Focus Approach' which Pieneman summarizes as follows: 1. The learners are allowed to use reduced and deviant forms in communicative activities. 2. However, these forms will not be brought in focus in the syllabus. 3. The learners are exposed to a fully formed input filtered only by the application of pedagogical norms. 4. The syllabus will be graded according to what is easy to acquire. Halliday, McIntosh and Strevens have noted a surprising lack of published guidance on syllabus grading, a number of criteria have been proposed and have become accepted through use and these are listed below according to focus: structural, topic and functional. Structural: Frequency, coverage ability, simplicity/complexity, learnability/ teachablity, combinability, contrast, productiveness, generalizability, natural order of acquisition. Topic: Interest and activity, need, pedagogic merit, relevance, depth of treatment, practicality, utility. Functional: Need: immediate and long-term, utility, coverage and generalizability, interest, complexity of form. Alternatives Priorities in Design: The predesigned content syllabus captures the designers selection form, and organization of the target language and its use in certain situation. The designer draws the map beginning at the destination. The result being that the whole of the rest of the map- the route through the new language and performance- is most often shaped and constrained by its own objectives and predetermined outcomes. An alternative orientation would prioritize the route itself: a focus upon the means towards the learning of new language. Here the designer would give priority to the changing process of learning and the potential of the classroom-to the psychological and social resources applied to a new language by learners in the classroom context. One result of this change of focus would be that the syllabus would be the plan for gradual creation of the real syllabus of the classroom, jointly and explicitly undertaken by teachers and learners. Such a plan would be about designing a syllabus, and therefore, a guide for the map-making capacities of its users. The need for syllabus design: Since language is highly complex and cannot be taught all the time, successful teaching requires that there should be a selection of materials depending on the prior definition of the objectives, proficiency level, and duration of the course. This syllabus takes place in syllabus planning stage. It is the appropriate strategy of presentation. It is the natural growth hypothesis, then, which appears to constitute the most serious challenge to traditional concepts of syllabus planning, and for this reason, it is worthwhile to exploring it in a little more detail. In assessing the role of the non-analytic growth model it is convenient to consider it first in the context of informal task-related programme where there is a serious commitment to the achievement of fluency in a rich target language environment. The principle of organizing a general syllabus can be structural, functional, experiential, or some combination of the three. We need this form to make the students able to communicate properly with the subject they are assigned to. The control over the text material should be exercised in a more subtle and flexible way than can normally be achieved by means of a traditional structural syllabus. Creating and reinterpreting syllabus: Although, we may follow a predesigned syllabus, every teacher inevitably interprets and reconstructs that syllabus so that it becomes possible to implement it in the classroom. Similarly learners create individual learning syllabuses from their own particular starting points and their own perceptions of the language, learning and the classroom. We may regard learners either as people who are trying to redraw the predesigned plan, or we may see learners as uncovering the route for the first time in a sense, discovering the new language as if it had never been explored. The classroom is therefore, the meeting place or point of interaction between the predisgned syllabus and individual learners syllabuses. This interaction will generate the real syllabus- or the syllabus in action-which is jointly constructed by the teachers and learners together. In the lesson-to-lesson reality of language teaching, we are continually concerned with three syllabuses: the teacher's version of the predesigned plan, the individual learner syllabuses, and the unfolding syllabus of the classroom- this last being the synthesis of the other two. One important implication of this for syllabus design is that a 'good' predesigned syllabus is one, which is positively amenable to the alternative interpretation and open to reconstruction through interactive in the classroom. Conclusion: More recent research into SLA has indicated a natural acquisition order, thus giving rise to the possibility of developing structural selection and grading principles in tune with this natural order. Pieneman has suggested modifying grading to bring the two in line, though without requiring learners to produce correct forms before they are ready to do so. To construct a syllabus the designer has to have adequate experience of the social, psychological and educational factors directly or indirectly related to the teaching program. Here is no scope for adopting any arbitrary or notional matter. As the rationale behind designing of the syllabus transforms into component part, the syllabus designer becomes bound to follow the established criteria for selecting and ordering the content, choosing the methods, prescribing the material and equipment, recommending the teacher's qualifications and determining the assessment system. When it is done the syllabus might be approximate or result in the expected or required success. While, non-deviate input will be provided, focus on current forms in learner output will be planned to coincide with the learner's stage of readiness to produce such forms. As yet, however, the kind of detailed evidence on which to base such a progression is lacking, although the accumulation of research may result in the evolution of new criteria for organizing language input to learners to avoid some of the learning problems, which appear to have arisen from syllabuses planned according to traditional criteria for structural sequencing. Anyway, a proper designed syllabus, followed by the accurate process, is the right path for the learners.
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Outline Difference between a syllabus and a curriculum. An account of the salient factors we have to consider for constructing a syllabus. 1. Introduction. 2. Syllabus and curriculum A. Definition of syllabus B. Definition of curriculum C. Difference between syllabus and curriculum a. Basic difference b. Differences in detail approaches 3. Factors to construct a syllabus A. Type A: What is to be learn B. Type B. How is to be learn C. Van EK's necessary component D. Selection of the content E. Organization of the content F. Components to design a syllabus a. Set A b. Set B c....
will be provided, focus on current forms in learner output will be planned to coincide with the learner's stage of readiness to produce such forms. As yet, however, the kind of detailed evidence on which to base such a progression is lacking, although the accumulation of research may result in the evolution of new criteria for organizing language input to learners to avoid some of the learning problems, which appear to have arisen from syllabuses planned according to traditional criteria for structural sequencing. Anyway, a proper designed syllabus, followed by the accurate process, is the right path for the learners.
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Shelley began writing 'Frankenstein' in the...Shelley began writing 'Frankenstein' in the company of what has been called 'her male coterie', including her lover Percy Shelley, Lord Byron and his physician John Polidori. It has been suggested that the influence of this group, and particularly that of Shelley and Byron, affected her portrayal of male characters in the novel. As Ann Campbell writes: '[The] characters and plot of Frankenstein reflect . . . Shelley's conflicted feelings about the masculine circle which surrounded her.' Certainly the male characters in 'Frankenstein' are more developed that those of the females. Elizabeth Fay has suggested that the female characters are 'idealised figures' in much of Shelley's work, particularly in the descriptions of Caroline and Elizabeth, the two mother figures in the novel. Caroline is, on surface value, a perfect parent, together with her husband, which renders Victor's irresponsibility in abandoning the creature more unforgivable. She 'possessed a mind of uncommon mould' which was also 'soft and benevolent'; she is compared to a 'fair exotic' flower which is sheltered by Alphonse; she drew 'inexhaustible stores of affection from a very mine of love to bestow' on Victor, and her 'tender caresses' are some of his 'first recollections'. She is the idealised mother, a figure that Shelley viewed wistfully, as her own mother died when she was ten days old to be replaced by a disinterested stepmother. Caroline's parenting provides the care that Frankenstein might well have lacked, had he been left to his father alone "“ his father dismisses Agrippa's work without explanation, thereby setting Victor on his course towards 'destruction'. This is the first introduction of a theme that continues throughout the book, that of the necessity for female figures in parenting and in society. Without a mother figure and left only with Frankenstein who subsumes both parental roles, the creature's life is blighted by his imperfection and lack of companionship. However, Caroline is also the trigger to Alfonse's chivalry, thus presenting him in an improved light and allowing his character to develop at the expense of her own weakness. This is a feminist comment from Shelley, whose mother Mary Wollenstonecraft was a notorious feminist and an important influence. Justine, too, is an 'idealised figure', described during the trial as having a countenance which, 'always engaging, was rendered, by the solemnity of her feelings, exquisitely beautiful.' She is the archetypal innocent, being beautiful, weak and entirely accepting of her fate to the point of martyrdom. She would doubtless incense feminists now, accepting death with equanimity ' "I am resigned to the fate awaiting me" ' at the hands of misjudging and dominant men. She is a somewhat two-dimensional character, being compliant in all things, enduring the mistreatment by her mother and not objecting to the injustice of her condemnation. In this sense she serves merely as a plot device, used to introduce the evil of the creature and to show Frankenstein's cowardice in refusing to defend her in time. Here she is another feminine figure used to further a male character's development, just as Caroline was used to develop the character of Alfonse. She is also a vehicle for Shelley's attack on the contemporary judiciary system, which explains her name. The character of Safie is used by Shelley as a direct attack on sexism. Safie is a stronger character than the other women in the novel, as she defies her father in escaping to join Felix. Shelley comments upon the state of 'bondage' inflicted on females in Islamic society at the time, which Safie objects to, encouraged to 'aspire to the higher powers of intellect, and an independence of spirit' by her mother. Shelley, in applauding this determination and self-respect on the part of women, is condemning a society which oppresses females and upholds males as superior. However, Safie is not merely used for this; she is also presented as a contrast to the creature, who is similarly separated from the De Laceys by a language barrier, but who can never be accepted by them because he lacks her 'angelic beauty'. She is an example of man's intolerance towards ugliness, as her beauty transcends the barrier of language whereas the creature's benevolence cannot. Elizabeth is the most 'idealised figure' of all the women in the novel, afforded the following romantic description: 'The saintly soul of Elizabeth shone like a shrine-dedicated lamp in our peaceful home . . . her smile, her soft voice, the sweet glance of her celestial eyes, were ever there to bless and animate us. She was the living spirit of love to soften and attract.' She is here made to transcend ordinary mortality to become 'celestial' and 'saintly'. This makes her death more appalling and triggers Victor's active fury, whereas the suffering of the innocent Justine did not. The base murder of 'the living spirit of love' can be said to be the creature's revenge against humankind, as the killing of something so natural and integral to humanity kills happiness with it. But whilst Elizabeth is assigned this pivotal role in the novel, she is in herself two-dimensional as a character, having no friends outside of the family and no interests save 'trifling occupations' within the household. She is content to wait for Victor, despite his long absences and frequent and serious depressions. She is the idealised woman at the time of the novel's setting, being submissive, supportive and beautiful. However, the character of Elizabeth can also serve a further purpose. It has been argued by several critics that Elizabeth is the creature's opposite, that she and he together make up Victor. She is his good half and the creature his bad. Both characters are orphans and heavily dependent on Victor. Elizabeth is beautiful, good and female, whereas the creature is ugly, evil and male. The blending of the two create Victor, who has robbed himself of gender by assuming both parental roles. It has been suggested by one critic that Victor has feminine characteristics, being 'sensitive, passionate about literature . . . and becom[ing] enamoured with [other men's] voice[s] and feelings'. This theory can be supported, in that Victor attributes to Elizabeth the ability to 'subdue [him] to a semblance of her own gentleness'. By contrast, the creature unfailingly enrages Victor, causing him to lose self-control and become violent. Whilst the feminine roles are flat and manipulated to affect the character and actions of the male roles, the latter are considerably more defined. As Elizabeth Fay writes, Shelley shows the 'realistic weaknesses and frailties' of men in the novel. Walton is presented as sexist and selfish, mocking his sister's fears for his safety in his opening sentence: 'You will rejoice to hear that no disaster has accompanied the commencement of an enterprise which you have regarded with such evil forebodings.' Margaret is an unsatisfactory audience, as he desires a companion 'whose eyes would reply to [his]'. This companion must necessarily be male, for how could a female possibly communicate adequately with him? However, despite this wish for male companionship, Walton possesses certain feminine characteristics, such as his distaste for violence: ' . . . my best years [having been] spent under your gentle and feminine fosterage, has so refined the groundwork of my character that I cannot overcome an intense distaste to the usual brutality exercised on board ship'. He writes adoringly of 'the stranger's' 'conciliating and gentle' manners, 'unparalleled eloquence', nobility and 'cultivated' mind. Walton's ambition to discover 'uncharted territories' is arrogant, as he desires to acquire 'dominion . . . over the elemental foes of our race'. He craves idolatry and power. Shelley introduces this here so that Walton's later failure towards the close of the novel is celebrated by the reader, who has understood that Victor's arrogance has caused devastation, whereas Walton has paid little heed and is bitter in his failure. Shelley is commenting on the stupidity of male hubris, which she 'sensed in the scientific ambitions of Romantics such as her husband,' as the critic James W. Maerten has suggested. Maerten writes also of Anthony Easthope, who has drawn: 'a circular fortress as a model of the . . . masculine ego. Ego . . . is entrapped in its own defences, unable to escape the barriers it has raised against a universe [which is] an enemy . . . The most praised . . . in our civilisation are those who can contain and control the most monstrous powers: biological pathogens, nuclear fission, toxic waste, vast armies. Such Promethean desires are ultimately the illusions of Icarus.' Victor's ego causes him to desire 'a new species' which would 'bless [him] as its creator and source'. He cannot control the monster that he creates, thereby losing his essential masculinity. His attempt to defy Nature and steal God's power for himself is as fatal as Icarus' stupidity in trying to do what man cannot. This male arrogance is introduced by Alphonse, who assumes the care of Caroline and renders her submissive in gratitude. The blatancy of the strong male and weak female roles here has been condemned by some, who suggest that the imposition of a male role on Victor is a form of filicide. This is responsible for his insecurity which in turn leads to his 'overreaching ego inflation'. A critic has argued that: 'Victor Frankenstein is compulsively self-destructive, driven by forces he cannot recognise to create a son by his own efforts and without the troublesome involvement of a woman . . . [upon which] he is horrified . . . and rejects the creature totally, thereby turning the son into the very monster whose existence he has always denied in himself.' It is possible to corroborate this view to some extent, as Victor's feminine qualities conflict with his identity as a man. Shelley was concerned with the issue of gender, as in her novel 'The Last Man' she created an essentially genderless character, Lionel Verney, and discussed how he only acknowledged his gender when he viewed himself in a mirror. His reflection told him that he was an English gentleman, but without this empirical perception he had no such identity. Elizabeth Fay writes of him that he is a 'feminised ideal', 'combining masculine and feminine traits in such a way as to confute traditional notions of gender'. Robert W. Anderson writes that: 'Frankenstein's creature embodies gender transgression on two levels . . . the first being [his] status as being a surgically constructed male, the second being Victor's non-gender transgression in co-opting the female trait of reproduction, transforming his laboratory into a virtual womb.' The creature has no real gender, despite being created physically as a male. He is denied male dominance over females by Victor, who has made him too ugly to be accepted into human society and then destroys the female mate that he had partially made for him. The creature, like Victor, has feminine characteristics, being profoundly affected by literature and nature, and being sensitive to emotion. He is made male only so that there can be no sexual overtones in the relationship between himself and Victor, and the battle between them can be physical and violent as well as rhetorical. The absence of femininity in the making of the creature is its integral flaw. Despite all of Victor's efforts to make the creature perfect, it will ultimately be ugly, because it is unnatural for a male alone to reproduce. Beauty cannot result of only masculinity. Shelley is condemning a single father in this. The death of her mother left her to the care of her father, whom she adored. He often neglected her, leaving her feeling unwanted. The lack of grief on the part of her husband as their babies died augmented this conviction in men's inability to care for children alone. This reinforces her message throughout the novel of the necessity for women in society. Shelley was forced to ask her husband to claim to be the author of the novel, as women were not accepted as writers at the time. Men alone in science and education are fallible, as she suggested in making Frankenstein's experiment so disastrous. Therefore the oppression of women at the time was irrational and arrogant. Frankenstein represents flawed masculinity, as an example of a society without women. Shelley manipulated masculine and feminine gender identities in her novel to try and persuade her audience that men alone cannot create, whether it be children or art.   

Shelley began writing 'Frankenstein' in the company of what has been called 'her male coterie', including her lover Percy Shelley, Lord Byron and his physician John Polidori. It has been suggested that the influence of this group, and particularly that of Shelley and Byron, affected her portrayal of male characters...

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Novels, are they parallels of the...Novels, are they parallels of the authors lives'? The story of Frankenstein is the first articulation of a woman's experience of pregnancy and related fears. Mary Shelly, in the development and education of the monster, discusses child development and education and how nurturing of a loving parent is extremely important in the moral development of an individual. Thus, in Frankenstein, Mary Shelley examines her own fears and thoughts about pregnancy, childbirth, and child development; hence a link between her and the novel is created. Pregnancy, childbirth, as well as death, played an integral role in the young adult life of Mary Shelley. She mothered four children a miscarriage that almost lead to her death, all before the age of twenty-five. Only one of her children, Percy Florence, survived to adulthood and outlived her. In June of 1816, when she had the waking nightmare, which became the catalyst of the tale, she was only nineteen and had already had her first two children. Her first child, Clara, was born prematurely February 22, 1815 and died March 6. Mary, as any woman would be, was devastated by this and took a long time to recover. The following is a letter that was written by Mary to her friend Hogg the day that the baby died. 6 March 1815 My dearest Hogg my baby is dead "“ will you come to see me as soon as you can "“ I wish to see you "“ It was perfectly well when I went to bed "“ I awoke in the night to give it suck it appeared to be sleeping so quietly that I would not wake it "“ it was dead then but we did out find out till morning "“ from its appearance it evidently died from convulsions "“ Will you come "“ you are so calm a creature and Shelley is afraid of a fever from the milk "“ for I am no longer a mother now. Mary What is informative and devastating about this letter is that Mary turned to Hogg because Percy was so unsupportive. Actually Percy didn't really seem to care that the child was dead and even went out with Claire, leaving Mary alone to suffer in her grief. William, Mary's second child, was born January 24, 1816. William died of malaria June7, 1819. Subsequently, at the time that Mary conceived of the story, her first child had died and her second was only 6 months old. There is no doubt that she expected to be pregnant again and about six months later she was. Pregnancy and child rearing was at the forefront of Mary"s mind at this point in her life. Frankenstein is probably the first story in Western literature the expresses the anxieties of pregnancy. Obviously male writers avoided this topic and it was considered taboo and in poor taste for a woman to discuss it. Mary"s focus on the birth process allowed men to understand female fears about pregnancy and reassured women that they were not alone with their anxieties. The novel expresses Mary's deepest fears; What if my child is born deformed? Could I still love it or would I wish it were dead? What if I can"t love my child? Am I capable of raising a healthy, normal child? Will my child die? Could I wish my own child to die? Will my child kill me in childbirth? Mary was expressing her fears related to the death of her first child, her ability to nurture, and the fact that her mother died having her. All of this is expressed in Victor Frankenstein"s complete failure in parenting. For approximately nine months Victor Frankenstein labored on the creation of his "child". Finally on a "dreary night in November: he witnesses the "birth": "I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs." Frankenstein pg. 51 Instead of reaching out to his child, Victor rushes out of the room disgusted by the abnormality of his creation. When the creature follows after him, Victor runs away in horror completely abandoning his child. While creating his child, Victor never considered whether this creature would even want to exist. He also didn"t take enough care with the creature"s appearance. He could not take the time to make small parts so he created a being of gigantic size. Victor never considered how such a creature would be able to exist with human beings. He did not take time with the features either and created a being with a horrifying appearance. Unable to accept his creation, Victor abandons his "child" and all parental responsibility. He even wishes that his "child" were dead. "I gnashed my teeth, my eyes became inflamed, and I ardently wished to extinguish that life which I has so thoughtlessly bestowed" pg. 87 The creature, himself, realizes that a child that is deprived of a loving family becomes a monster. The creature repeatedly insists that he was born good but compelled by others to do evil. Mary Shelley bases this argument in Rousseau"s Emile and Second Discourse. Mary"s account of the creature"s mental and moral development follow the theories of David Hartley and John Locke. Mary Shelley read Rousseau"s Emile in 1816. Rousseau stated that: "God makes all things good; man meddles with them and they become evil." Rousseau specifically attributed moral failings to the lack of a mother"s love. Without mothering and a loving education " a man left to himself from birth would be more of a monster that the rest." Thus, Mary Shelley is suggesting that a rejected and unmothered child can become a killer, especially a killer of its own family. There is definitely a strong link between the novel's plot and the events of Mary Shelly's life. Writing this novel may have been a way of dealing with the pain that would have plagued for lengthy periods of her life. The strongest links are: - Birth - Death - Rejection  

Novels, are they parallels of the authors lives'? The story of Frankenstein is the first articulation of a woman's experience of pregnancy and related fears. Mary Shelly, in the development and education of the monster, discusses child development and education and how nurturing of a loving parent is extremely important...

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A society is, by definition,... A society is, by definition, a group of people with similar interests, beliefs, and ways of life, residing and perpetuating in a specific area. Societies include people, who are organized into families, tight-knit groups of friends, and acquaintances. Individuals within a society possess certain religious affiliations, and are associated with specific institutions and workplaces. This idea of a community allows human beings to act upon their social predispositions, while still submitting to leadership, so long as the leadership seeks to serve the people. What happens, though, when society goes bad? What happens when the government controls every facet of an individual's life, when all traces of emotion, thought, and feeling are lost completely, and when husbands and wives, parents and children are turned against each other? This is a dystopian society. The topic of a dystopian society is one that is used frequently in literature. Authors often utilize this type of situation in their writing to satirize the society around them, or to provide a warning against what could possibly happen to the world. Three of the most prominent novels that are classified as dystopian literature are Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, 1984 by George Orwell, and Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. In each of these novels, the respective author is attempting to accomplish a certain goal. In Brave New World, Aldous Huxley is warning society about the dangers of becoming too hedonistic and technologically advanced. Huxley also satirizes people who are constantly in pursuit of instant happiness Booker 171. With the writing of 1984, George Orwell is warning against leaders who are hungry for power. These people would not hesitate to strip individuals of every freedom if it meant prolonging their control Booker 208. Lastly, in Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury was responding to America's cultural environment in the 1950's Booker 88. He was warning against extreme censorship, the disappearance of real relationships, and the development of a very fast-paced society. As with all dystopian writers, the writers of these three novels chose to include certain dystopian characteristics in their writing; these characteristics include: a powerful governing body, social classes, skewed relationships between individuals, a skewed sense of identity, censorship, technology, brainwashing, and rebellion by certain characters. In most dystopian literature, the government in power exerts a great amount of control over the lives of the people, often controlling their very actions and thoughts. The citizens are divided into distinct social classes, and they have no control over the matter. Oftentimes, the government will predetermine the identity of an individual, and emotionally, all subjects are identical. In a dystopian society, the government will use a few methods for controlling the identity of an individual. Censorship is defined psychologically as the "prevention of disturbing or painful thoughts or feelings from reaching consciousness except in a disguised form." Censorship can be protecting the people for their own good; however, dystopian rules use it to censor all things that are not promoting their leadership and society. Technology is "the application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives." Technology is crucial for any powerful nation or state, however, in dystopian societies; technology is used only to further the goals of the government. Lastly, brainwashing is "the application of a concentrated means of persuasion, such as an advertising campaign or repeated suggestion, in order to develop a specific belief or motivation." Brainwashing is never a positive thing, and unfortunately, all citizens in a dystopian society have had their minds molded through the use of brainwashing techniques. As with any society, a dystopian society is ruled by a governing body. However, the motivations of the governing body are what separate a normal society from a dystopian society. In a dystopian, or dysfunctional, society, the government usually seeks to promote its own goals and aspirations without taking into account the thoughts and needs of the people. This is seen heavily in all three dystopian novels. The first of the three, Brave New World, takes place in futuristic London. In the World State, the lives of the citizens are controlled in every way by the government. The government decides what class they will belong to, what job they will have, where they will live, what they will enjoy, and what activities they can take part in Huxley 12. This may seem like a daunting task, however, it is made simple due to the fact that every individual is manufactured to be exactly the same, figuring for social status which varies, but is also determined by the government. There are ten major rulers in government; they are called World Controllers Huxley 33. The resident World Controller in the story is named Mustapha Mond, and he is the World Controller in Western Europe Huxley 32. Lastly, the cultural hero in the novel is Henry Ford, who is worshipped like a God Huxley 191. Citizens commonly use expressions such as "My Ford!" and "Fordspeed". In the novel, 1984, the governing body is known the Party. The job of the Party is to supervise and control all activities of life, which they do through the façade of Big Brother, who is supposed to be the supreme ruler in the government. The only thing this government is concerned with is prolonging their own power. In order to do this, they must strip citizens of all freedom, including freedom of thought. The goal of the Party is to create the ultimate dystopia, completely opposite of Huxley's hedonistic society. In this society, the government is present in every area of the life of an individual. The government supplies a person with their occupation, food, and housing. All daily activities are controlled by Big Brother, loud alarms sound when it is time for a person to do their daily exercises and the like Orwell 30. Big Brother also monitors people closely to detect any suspicious behavior, and distributes propaganda posters Orwell 5. Basically, everything that happens in the world and to the individual is the result of the government. There is no individualism at all, and conformist behavior is essential. The government is the eye that is constantly watching over its subjects. The novel Fahrenheit 451 takes place in futuristic America. The government in place is a totalitarian government, which makes use of censorship and brainwashing. The citizens do not think for themselves, in fact, they hardly think at all. They are constantly bombarded by media that real thoughts cannot manifest. This is what the government is striving for, because during the course of the novel, it is trying to cover up a huge war that threatens to destroy the world. If people have no time to think or ponder philosophically, they will not question the motivations and actions of their government. One thing that is unique to this society is the fact that the citizens willingly submit to the government. In Brave New World, citizens are brainwashed, so they cannot think anything different, and in 1984, the citizens are forced to conform. In Fahrenheit 451, citizens are brainwashed, but it is with their consent. The people are fully capable of turning off their huge televisions, taking out the seashell radios, driving slower, and taking time to think, but they chose not to. It is easier for them to get caught up a fast paced, media-driven world. If a person was to decide to turn off their television for a while, the government would not come after them, and they would not be punished, however, they all chose to live the way that they do, and that is what has become acceptable in society. In many dystopian civilizations, the citizens are divided up into social classes. A social class is defined as a group of people with the same social and economic status. This type of social status is seen in almost every civilization in the world; however, dystopian societies implement the class system in different ways. Often, the people have no control over which class they belong to, it is usually dictated by the government. As with all things, the government utilizes the class system to further its own interests. Brave New World is a novel that displays the class system very clearly. In the novel, the citizens are divided up into five distinct social classes; these include Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons. They are all "conceived" in test tubes through the Bokanovsky process, which produces ninety-six infants from one single fertilized egg Huxley 4. These growing infants are given food and other necessities via injections into their test tube fluid. As the fetuses mature, they are provided with what they require at that point in their gestation. It is all very systematic, and if one step is skipped or neglected, there are serious results. Now, there are some instances in which select fetuses will be deprived of important things. In the creation of an Epsilon, for example, the fetus will be deprived of oxygen Huxley 13. This deprivation leads to decreased mental capability in the child, and later in the adult. Since the Epsilon will only be used for menial tasks, like manual labor, there is no need for it to have a high level of intelligence. Epsilons and Deltas are also genetically engineered to have a great amount of strength and endurance, which will suit them in their positions as they mature. On the other hand, the highest class, the Alphas, are engineered to have extremely high intelligence quotients. This is necessary because they will one day assume occupations that require a higher amount of intelligence and reasoning ability Huxley 16. This society is very class-oriented, and the classes are very obvious. One has to wonder, though, if Epsilons or Deltas ever feel angry that they were not predestined to be Alphas. The answer is that they do not. Much of the government's technological efforts are directed toward this, because if the class system is not stable, everything fails. Citizens must first be content in their social class if they are to function in society Huxley 15. Since the classes in this society are so distinguished, there is hardly any reason for individuals of two different classes to associate with each other Huxley 27. The Epsilons and Deltas serve the Alphas and the Betas. As far as relationships within the classes go, there are friends, and lovers. The only variable that this is dependent upon is gender. Everyone of the opposite sex is a potential lover. The government uses the class system in this civilization to make society run very smoothly. All members of each class are essentially the same, and the lower classes are even made up of exact clones. This makes everything run nicely because there is never a shortage of manual laborers or of highly skilled white collar workers. The government can manufacture as many citizens from each class as it needs to in order to maintain stability Huxley 9. In the novel, 1984, there are three distinct social classes. The first class is made up of the inner party members Orwell 12. These are the individuals that are involved first hand in the government; they are usually involved with the Thought Police Orwell 6, Ministry of Truth Orwell 8, and the like. These people work under the façade of Big Brother, and their job is to make sure that everything is running smoothly and that there is no unorthodoxy going on. The second, and biggest, social class is known as the outer party Orwell 29. These are the average citizens. These people are under constant surveillance by the inner party members and Big Brother. Everything about their daily lives is controlled by the government. They are designated jobs and homes, and the government directs their every action. These people are also the target of all of Big Brother's propaganda. The signs and posters reading "Big Brother is watching you!" are all directed towards them Orwell 5. They also have to go through the two minute's hate every day, and their lives are monitored continuously via telescreens Orwell 3-16. This party is under the greatest scrutiny by their government. The last party in Orwell's dystopian society is known as the Proles. A Prole is the Newspeak way of describing a member of the proletariat or working class. In this society, the Proles are equated with animals, and therefore are relatively free compared to members of the party Orwell 62. Unlike the party members, whose lives are constantly monitored through telescreens, the world of the Proles is relatively free of such devices Orwell 82. The reason for this is that the Proles lack advanced reasoning ability and cannot organize Orwell 73. The government simply uses them for menial tasks, much like Deltas and Epsilons in Huxley's Brave New World. The Proles are only concerned with the basic needs of life, eating, drinking, breeding, and fighting. They pose no threat to the government, so therefore, they are granted much more freedom than are members of the party Orwell 62. The last novel, Fahrenheit 451 differs from the previous two in that the social class are indistinct from those we know of today. Although the government censors written literature and bombards citizens with media, the socio-economic situation is virtually the same as it is in America in this day and age. If a person is poor, it is not because the government has made them that way; the same concept applies to the wealthy. The government does not control a person's occupation or housing. Also, the government does not alter an individual's personal capacity for performance to suit its needs. There really is no way that the government takes advantage of the class system in this dystopian society. In a dystopian society, government controls everything about the life of an individual. This control leads to the distortion of relationships. In dystopian societies, relationships are skewed; there are no true friendships or intimate relationships. Even families, the tightest social unit, are twisted. In Huxley's Brave New World there are two different types of relationships, relationships between people of the same social class, and people of different social classes. As far as relationships within the classes go, there are friends, and lovers. The only variable that this is dependent upon is gender. Everyone of the opposite sex is a potential lover, and everyone of the same sex is a friend or comrade Huxley 67. Each night, the citizens go out and engage in unrestricted sexual activity with members of their own social class, and the next day they refer last night's lover to their best friend Huxley 44. Conversely, members of a certain class do not associate with members of another. Epsilons and Deltas serve the Alphas and Betas by getting their helicopters ready, operating their elevators, and the like. There are no friendships or sexual relationships between members of these classes. The government uses these relationships to promote a hedonistic way of life. Since everyone is allowed complete access to everyone at all times, there is never unhappiness or the consciousness of a desire that cannot be fulfilled. The relationships between individuals in the novel, 1984 differ greatly from the relationships between individuals in Huxley's dystopia. In the World State, there is no trust, and camaraderie is non-existent, although the government tries to make it look as though it does exist. In this society, citizens refer to each other as "comrade" Orwell 20. This words implies a sense of friendship, fidelity, and trust, however these things are not present in relationships in this dystopian world. In fact, there is a complete absence of trust; children are encouraged to rat out their parents, and spouses are urged to report unorthodox behavior in each other Orwell 24. They all serve as extensions of the government, and the Thought Police, the secret police who use psychology and surveillance to monitor thought crimes Orwell 6. If a person is unable to trust their spouse, they will not be able to trust anybody else. Life is full of suspicion; a person never knows who is for, and who is against Big Brother; so it is better if they do not trust anybody, misjudgment could have deadly effects. Unlike Huxley's society, sexuality is strictly controlled in Orwell's novel. The government accepts the Freudian energy-based model, which says the energy that is required for sex could be used to serve the party Orwell 42. The government says that sex is a very disagreeable activity, and should be used for procreating strictly in the context of marriage Orwell 58. The control of sexual relationships also serves to control the formation of strong emotional attachments between individuals. These kinds of attachments are undesirable to the government. Lastly, in this dystopian society, families and friends do exist, however the words carry different meanings. People will consider themselves to be friends, although they hold no trust between them, and they do not confide in each other 43. Likewise, a family is made up of parents and offspring, but there is no love or caring between family members. Unlike in the previous two novels, the citizens in Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451 do not suffer from government control in their relationships. The relationships between people are skewed; however, it is not the government's doing. The people have submitted to a fast-paced, media driven world, so their relationships have suffered because of it. For example, the relationship between fireman Guy Montag and his wife Mildred is virtually nonexistent. Mildred's mind is so bombarded by media that she has become completely detached from reality. Guy even asked Mildred when and where they first met, and she had no idea. "When did we meet'? And where? 'When did we meet for what?' She asked. 'I mean"”originally'"¦.'I don't know', she said"¦'It doesn't matter" Bradbury 42-43. Also, other citizens do not have relationships with each other. They gather as friends, but do not talk of anything of significance; all they do is watch their giant television screens. "Or I listen [to people] at soda fountains, and do you know what?' 'What?' 'People don't talk about anything.' 'Oh, they must!' 'No, not anything. They name a lot of cars or clothes or swimming pools mostly and say how swell! But they all say the same things and nobody says anything different from anyone else" Bradbury31. These people think that they have friendships, healthy marriages, and happy lives, but in reality they are all blinded by the whirlwind of noises and images that surrounds them daily. Personal identity is defined as the distinct personality traits that define an individual dictionary. Due to the fact that their society is dysfunctional, citizens in a dystopian society are made to have skewed views of themselves and their personal identities. In Brave New World, the free sex idea forces individuals to accept twisted ideas of themselves, and their identities. As young children, citizens are conditioned to believe that everyone belongs to everyone else Huxley 30. Instead of being possessive of his lover, a man will instead refer her to his friend Huxley 39. If everyone belongs to everyone else, a person is no more their own than they are their neighbor's. People have no more worth than a piece of property or furniture. Once they have lived their useful life, they die, and society moves on. One person is not important to any one other person. Also, death is a very accepted part of life. As children, citizens are conditioned so that they do not fear death Huxley 208. Since people have no moral worth, and they do not form romantic ties or intimate friendships, they feel that they are no more important to the world than a piece of furniture. They serve their purpose, and they have some fun, but there is nothing beyond that. A person's true character and identity are evident through their thoughts and verbal expressions. For the citizens of Orwell's 1984, their identities are skewed because they are not permitted to conceive original thoughts, read literary classics, and express themselves verbally. Citizens are monitored constantly through telescreens, in their homes and public places. Big Brother is always watching on the other side, and people must be very conscientious of how they are behaving. People's thoughts are also monitored by the government. Thoughts are controlled by what is called the Thought Police Orwell 6. The Thought Police is the secret police that uses psychology and observation to detect anti-party thoughts in party members. When a person's very thoughts are taken away from them, their very identity goes away. Everyone becomes the same, just mindless followers of the party. Lastly, the new language of Orwell's dystopia, called Newspeak, seeks to take away individual identity. Newspeak is defined as "any attempt to restrict disapproved language by a government or other powerful entity" Orwell 45-46. Through the usage of Newspeak, the Party is removing all unnecessary words from the language. If people have no words to express their thoughts, the thoughts cease to exist. Thoughts cannot exist without a means of expressing them. It is in these ways that the government forces its citizens to adopt a skewed personal identity. In order to develop a positive identity, it is necessary for an individual to have time to think and reflect on life, and what their life means. However, in Ray Bradbury's novel, Fahrenheit 451, citizens live lives that are so bombarded by media, that they have lost all traces of personal identity. They have become shells, only caring about the visual and the auditory things they can experience. Most people have television screens the size of walls in their house and usually two or more walls will be made up of these television screens. The volume on the televisions is always turned up very high, and the programs are all loud so it is impossible to talk over them. Also, the citizens drive very fast, usually over 100 miles per hour. This is dangerous, and it is impossible to carry on a conversation at this speed with the wind whipping inside the car. Lastly, they always have little seashell radios plugged into their ears. These radios are on anytime when other media is not available, even during sleep. "And in her ears the little Seashells, the thimble radios tamped tight, and an electronic ocean of sound, of music and talk and music and talk coming in, coming in on the shore of her unsleeping mind" Bradbury 12. They completely lack meaning and purpose in their lives, and these things also help shape a person's identity. One of the main ways that totalitarian governments get their ideas into the minds of the public is through the use of censorship. Censorship is the "prevention of disturbing or painful thoughts or feelings from reaching consciousness except in a disguised form" dictionary. Censorship is used in the society of Brave New World as a means of eliminating strong feelings. Those who lead this civilization believe that if people are permitted to read things like Shakespeare, which are filled with strong emotions, they will be filled with emotion as well Huxley 124-125. As far as this society is concerned, emotion in general is a bad thing. It is undesirable for people to drift away from their perfect happiness. They should not be reading anything that could provoke sadness or any similar feeling. The leaders of society desire stability, emotions are by nature unstable, which is why they are not allowed. Also, the themes written about in poetry are things that citizens would have no understanding of. Shakespeare's poetry talks about love and pain, both of which are not present in society. Censorship is a true mark of a dystopian society because it allows the government to control what the populace sees, which in turn will control what the populace feels. In the World State, beautiful works of art are censored, because the leaders do not want the people feeling any kind of strong emotion that could result from reading those works. The leaders at the conditioning centre also use different forms of aversion therapy to eliminate the childlike attraction to beautiful objects. For example, at the conditioning centre, it was time for a group of Bokanovsky babies to learn to dislike books and flowers. So, the nurses laid colorful books and roses on the floor and released the babies. As the babies approached the books, there was an explosion of sirens causing the babies' "faces to be distorted with terror" Huxley 19-20. This horrible scene is just one example of how, at a young age, citizens are forced to form an aversion to things like flowers, and therefore leave behind the natural human love for nature and color Huxley 21. Censorship is seen very heavily in 1984. It is the main means by which citizens in the society loose their identities; it prevents citizens from conceiving original thoughts, ideas, and emotions. One of the major ways that the government censors what the populace sees is through the Ministry of Truth. This ministry controls all literature that circulates in Oceania. It is the official producer of "lying propaganda" Orwell 8. It is also in charge of the telescreens and party organization. Winston Smith, one of the main characters, works for the ministry of truth, rewriting history Orwell 40. The ministry has a policy of amending any written documents that speak against the government. It is constantly revising history, and will even invent people that do not exist to support the party. Since the government is the ultimate source of truth, it is never wrong Orwell 42. Another way that the government heavily censors people's lives is through the adoption of Newspeak. Newspeak is the official language of Oceania. One of the goals of Newspeak is to censor out any words that are in opposition to the party. In fact, all words deemed unnecessary are deleted. For example, the word 'wonderful' is not needed, so the word 'good' is used. However, in order to show that something is more than good, a plus is added in front, so the word becomes 'plusgood'. If 'plusgood' simply will not do, and whatever is being talked about is amazingly wonderful, the word can be changed to be 'doubleplusgood'. This system makes language very systematic, and instead of having to choose between words like 'wonderful', 'excellent', or 'amazing', one needs only to say 'doubleplusgood!' "Of course the great wastage is in the verbs and adjectives, but there are hundreds of nouns that can be got rid of as well... If you have a word like "good", what need is there for a word like "bad"? "Ungood" will do just as well... Or again, if you want a stronger version of "good", what sense is there in having a whole string of vague useless words like "excellent" and "splendid" and all the rest of them? "Plusgood" covers the meaning or 'doubleplusgood' if you want something stronger still.... In the end the whole notion of goodness and badness will be covered by only six words; in reality, only one word" Orwell 45-46. In essence, one of the main goals of Newspeak is to allow citizens to express entire concepts, such as the difference between good and bad, with only one word and its variations. In this society, the Thought Police are used to censor the thoughts of individuals. People are only permitted to think thoughts that are in support of Big Brother, and if the Thought Police detect suspicion, the person is dealt with harshly. This police force instills much fear in the populace, and causes a great amount of distrust amongst individuals. People do not know whom they can trust, so this prevents them from discussing things such as rebellion against the party Orwell 18. A person's own wife may be a member of the Thought Police, just waiting for her husband to say something suspicious. Censorship is a main theme in Fahrenheit 451. Written literature is banned in this civilization, and anyone who is found to be in possession of a book is punished severely. There is a whole occupation that is devoted to the burning of books, these people are called firemen. The firemen receive calls at the station, go to the place where the books are, drench the home in kerosene, and light it on fire. There are many reasons why books are obsolete in this society. First of all, the people and government believe that books have nothing important to say. Also, since the attention span of people has decreased to almost zero, no one has the time or patience to sit down and read. Lastly, books are seen as a source for stress and anger. Books supposedly discriminate against minority groups, they contain problems and theories that don't line up, and generally threaten the stability of society wikipedia. It is for these reasons that the government has decided to put the charge of heresy on anyone found with a book wikipedia. To replace books, the government distributes comic books, sex magazines, and television shows, which supply the populace of what it desires, entertainment. Technology is "the application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives" dictionary. This use of science is used in Huxley's Brave New World for a variety of ends. One of the most distinguishing characteristics of the novel is the advanced technology that is present in the society. In the World State, technology is used to produce babies and condition children. Technological machines are used to immerse the populace in an ever-present flow of noise and media, which prevents the manifestation of thought and emotion. Technology has also supplied advanced methods of contraception, so that the people can engage in free sex, and pregnancy is totally eliminated Huxley 50. Lastly, technology has allowed the people to age, while showing no physical signs of it Huxley 111. Illness and disease are not present in society as well. Life in the World State begins at the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre Huxley 1. It is here where eggs are fertilized, incubated, decanted, and conditioned as children, so that they may one day be released, to go out into the world as fully functioning members of society. In this society, eggs are produced using the Bokanovsky process. In a normal world, one egg equals one embryo, which equals one adult; however, the Bokanovsky process allows the hatchery leaders to manufacture up to ninety-six normal adults from one fertilized egg Huxley 4. Stability is the primary concern for leaders, and being able to control the world's population like that is desirable. Once these fetuses are decanted, or born, they begin conditioning, which lasts from infancy to the late teens. The goal of conditioning is for the leaders to impart the ideology of the World State into the minds of the youngsters. By the end of conditioning, each young adult will have centralized the ideology, and will obey it without question. The main medium of conditioning is known as hypnopædia Huxley 24. Hypnopædia is when certain catch phrases are replayed over and over while the children are sleeping. For example, the phrase "everybody's happy now" is repeated 150 times a night for twelve years. This type of technology allows the idea's of the government to manifest themselves in the children. Technology also provides citizens of the World State with complicated methods of entertainment, known to them as games. They are not permitted to play any game that does not require many expensive parts. Some of these games include "Centrifugal Bumble-Puppy", "Riemann Surface Tennis", and "Electro-Magnetic Golf" Huxley 29, 44, 56. The reason why only these complicated games are allowed is because the government is trying to promote its exaggerated capitalism Huxley 22. More parts lead to more labor, which leads to more jobs; all of this keeps the economy rolling. In addition to games, people can visit the feelies, which are incredibly high technology movie theaters. In the theater, each person places their hand on a metal knob, which allows them to feel the physical sensations that the actors are experiencing Huxley 34. Also, other forms of entertainment include the scent organ, which combines music with pleasant smells; the synthetic music boxes, and the colour organs, which combine music with a light show Huxley 70. Transportation in the World State is also very technologically advanced. Most people travel around town in helicopters, taxicopters, or sporticopters Huxley 29, 203. The lower caste civilians travel around in monorails Huxley 73, and global travel is done in a rocket plane, which is color-coded according to where it is headed Huxley 58. There are a few remaining ways in which advanced technology is used in society. First, most of the clothing worn by individuals is composed of high-tech materials, such as acetate or viscose Huxley 50. Also, most of the buildings are skyscrapers, made of materials including vitra-glass, and ferroconcrete. Men shave with electrolytic razors, and sex-hormone chewing gum dominates the market Huxley 60. When a citizen comes home from a hard day's work, they can use one of the many vibro-vacuum massagers to relax Huxley 53; and if this doesn't quite do the trick, they can take a few grams of soma to send them into a dreamland. The purpose of most of this technology is to keep the citizens in a state of sublime happiness, and it certainly works. The technological situation in George Orwell's 1984 is almost the exact opposite as it is in Huxley's novel. In this society, technology is used for only two things: surveillance, and weaponry Orwell 71-72. Big Brother's use of telescreens is one of the main ways that technology is put into use. Telescreens are two way televisions, through which the government can monitor its subjects. They are on twenty-four hours a day, in homes and in public places. It is impossible for citizens to turn them off, and they are constantly spouting off pro-party propaganda. They are also used to ensure that a citizen is doing their duty at all times. If a person gets lazy and takes a rest from their work, a voice from the telescreen will order them to get back to it. Aside from telescreens, there are a few other areas in which technology is used. For example, Winston uses a speech-recognizing typewriter when he works at the Ministry of Truth Orwell 34. Also, there are novel writing machines, which compose volumes full of propaganda Orwell 12. Since capturing rebels is one of the main concerns of the government, a lot of the government's technology is channeled towards finding new methods of interrogation, and new ways to detect thought criminal. There are almost no technological advancements made in any other field, because only technology that suits the needs and purposes of Big Brother is fit to be used. In Fahrenheit 451, most of the society's technological efforts are directed toward the media, and finding new ways of distracting the citizens. In this society, the minds of citizens are constantly flooded with visual and auditory stimulus, which numbs them to what is important. There are many technological advancements that play a part in this, including giant television screens. In most homes, there are two or more walls that are covered by an enormous television screen. These televisions are almost always on, and the shows that they play are loud, and have no meaningful plot at all. "It'll be even more fun when we can afford to have the fourth wall installed. How long you figure before we save up and get the fourth wall torn out and a fourth wall-TV put in? It's only two thousand dollars"¦If we had a fourth wall, why it'd be just like this room wasn't ours at all, but all kinds of exotic people's rooms. We could do without a few things" Bradbury 20-21. The thing that is strangest about the televisions is that the programs that are shown mean absolutely nothing. Even the viewers themselves have no idea what the shows are about. The only thing that matter is that they are entertaining, and that they distract the mind. "What was on?' 'Programs.' 'What programs?' 'Some of the best ever.' 'Who?' 'Oh, you know, the bunch." Bradbury 49. As is evident from this dialogue between Guy and Mildred, she spends her whole day watching these programs, yet is unable to tell him what they were about, or who was in them. Along with television walls, seashell radios are another technological advancement that preoccupy people's minds. Seashell radios are small radios that are inserted into the ear; they are turned on during any time span when other distraction is unavailable. Guy Montag's wife, Mildred, always has these little devices in her ears, which makes him incapable of carrying on conversation with her. Lastly, technology has allowed the government to create something that is called the mechanical hound. The purpose of this animal is to accompany the firemen to their calls, and aid them with their work. "The mechanical hound slept but did not sleep, lived but did not live in its gently humming, gently vibrating, softly illuminated kennel back in a dark corner of the firehouse"¦The animals were turned loose. Three seconds later the game was done, the rat, cat, or chicken caught half across the areaway, gripped by gentling paws while a four-inch hollow steel needle plunged down from the proboscis of the Hound to inject massive jolts of morphine or procaine" Bradbury 24-25. This hound is a frightening creature, and demonstrates how technology is used in this society to invoke fear in all those that oppose the censorship policies of government. One of the most prominent characteristics of a dystopian society is the government's use of brainwashing. Brainwashing is "the application of a concentrated means of persuasion, such as an advertising campaign or repeated suggestion, in order to develop a specific belief or motivation" dictionary. This means of persuasion is seen heavily in all three novels. In Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World, the citizens are brainwashed from birth through the use of hyponopædia. Hypnopædia is the repetition of certain words or catch phrases over a long period of time. As the children are sleeping, little speakers in their beds emit these phrases hundreds of times per night, for many years wikipedia. Some of these phrases include "ending is better than mending", "the more stitches, the less riches", and "everyone belongs to everyone else" Huxley 39. Each of these phrases helps to indoctrinate a belief of the government. The first two make the citizens believe that if something is broken or torn, it is much better to simply throw it away, rather than mend it. This promotes the exaggerated capitalism of the World State, and keeps the economy strong and stable. The last phrase promotes the idea that everyone is the same, and there is no individual identity. This idea gets rid of all forms of jealousy, envy, anger, and love. Since everyone belongs to everyone else, there are no strong feelings between individuals. Also, in order to keep its citizens in a sublimely happy state at all times, the government distributes soma, a hallucinogen, which will cause a person to slip away into a dreamland. The citizens take soma on a daily basis if they are upset in any way "you do look glum! What you need is a gramme of soma"Huxley 54. Soma supposedly has "all the advantages of Christianity and alcohol; none of their defects" Huxley 54. Basically, soma is meant to lift up a person to a state of well-being, but it has no side effects. Even as children, the citizens of the World State are conditioned to just pop in a soma anytime they are feeling a tiny bit upset. The hypnopædic phrase that is used for this is: "A gramme is better than a damn" Huxley 54. One good example of how soma is used in this society is when Lenina, one of the main characters, visited the savage reservation. She was so upset by the horrors of what she saw there, that she decided to go on a soma holiday. When she got back to her room, she swallowed a large amount of soma, in hopes of finding relief "As soon as they got back to the rest-house, she swallowed six half-gramme tablets of soma, lay down on her bed, and within ten minutes had embarked for lunar eternity. It would be eighteen hours at the least before she was in time again" somaquotes. The citizens use soma as an escape from anything unpleasant that could occur in their lives. The government uses it to keep the citizens happy, and happiness means stability, which is the ultimate goal Huxley 53. For the governing body in George Orwell's novel, 1984, the main goal is for every citizen to love and be completely devoted to Big Brother. To accomplish this, the government makes use of various forms of brainwashing. The Ministry of Truth is in charge of distributing literature in favor of the party Orwell 39. In fact, all literature that is available in society comes from the government; so, all written words speak in favor of Big Brother. For example, the Ministry of Truth is in charge of managing history. This would seen odd because history should be somewhat fixed. History happened, and it is impossible to change things of the past. This is true in a normal society; however, in the world of 1984, history changes almost daily. History is what Big Brother says it is, and nothing more. If what the history books say does not concur with the teachings of the government, it will be rewritten Orwell 40. Government has control of everything, all the way down to the history of the world. Due to Big Brother's ultimate control over the historical record, citizens must doubt their own knowledge. If a citizen knows that they were born in the year 1975, but Big brother says that they were born only 3 years ago, that is truth; and all newspapers, history books, and birth records will be written to support Big Brother's version of the truth. Therefore, the person is only three years old, regardless of what they think they know or remember Orwell 10. This brings into question the place from which truth is drawn. In this novel, truth is drawn from the government, not from experiences and memories of individuals. The Ministry of truth also functions in distributing other forms of brainwashing. It distributes all of the newspapers, films, textbooks, telescreen programs, plays, novels, instructions, and entertainment that are to be found in society Orwell 39. Every word that can be read by a citizen comes from Big Brother's mouth to the people through the Ministry of Truth. If there is nothing in opposition to these ideas, there is nothing else to believe. Also, the Ministry will make up historical figures that support the party, even if these people never existed Orwell 42. Since the government is the ultimate source of truth, there is no reason for citizens to question whether or not these people existed. The last form of brain washing that the government in the novel uses is called the Two Minutes' Hate. This is a daily occurrence, during which the citizens are shown a video depicting the party's greatest enemy, Emmanuel Goldstein. During this video, the observers are worked up into a complete frenzy. They often thrown things at the telescreen, scream, yell, jump around, and hiss at the characters on screen Orwell 13-16. This ritual is so convincing that even when Winston Smith is determined not to participate, he still gets sucked into the frenzy of hatred. This daily practice is even extended into a weeklong festival, called Hate Week Orwell 5. These things force the citizens to adopt a deep hatred for enemies of the party, and a great love for Big Brother. The citizens in the futuristic world of Fahrenheit 451 are brainwashed by the massive amounts of media that they are exposed to, and they are brainwashed to believe that books hold no real value. Since citizens in this society are constantly absorbed in media and television, the government uses this as a means of imparting its beliefs. The government wishes to keep people distracted, so it shows programs that are heavy in visual and auditory stimulus. These stimuli keep the people totally engrossed in what is going on in their television screens, so that they do not know or care about what is going on in the world. This is desirable by the government because throughout the novel it is trying to cover up a huge war that threatens to destroy the world. Also, the people have been persuaded that books are not necessary. Books have been replaced by the government, and sex magazines and comics remain in their place. To further this aversion to books, the government set up the firemen, whose job it is to enforce the laws against books. People have come to believe that life should be lived fast, books are irrelevant, and the television is "family". If a government exerts too much control over those whom it rules, rebellion will naturally occur. There is no possible way for a government to persuade, even brainwash, every individual into believing its ideology. There will always be someone that does not conform, goes against the norm, and discovers the truth. Bernard Marx is the first rebel that is seen in Brave New World. He tries desperately to conform to this hedonistic society, but unfortunately he can not. Bernard is set apart from his peers by the fact that he is very short. His friends decided that his shortness is due to alcohol being inserted into his blood surrogate by mistake Huxley 46. His lack of height separates him from the other Alpha-plus's and he even has to yell at Epsilons to get his orders obeyed. Other characteristics that set him apart are his dislike of the feelies, soma, and his lack of promiscuity wikipedia. Bernard feels a great amount of jealousy for his sexual "rivals", even though this type of feeling is not supposed to occur. Bernard seems to be more of a human, as opposed to his robotic peers who are walking, talking extensions of the government. Bernard is a rebel because he doesn't fit in with his counterparts due to his size. He also dislikes the normal, everyday things of society, and he experiences thoughts and emotions that he should have been conditioned not to feel. He is an anomaly in this "perfect" society. The next rebel is named Lenina Crowne; she works at the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Center. Lenina demonstrates several behaviors that are not what is considered normal. For example, she dates one man exclusively for nearly two months straight Huxley 39. This is extremely unconventional, because she was conditioned to be very sexually promiscuous. Also, she sleeps with Bernard Marx, who is not a very handsome or well-liked man Huxley 58. Lastly, she develops a great liking for John the Savage, almost to the point of being in love with him Huxley 191. She does not understand these feelings, so she tries to act upon them in the only way she knows how to, through sex. Unfortunately, John is appalled by her behavior and treats her violently wikipedia. The last rebel from this novel is named John, or John the Savage. John lived with his mother, Linda on an Indian reservation. John is mocked there because of his fair skin, and because his mother is very promiscuous Huxley 125. When Lenina and Bernard visit the reservation, they bring John back with them. He is very popular amongst the World State citizens. However, he does not fit in with their world. He has been conditioned by the works of Shakespeare, and desires pain, love, and sin Huxley 132. He cannot find any of these things in the World State, and he is disgusted by their promiscuity and use of things like soma. He eventually isolates himself and performs regular self-purging rituals. He is eventually commits suicide, beaten by the brave new world. "Slowly, very slowly, like two unhurried compass needles, the feet turned towards the right; north, north-east, east, south-east, south, south-south-west; then paused, and, after a few seconds, turned as unhurriedly back towards the left. South-south-west, south, south-east, east"¦" Huxley 267. John was a true outcast, denied both in his Indian tribe, and in the World State. The rebels in Orwell's novel, 1984, are more conscious about their acts of rebellion. Winston Smith is a man who works in the Ministry of Truth. His work there leads to a preoccupation with the real truth Orwell 68-69. He begins to question Big Brother's policy. At the ministry of truth, he meets a young woman named Julia, a mechanic. They begin to have an illicit sexual relationship, meeting in the country, and other secluded places Orwell 100. As this goes on, Winston continues to grow in his questioning of Big Brother, and the English Socialism that is in place. He and Julia see their relationship as a way to rebel against the Party, and they are eventually arrested by the Thought Police. They are each questioned separately in the Ministry of Love, and Winston is tortured numerous times Orwell 186. His captors are seeking to change Winston's very thoughts, and they are successful in bringing Winston back to loving Big Brother. In this case, the overpowering, and ever-present government was able to suppress rebellion. In Ray Bradbury's novel, Fahrenheit 451, there are five major rebellious characters. The first that is seen is a seventeen year old girl named Clarisse. Clarisse meets the main character, Guy Montag, outside on the street near their homes. She immediately comes off as strange and mature for her age. Clarisse has a deep appreciation for nature and people. She is one of the only characters that is not caught up in the fast paced society. "They want to know what I do with my time. I tell them that sometimes I just sit and think. But I won't tell them what. I've got them running. And sometimes, I tell them, I like to put my head back, like this, and let the rain fall in my mouth. It tastes just like wine. Have you ever tried it?" Bradbury 23. Clarisse introduces Guy to nature and thought. She grabs him by the arm and slows him down. He begins to have a deep appreciation for her, and for her original way of thinking, although he still finds it strange. Unfortunately, Clarisse is killed in a high-speed car accident. This is ironic, because she talked frequently of how fast cars went, and how they never slowed down to see anything. After the death of Clarisse, Guy becomes increasingly interested in what exactly books have to say. This interest was sparked by a special call he got at the fire station. They got a call to go to an old woman's home and burn her books. When they got there, she refused to exit the house, and ended up lighting her home on fire with herself in it. Guy decided that there must be something in books if an old woman is willing to be burned with them, rather than having them be burned for her. "There must be something in books, things we can't imagine, to make a woman stay in a burning house; there must be something there. You don't stay for nothing" Bradbury 51. This woman's act of rebellion drove Guy to find out what merit there was in books. Eventually, he met Faber, a retired English professor. Faber deeply loved books, yet was too afraid of the consequences to rebel. Towards the latter end of the story, Guy Montag ended up on the run from the hound. He came across a group of people, led by a man named Granger, who memorize entire texts as a way to preserve literature. Guy joined them, and they continue in their act of rebellion, preserving the written word. Dystopian societies are a world in which no human would ever want to live. They are dysfunctional societies, in which person rights and freedoms are sacrificed to further the government, and its goals. The governments are always very powerful, and exert complete control over the lives of its subjects. People are usually divided up into social classes, and they have no control over them. This warped view of life leads to the development of skewed relationships between people, and a skewed sense of identity. People do not see themselves as humans, but as possessions, or government drones. The government censors written literature, television, plays and the like, and replaces them with their own, promoting their own goals. Technology, which is capable of making a country a superpower, instead helps to make the government a superpower. Technology is used to invade people's space, thoughts, and privacy; it strips the individual out of every natural human right. The government also implements brainwashing, to ensure that all citizens believe what the government believes. Brainwashing takes away individual thought, and makes each person an extension of the government. However, despite all this, there are always a few individuals who rise up and challenge the authority. Sometimes this rebellion is intended, sometimes its not, and unfortunately it is rarely ever successful. Each of the above traits can be seen heavily in the three most famous dystopian novels of all time; Brave New World written by Aldous Huxley, 1984 written by George Orwell, and Fahrenheit 451 written by Ray Bradbury. All of these authors are presenting a warning, by showing the direction in which the world is heading. Every piece of literature has a purpose. Perhaps the purpose of dystopian fiction is to keep the world from making a horrible mistake, and paying the ultimate price in the sacrificing of human right in return for power.   

A society is, by definition, a group of people with similar interests, beliefs, and ways of life, residing and perpetuating in a specific area. Societies include people, who are organized into families, tight-knit groups of friends, and acquaintances. Individuals within a society possess certain religious affiliations, and are associated...

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