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Pantomime
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This paper is about pantomime, about it"s origin, it"s people, how it has evolved, and how wonderful it is. Pantomime is a dramatic performance in which a story is told or a theme developed through expressive bodily or facial movement. The origin of pantomime can be traced back to classical farce and the Italian Commedia Dell"arte. Not all pantomime is silent. The completely silent performance of pantomime was invented in Rome. Pantomime is sometimes used to worship. Mime is a short way of saying pantomime and also means someone who performs pantomime. A mime, if performing on the streets, will...
heart that lights up like a neon sign when he sees a pretty girl, another could drive a really small sportscar, or one may wear a trick costume which enables him to change from an old lady to a midget, and back again. One clown may run away from a stuffed tiger that is attached to him by a thin wire.

As you can probably see, pantomime has changed over the years and there have been ups and downs during the change. There were also some performers who saved, or played a big part in the history of pantomime.

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Andre Parfeniuk Student # 10260974... Andre Parfeniuk Student # 10260974 December 3, 2001 The Impact of Dziga Vertov on Film " The main and essential thing is : the sensory exploration of the world through film. We therefore take as a point of departure the use of the camera as a keno-eye, more perfect than the human eye, for the exploration of the chaos of visual phenomena that fills space." - Dziga Vertov , Manifesto The Council of Three 1923 The innovative theories and filmmaking techniques of Dziga Vertov revolutionized the way films are made today. Man With a Movie Camera 1929, a documentary that represented the peak of the Soviet avant-garde film movement in the twenties, displayed techniques in montage, creative camera angles, rich imagery, but most importantly allowed him to express his theories of his writings of Kino-eye the camera. The film has a very simple plot that describes an average day in Russia, yet the final pieces of this film emerge a complex and fast-paced production that excites the audience. Vertov"s ability to use radical editing techniques with unconventional filming to present ordinary things has inspired many directors around the world. And still now modern avant-garde movies apply many of these same techniques to dramatize simple and complex stories. Vertov was one of the greatest innovators of Soviet cinema in the post WWI era. During this time, the freedom to make films was limited due to low stock of supply. Vertov and his colleagues had to be very creative and innovative if they were going produce anything at all. "The Kuleshov Workshop", a workshop class at the Moscow Film School led by Lev Kuleshov included famous Soviet filmmakers like Vsevolod Pudovkin and Sergei Eisenstein, but excluded Vertov. This is significant to the fact that Vertov was very different than any other Russian director. Unlike the other Russian filmmakers, Vertov usually captured people with a candid-camera that allowed him to portray the truth, for example in his series called Kino-Pravada 1922-1925. "Not "filming life unawares" for the sake of the "unawares", but in order to show people without masks, without makeup, to catch them through the eye of the camera in a moment when they are not acting..." 41 Vertov His original ways of thinking, isolated him from all other filmmakers. Even his style of using "montage" editing style commonly used by Soviet directors in Man with a Movie Camera was very different. In this film, hours of footage are edited together in many cuts, which is the style that Vertov is well known for. His cuts are very rapid and he displays them accordingly to music to add excitement to the sequence. The sequences act on all three levels of montage: narrative, intellectual, and emotional. For example in the beginning of Man with a Movie Camera, there is a sequence in a theatre where the cameraman sets up the film for the audience to watch appendix 1. The lights come on, the seats go down, the cameraman sets up the projector, the audience enters, the lights dim, the orchestra awaits and then the manifest begins. The narration comes from the editor throughout the whole film. The cameraman cannot possibly be the narrator since he is randomly out of frame and it is a silent film. "From the very beginning"¦ the centrality of the cameraman"s vision is put into question, since he moves out of frame in the third shot of the film. In other words, the cameraman cannot be equated with a central character, or even the central narrating intelligence of a narrative film, since visual perspective is not localized in a single figure, but dispersed through multiple perspectives." 162. From this point, the film is bombarded with sequence after sequence of 9 daily ordinary events that occur from morning to night in an orchestral movement manner. Bombarded are the cuts because of the abundant amount of imagery and plenty of assorted camera angles. There are a large variety of metaphorical cuts that search an intellectual response of the audience. For example, when the woman wakes up from bed at the very beginning, a clip of window shutters, a camera lens opening and closing, are juxtaposed in a sequence of her blinking appendix 2. This sequence is a metaphor connecting the lens of a movie camera as "an extension of human vision". As the rapid-fire cuts increase with the music, tempo and rhythm, an emotional response is experienced, and this thesis metaphor of the film is emphasized. Other examples of this same technique are thoroughly presented in each other of the nine events. Amongst this array of symbolism, there exists other editing techniques that makes the film even more powerful at certain times. About twenty-one minutes into the film, Voltov"s wife Elizaveta Svilova appears at the beginning of a movement at the editing table, with a pair of scissors. She is in the midst of cuts between her and a series of freeze-frame stills, beginning with a horse pulling a carriage and ending with close-up faces of people appendix 3. At this point, the importance of the editor is achieved, and as more editing techniques or "visual treats" Mast, 187 are displayed to the audience, we realize that the editor is the other central figure in the plot. Formal cuts, an example of another editing technique, emphasize the importance of the circles or circular motion in machines, such as those of sewing machines, train and car wheels, and the movie camera itself. This demonstrates the machine as a major figure in film now as well. Accompanied with tonal, rhythm tic, and directional cuts, the filming comes from all different types of angles which grasps the audience"s intellectual response. From the very start, the cameraman is picked up in a car that is viewed traveling across the frame from a very high angle overhead appendix 4. Then he is taken to the railway where the music heightens as he lies on the railway tracks to get a very dangerous shot of the train approaching. The peak of this sequence becomes loud with music and extremely fast with cuts from all angles of the train appendix 5. A very powerful editing technique is used here to emphasize the importance of the cameraman in the scene. By adding blackness to the frames, giving the video a strobe lighting effect, the viewer becomes attentive to what is visual not black. Slow motion, split screens, dissolves, and the use of prismatic lenses are some other "visual treats" that make the audience appreciative of the film. Closer to the end of the film, there is even a stop-motion animation of the movie camera setting it-self up. The audience is brought into this sequence so that the film reminds us that this is a show for the audience. The camera has a job to entertain us, and Vertov who has always been very fascinated with the movie camera"s tricks, wants the audience to realize all the little tricks it is capable of doing. These tricks are more than just entertainment, but these editing techniques serve as the camera"s superiority to the human eye. Vertov explains this idea in his writings of Kino-Glaz Kino-eye or Cinema eye. "Starting today we are liberating the camera and making it work in the opposite direction - away from copying. The weakness of the human eye is manifest. We affirm the kino-eye, discovering within the chaos of movement the result of the kino-eye"s own movement; we affirm the kino-eye with its own dimensions of time and space, growing in strength and potential to the point of self-affirmation." 7 The relationship between man and the camera is one the main focuses of this documentary, which was a very rare focus in the times of a harsh state of communist propaganda. Man with a Movie Camera takes a break from the all the other Soviet films that only focused on unity between people, communism, and praising Stalin and mother Russia. The film has an excellent message describing the relationship between the worker and the machine. We discover the souls of the machine, we are in love with the worker at his bench, we are in love with the farmer on his tractor, the engineer on his locomotive. We bring creative joy into every mechanical activity. We make peace between man and the machine. We educate the new man. [Lynton, 110] Vertov uses this message to explain his job and his relationship to his camera. Declaring the lens of his camera as an extension of human vision, he searches for an "absolute language of cinema." "He moves outside of Hollywood storytelling, and closer to an absolute language of cinema that he seeks." Denkin 7 Run Lola Run The language that Voltov discovered has inspired the works of many filmmakers from all over the world. The film Run Lola Run 1999 by Tom Tykwer, is probably one of the most innovative films of today"s Hollywood style movie, which many similar filming and editing techniques originated in Voltov"s Man with a Movie Camera. Tykwer uses a number of different ways to film Lola as she runs to save her no good boyfriend from certain death. From an artistic point of view, the editing deserves most of the credit for all of the intensity that is felt by the viewer. Run Lola Run has a very complex story, which is very interesting on its own. However by using the avant-garde techniques of filming and editing developed and mastered by Vertov, the movie becomes alive and fast-paced keeping the audience in suspence at all times. In Run Lola Run, Lola has twenty minutes to find 100,000 marks if she is to save the life of Manni, her boyfriend who lost the money which was picked up by a homeless person on the subway. Manni has until 12 o"clock noon to get the money, or his boss, a drug dealer, will kill him. Lola runs into the streets of Berlin attempting to find the money one way or another. From the opening frames of the movie, several "visual treats" set the tone of the film. There is a clock sound with animation of a huge clock at warp speed. With the aid of accelerated speed of the frames, dissolves, thousands of people are passing into and out frame. Within these thousands of people, certain characters, which are later introduced into the story, are focused on for a split second. This foreshadowing technique, hints who some of the characters are, in the film. It sets a high tempo where figures collide, quickly in and out of frame to the narration of a God-like voice that asks us questions about questions of man and where we come from. He gives us an answer, but it is probably the last answer we would expect: soccer. After the credits are displayed through an animated cartoon of Lola running, the real story begins and Tykwer establishes a smooth flowing arrangement of editing techniques that replicate those used by Vertov. Because there is panic felt right off the start as the phone rings, a techno drum thumps a heartbeat while the conversation on the phone is cut into rapid-fire editing from medium to close-up shots to Lola and Manni"s expressions and dialogue. The quick cuts are very attractive, as the camera at times doesn"t even move an inch, but with so many of them, there is a quick tempo that escalates on the dramatic parts of the conversation. These quick cuts are very similar to the rapid-fire editing between the juxtaposing clips of the woman blinking, the window shutters, and the camera lens opening in Man with a Movie Camera. Throughout Run Lola Run, Tykwer"s use of creative tricks of the camerawork and editing, give the story drama and comedy in 3 trials of Lola attempting to save her boyfriend. The repetition of Lola running through the streets of Berlin is original and anything but boring, as cameras flow with her running to her father to get Manni the money. Quick cuts, high and low angle shots, split-screens, fast and slow motion, animation, still frames, and symbolic music are amongst all the camera tricks Tykwer uses in the footsteps of Vertov. Several parts of Run Lola Run also use the effect of still-frame flashforwards to tell little stories within the main story. Like in Man with a Movie Camera, still frames were used to emphasize characters. However, Tykwer goes beyond the use of the stills to emphasize character. He used them to tell little stories about certain people Lola bumps into on her path to get the money. If Lola interacted with certain characters amongst her path, the camera would focus on that person and a series of flashforwards would snap ten different shots looking into their future. Each flashforward episode consists of a series of almost subliminal stills; each appears on screen for approximately one third of a second only. The flashforwards depict drastically different and quite extreme outcomes for each person, creating a humorous effect for the audience. It is as if Lola, in imagining/performing a series of three contrasting futures for herself, also creates different possible futures for other people. This editing technique is powerful in that the viewer is allowed to know how even the slightest split second difference in Lola"s action, changes the very lives of the people she encounters. This in turn foreshadows a different result of her quest to find Manni 100 000 marks every trial. Vertov"s unconventional ways of filming different camera angles with the use of machines and vehicles, is apparent in the film Run Lola Run. The different angles of shots, including helicopter and crane shots, reflect the myriad of perspectives possible at any one time. Particularly striking are the shots featuring Lola and Manni, in which the frame is split into two, three and sometimes even four sections. Lola and Manni"s points of view are revealed simultaneously and the performance of identity by different individuals is intertwined. Tykwer uses the split-screen effect to add suspense when noon approaches and Lola hasn"t arrived to Manni"s aid. The split-screen replaces the purpose of the cross-cut effect and displays both person"s point of view. She is running and he is deciding whether he should rob the store or not, so the suspense is increased when it is clear that she is very close to him. In Man with a Movie Camera, the split screen was also used to heighten the emotions of the audience. In the opening frame of the film, we see the cameraman setting up his camera on top of a camera appendix 6, giving the audience the suspense of what he is preparing to shoot and with the effect of an interesting and different image. This suspense is not as extreme as the effect of the split screen in Run Lola Run, nor does it provide a similar narrative function, however, this editing technique serves as a purpose in building montage in both films. Run Lola Run and Man with a Movie Camera are two very similar avant-garde films of their time specializing in editing, however the two films are completely different in plot. Man with a Movie Camera is a documentary and Run Lola Run is a suspenseful drama. There are no actors, dialogue, intertitles, scenario, or sets in Man with a Movie Camera. Vertov designed the film as an experiment with "the aims at creating a truly international absolute language". Run Lola Run, on the other hand, uses actors, scripts, sets, dialogue etc. to tell a story with the idea of one controlling one"s own fate. This in turn, demonstrates how Vertov has had an impact on films of all types. Tykwer may not have been an admirer of the works of Vertov and he might not have even seen Man with a Movie Camera, but his style of shooting with innovative camera angles and unconventional editing techniques, demonstrates the existence of Vertov"s styles and ideology. If the fact that Tykwer didn"t study the works of Vertov, this would boost the reputation of Vertov"s impact on the film industry, as many other filmmakers have produced films with the same innovative techniques. "I am kino-eye, I am a mechanical eye. I, a machine, show you the world as only I can see it. Now and forever, I free myself from human immobility, I am in constant motion, I draw near, then away from objects, I crawl under, I climb on to them. I move apace with the muzzle of a galloping horse, I plunge full speed into a crowd, I outstrip running soldiers, I fall on my back, I ascend with an aeroplane, I plunge and soar together with plunging and soaring bodies. Now I, a camera, fling myself along their resultant, maneuvering in the chaos of movement, recording movement, starting with movements composed of the most complex combinations. Free of the limits of time and space, I put together any given points in the universe, no matter where I"ve recorded them. My path leads to the creation of a fresh perception of the world. I decipher in a way a world unknown to you." 17 Vertov originates a timeless ideology about the possibilities of the movie camera, and these ideas pertain to the filmmakers of an endless era. Tykwer is one to have brought to life these ideas on a new level in Run Lola Run, which glorifies the camera"s results with movement in every frame. Run Lola Run feeds the kino-eye with collision, contrast, and conflicting scenes, which make the film a huge success in giving the audience a new type of story with suspense, comedy and drama. Appendix Appendix 1 - Preparation of the manifest Appendix 2 - Metaphor of the Camera as a n extension of the human eye Appendix 3 - The use of still frames Appendix 4 - Conflicting motion colliding across the frame Appendix 5 - The train and the uses of rapid cutting Appendix 6 The Split Screen of the Man and his Movie Camera   

Andre Parfeniuk Student # 10260974 December 3, 2001 The Impact of Dziga Vertov on Film " The main and essential thing is : the sensory exploration of the world through film. We therefore take as a point of departure the use of the camera as a keno-eye, more perfect...

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1. Within each text the setting...1. Within each text the setting plays an important part. How do both Stone and Owen convey the setting and the conditions the men faced? Don't forget you must refer to specific lines and poetic/film, techniques Naturally it is a lot easier to convey the desired setting of a scene if the medium used involved visual concepts. However, Wilfred Owens poetry manages to give the reader an extremely vivid idea of what the conditions were like for the people whom he describes. Like Oliver Stone, in his movie Platoon, Owen uses some very simple concepts to set the scene in his writing, such as mud, or loud noises, which convey not only the setting, but also the mood that goes with it. For example, in the poem Duce et Decorum Est, in the lines "Gas! Gas! Quick. Boys! "“An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets on just in time" This excerpt not only give the reader a clear idea of what is physically happening in the trenches, but the language used and in particular, the incoherent shouting in the first line also implies the confusion of the situation, as if the author can recall no more than a blur of it. Oliver Stone also uses techniques to imply confusion, such as when the platoon are attacked in the jungle scenes; the camera frequently changes perspective from long-shots to close-ups as well as focus, and is often jolting suddenly as if it is from the perspective of one of the soldiers running. The movie Platoon also uses light against darkness to represent good and evil, or even at time to imply the emotion and fear which the characters are feeling. For example, the eerie, blue light, which is noticeable in the jungle scene, gives the scene an air of unfamiliarity, which is also reflected on the emotions of the characters' faces. Despite these good points, it is clear that Platoon does not have the realistic scenarios that Wilfred Owen brings forth in his poetry. This is probably because Owen's work was written while he was actually fighting in the First World War, and his poems often seem as if they are recollections of the actual events. Oliver Stone on the other hand has served very little time, if any at all, and the movie is no more than a chimerical expression of his feelings toward the American attitude of the Vietnam War. One parallel between the graphic scenes of Platoon and the poetic description shown in Wilfred Owens work can be seen in the constant battle against the natural elements that is shown in both examples. For example in Platoon, the men find themselves being stalked by the enemy in a maze like jungle, in humid conditions which would be totally unfamiliar to the American soldiers. Similarly, the men in poems such as The Sentry base their warfare in the wet and muddy trenches of France, which multiplies the difficulty of fighting. Although these two scenarios are somewhat different, they do show similarities in that the men are in a constant battle, not only against the legitimate enemy, but also against the forces of nature. 2. How do both men make use of symbolism and imagery to convey their ideas about war? Symbolism is a very powerful tool to use when trying to influence and captivate an audience. It is a technique that is employed in nearly all types of media and is particularly noticeable as well as affective in descriptive works. Due to the fact that Platoon is directed at a more general audience, the symbolism and imagery examples are a lot less subtle than that which is shown in the powerful poetry of Wilfred Owen, which was created to educate people, and not to sell at the box office. Owens symbolism is often so delicate that the reader may not always consciously recognise it, yet it helps to immensely in creating the atmosphere of the poem. For example in the poem Futility, the sun seems to represent life, and in The Sentry, light is used as an assimilation to hope, which can be seen in the passage ""¦we heard him shout; 'I see your lights!' But ours had long died out." These lines are an example of the slight nature of Owens imagery, as it can be looked upon as if the light that has died out represents the hope of the group, or as if it is simply the blinded soldier trying to reassure himself that he can still see. Overall, Owens criticism seems to be a very broad condemnation of war, whereas Oliver Stone simply attacks the Americans attitudes towards the Vietnam War and the fighting that occurred between the different groups of Americans. The examples of imagery in Platoon show this, as they do not really relate to the war itself, but the characters in the movie. For example, Alius seems to display some strong allusions to Jesus Christ, such as his tragic death pose with his hands outstretched similar to the image of Jesus dieing on the cross. 3. Via which medium is character expressed more vividly? Give detailed reasons for your answer. One main contrast between the movie Platoon and the poems of Wilfred Owen is that Owen does not tend to focus on the individual characters featured in his poems. This is partly because it is hard to receive a detailed understanding of a character in only one or two stanzas of poetry, especially when compared to the length of a feature film. Another major contributor to the lack of description of the characters in Wilfred Owens poetry is that the nature of his criticisms does not require an in-depth description of the soldiers, but it is the settings and the events that occurred in the trenches that are more important. Oliver Stone"s movie Platoon focuses on the characters and their relationship with each other instead of the fighting in the war itself, this gives Stone a need to go into great detail in his description of the characters, which presents a major contrast between the two examples. This means that despite the fact that Oliver Stone does not have the descriptive talent shown by Wilfred Owen, his characters are described a lot more vividly. Yet still, Stone"s descriptions show some obvious flaws; some of the characters in Platoon seem quite transparent, and at times, even stereotypical, for example the differences between Alius and Barnes is a distinct battle between pure good and pure evil. From the most blatant point, the characters in Platoon are a lot more accessible, as they are shown in a visual based medium, and can be judged by what they look like. This makes it easy for viewers to a get their own impression of the characters which may not be at all accurate simply by watching a few minutes of the film. 4. Which medium did you find more accessible in terms of conveying themes and a message about the war? Although the movie Platoon is set in the Vietnam war, it does not seem to contain any messages directly relating to the moral issues of war, but instead it attacks the split-cultured attitudes which were present at the time. Also, it can be debated that the movie is a very general metaphor for the consistent battle between good and evil. Wilfred Owen on the other hand, very rarely focuses on general philosophy, and instead concentrates purely on condemning those who promote war, and attempting to educate those who ignorantly believe that fighting for ones country is noble. The themes that Oliver Stone does present are usually quite relevant and accessible, for example the consistent theme of the arguing that goes on between the soldiers when they should be fighting the true enemy. However, these rarely compare to the motivating images and vivid thoughts that are brought forward in Wilfred Owens poetry. A classic example of the messages that Owen presents can be seen in the poem Dulce et Decorum Est, which includes the sarcastic usage of the Latin phrase "Dulce et decorum est; Pro patria mori", which roughly translates to "It is noble and brave to die for ones country". Owen occasionally delves into philosophical arguments, which although present a broader message, are still debating the same issues. Examples of this method can be seen in the poem Futility: Was it for this the clay grew tall? -O what made fatuous sunbeams toil To break earth"s slap at all? These lines are questioning whether it was worth the sun creating the earth, if it was going to lead to the destruction of war. This is particularly powerful as it uses a direct approach to the reader, as if questioning for his or her own opinion. Platoons main message can be seen at the very end of the film, when Chris is reminiscing and considering his experiences in the war. It focuses on the fact that he was constantly fighting with other members of the platoon instead of the Vietnamese. Yet, although the scenes of Platoon hold a powerful message, it seems clear that the work of Wilfred Owen is far more realistic and relevant when compared to the movie.   

1. Within each text the setting plays an important part. How do both Stone and Owen convey the setting and the conditions the men faced? Don't forget you must refer to specific lines and poetic/film, techniques Naturally it is a lot easier to convey the desired setting of a scene...

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