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This is from AP history and bear with me because some of the stuff got a little screwed up in transit. :- Dwight D. Eisenhower once said, "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signified, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold but not clothed." There was never a war that this idea can be more correct applied to than the Cold War. According to noted author and Cold War historian Walter Lippman, the Cold War can be defined as a state of tension between states, which behave with great distrust and hostility towards each other, but do not resort to violence. The Cold War encompasses a period from the end of the Second World War WWII, in 1945, to the fall of the Soviet Union, in 1989. It also encompassed the Korean and Vietnam Wars and other armed conflicts in the Middle East and Africa, that, essentially, were not wars for people but instead for territories and ideologies. "Nevertheless, like its predecessors, the Cold War has been a worldwide power contest in which one expanding power has threatened to make itself predominant, and in which other powers have banded together in a defensive coalition to frustrate it---as was the case before 1815, as was the case in 1914-1918 as was the case from 1939-1945" Halle 9. From this power contest, the Cold War erupted. In April 1945, Russian forces that had been triumphant at Stalingrad had pushed the German forces back into Germany and American and British forces that had been victorious in their invasion of Normandy did the same; they met at the Elbe River in central Germany Lukacs 17. Europe was separated into two independent halves, one Russian occupied and the other American; from this division, the Cold War emerged. "When a power vacuum separates great powers, as one did the United States and the Soviet Union at the end of World War II, they are unlikely to fill it without bumping up against and bruising each other" Gaddis. This 'bumping' and 'bruising' caused the tensions and hostilities that surfaced in the years following WWII. There are three doctrines examining the origins of the Cold War: Orthodox, the belief that "the intransigence of Leninist ideology, the sinister dynamics of a totalitarian society, and the madness of Stalin" McCauley 88 caused the Cold War; Revisionist, the idea that "American policy offered the Russians no real choice"¦either acquiesce to American proposals or be confronted with American power or hostility" McCauley 90 and thus, America caused the war; and the Post-Revisionist view, a combination of the two, citing both American and Soviet Russian policy as causes. The fact that both the Orthodox and Revisionist views have convincing evidence is confirmation that the Post-Revisionist viewpoint is the correct assessment of 'blame.' Beyond the evidence that the other two viewpoints provide in support of the Post-Revisionist outlook, there were deep-seated fundamental differences such as the dissimilar attitudes, aims and ideologies that Moscow and Washington subscribed to. One of the fundamental differences between the attitudes of Washington and Moscow originates from the happenings in each nation during and before WWII. "The basic factor in producing this national sense of insecurity has been geographical. Throughout its history Russia has been without natural frontiers to serve for its defense" Halle 13. The Soviet outlook was one of paranoia and insecurity because Soviets had been massacred from their western border several times in their history. In Asian and European historian Elizabeth Seeger's chronicle The Pageant of Russian History, there are numerous examples of Russians being devastated by attacks from their western border such as the Napoleonic attack of 1812 and the especially brutal attack by Germany during WWII. These humiliating attacks left a permanent impression on Russian mentality that can be observed through their national sentiment. Because of this mindset, Stalin sought to secure a friendly and neutralized western border and the Soviet occupation of half of Europe after WWII presented itself as the perfect time to act on these aspirations. "'The war is not as in the past,' Stalin himself explained to the Yugoslav communist Milovian Djilas in 1945, 'whosoever occupies a territory also imposes his own social system"¦.It cannot be otherwise'" Gaddis. As demonstrated by this quotation, Stalin planned to install friendly satellite governments in all Soviet subjugated nations, which, as he knew, threatened the western powers' presence and authority. Therefore it could be said that the Soviet plan caused the Cold War, which would defend the Orthodox view. The United States, conversely, had an attitude of greatness and an outlook of omnipresence. This outlook differed from the Soviet attitude mainly because the United States stood apart from Europe and its problems, had never been attacked on its native soil and because: When [WWII] was done there rested spirits of most Americans the belief that they had saved China, rescued the beleaguered European democracies and enabled the Russians to withstand, and presently conquer, the German invaders. They expected appreciation and cooperation in the service of their ideals which the war had deemed to have proved were best. Feis 3These two bipolar positions sharply differed and therefore anxieties arose when the Soviet Union was forced, by Washington's overconfident actions, to be defensive. "The cultural gap between American and Soviet leaders contributed to the emerging Cold War. American negotiators acted as if the mere recitation of their legal and moral rights ought to produce the results they desired" Kissinger 438. These points support the Revisionist view. Both in diplomatic historian Herbert Feis' From Trust to Terror: The Onset of the Cold War 1945-1950 and Hungarian professor of history John Lukacs' A History of the Cold War, there is ample evidence that these divergent attitudes exhibited by each country prevented the other from establishing what they perceived as a secure position in Europe. In short, they forced the other country to be on the defensive and thus, they lashed out at each other. These tantrums can be seen in Europe, the Middle East and other places. There is plenty of sound support for both the Revisionist and Orthodox views and therefore, because of this evidence, the Post-Revisionist standpoint is the historically correct assessment of 'blame.' Each country, not just one or the other, caused the tensions that arose from the differing attitudes. Another fundamental difference between the Soviet Union and the United States was the bipolar aims of each nation. Because of these differing attitudes, both the Soviet Union and the United States had several objectives to achieve after the Central Powers were neutralized during WWII and when the two agendas conflicted, tensions arose: The collapse of Nazi Germany and the need to fill the resulting power vacuum led to the disintegration of the wartime partnership [between the United States and the Soviet Union]. The purposes of the allies were simply too divergent. Churchill sought to prevent the Soviet Union from dominating Central Europe. Stalin wanted to be paid in territorial coin for Soviet military victories and heroic suffering of the Russian people. The new President, Harry S. Truman, initially strove to continue Roosevelt's legacy of holding the alliance together. Kissinger 424 As demonstrated above, the ambitions of the two prominent world powers after WWII were extremely different. Soviet Russia wanted to achieve security because of repeated attacks and the only way that Stalin saw to do this was to acquire territory: "The behaviour of Russia under the Communists had been Russian behaviour rather than communist behaviour"¦.There has been the same effort to achieve security by expanding the Russia space, by constantly pushing back the menacing presence of the foreigners across the Russian borders" Halle 11. Because of the Soviet feelings of insecurity and paranoia, Stalin wanted one thing: the acquisition of territory with Communists-friendly governments in each 'acquired' nation. Another thing that complicated relations was Stalin's mistrustful nature. "National security had come to mean personal security, and [Stalin] saw so many threats to it that he had already resorted to murder on a mass scale in order to remove all conceivable challengers to his regime" Gaddis. Both Stalin and the Russian people felt vulnerable and especially weak on their western front from repeated surprise invasions launched against them. As a result, Stalin wanted to secure his country, to establish a 'buffer zone' against the poisonous capitalist countries to the west a crawl back into the sheltered nook that the Kremlin was. Therefore, one could deduce that Russian intensions caused the Cold War because Stalin was acting while well aware that his actions would contrast with those of America, which supports the Orthodox viewpoint. However, the United States and other western countries also had their own aims. These aims can be observed by analyzing 'The Atlantic Charter' and 'The Truman Doctrine.' Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt signed 'The Atlantic Charter' on August 14,1941. While still early in the war, it was later adopted by the United Nations and remains, to this day, a cornerstone of civilization. The western powers would "seek no aggrandizement"¦. respect the rights of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live"¦.bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations"¦.[and seek] the abandonment of the use of force" Avalon. The Charter was basically a statement that unified the Western democracies against any right-wing fascist government. It was a precursor to Truman's policy of containment because it set democracy liberty against fascist domination and this turned out to be a central theme during the Cold War. The Cold War resulted from the western countries accepting and embracing these principles and the Soviets and eastern bloc countries not doing this. Truman's speech, called his doctrine because it outlined his plan, addressed Congress on March 12, 1947. "One way of life is based upon the will of the majority"¦guarantees of individual liberty"¦and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon terror and oppression"¦fixed elections"¦and the suppression of personal freedom" Halsall. Truman went on to ask for hundreds of millions of dollars to be sent to Greece, Turkey and other countries in danger of falling to Communism. Truman, in a roundabout way, declared that the United States vowed to contain the spread of Communism all over the world he also piercingly contrasts Communism with Democracy to intensify the hatred and recoil that he wants his audience to feel towards Communism in order to attain the affirming public opinion that he needs to carry out his plan. Through the signing and recitation of these documents it was as if the United States government was drawing a line in the sand and forcing the Soviets into a corner. If they should exceed their dictated borders, as they did in Korea and more so in the Middle East, then they would be punished. Through these threats and confining measures, one could make a worthy argument supporting the Revisionist viewpoint. The divergent attitudes brought about divergent aims after WWII. When examining these aims, there is ample evidence supporting both the Revisionist and Orthodox views and thus, the Post- Revisionist view is the most appropriate one. Both the United States and Soviet Russia acted on these aims and outlooks in different ways. The Soviet Union was in a perfect position to act on its aims to secure Europe because its troops occupied half of it. The German attack forced the Soviet Union into a tactical alliance with the Western Powers but Stalin always sought to expand his influence by using indigenous communists and the Red Army. Not content with eastern and south-eastern Europe, the USSR attempted to draw the whole of Germany into Soviet orbit and by fomenting strikes and social unrest in western and southern Europe and Asia sought to expand communist influence in those regions as well. McCauley 9 Moscow's foremost aim after WWII was securing its western border and in order to do this Stalin needed to ensure that friendly governments, and only authority truly friendly to communists, governed all countries adjacent to the Soviet Union. Thus, he required that all neighboring nations had communist, or extremely left wing, governments installed in them. The Soviet troops in eastern Europe only needed to lightly influence the war-torn governments for them to show communist allegiance. The security-driven aims of the Soviet Union are not only present in Europe but also in Asia and the Pacific. Examples of Soviet expansion include Soviet support of Communists in China and also in North Korea. Their involvement in the Chinese Civil War is a clear example of them setting themselves against the American's because the Soviets funded the Communist movement in full knowledge that the Americans were similarly supporting the Nationalists. The Soviets, if not directly but in a roundabout way, also supported the North Korean forces as they launched their offensive against the South Koreans and sparked the Korean War, that candidly positioned Communist forces against those supporting Democracy. The Soviets supported these movements fully knowing that it would disturb the western objectives there and, although later in the 'war,' these events, and others, were responsible for escalating the Cold War to a near nuclear WWIII in some cases. These points support the Orthodox view. The United States also acted upon its ambitions and overall attitude. The clearest act on the objectives of the United States was 'The Marshall Plan.' This proposal was issued on June 5, 1947 and stated that "it is logical to expect that the United States should do whatever it is able to do to assist in the return of normal economical health in the world" Halsall, and as a result millions of dollars were sent to Germany and other central and south- eastern European countries to 'encourage' them to adopt democracy and avoid communism. This taunting and economical war for people waged by the United States against the Soviet Union is support for the Revisionist view. Each country committed these acts in full knowledge that the other was doing the opposite, and thus the tensions that arose from the incompatibility of these actions are the fault of neither the United States nor Soviet Russia alone, as the supporters of the Revisionist and Orthodox viewpoints believe, but instead, the United States and the Soviet Union were at fault for beginning the Cold War. The final fundamental difference that existed between Washington and Moscow was the immensely different ideologies that each of the powers subscribed to. Based solely on the fact that the Soviet Union and the United States had different forms of governments many tensions arose. The Western democracies sought a form of security that would reject violence or the threat of it: security was to be a collective good, not a benefit denied to some in order to provide it to others. Stalin saw things very differently: security came only by intimidating or eliminating potential challengers"¦.The events of 1917-18 created a symbolic basis for conflict between communism and capitalism by setting the self-proclaimed objectives of the United States and Soviet Russia against one another in a most fundamental way. GaddisThe most evident dogmatic divergence is the forms of government that each country was administered by. The Soviet Union was a communist republic and an autocracy, ruled by a man who had killed more of his own countrymen than Hitler. "While mistrust and hostility of Western capitalism had been subdued during the war, the basic belief that by nature it must be rapacious and aggressive lingered deep in Soviet thought---ready to sprout and grow into hideous accusations when quarrels arose" Feis 5. Conversely, the United States was directed by a capitalist democracy and was recently governed by one of the most liberal Presidents in the history of the nation. As demonstrated informer Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's Diplomacy, there are a myriad of examples of conflicts that arose between these two powers based solely or mostly on ideological differences such as the tensions that developed at the Potsdam Conference. The strict adherence to their respective doctrines in the knowledge that the other abhorred it is further evidence that both nations caused the diplomatic tensions, supporting the Post-Revisionist viewpoint. When examining the pre-WWII and WWII circumstances of both the United States and the Soviet Union, it becomes evident that the elemental canon of each country conflicted. The three most prominent fundamental differences are bipolar outlooks, aspirations and dogmas. When examining documents, there is a plethora of evidence supporting both the Revisionist and the Orthodox viewpoints, and because of this evidence the Post-Revisionist position is the accurate assessment of blame. Both the Soviet Union and the United States purposely aggravated each other and prevented each other from obtaining any sort of secure standing both in the international and domestic sense. When examining these activities years after they happened, it is easy to conclude that both the United States and Soviet Russia were culpable for starting the Cold War. However, during the tense years, such as the Korean and Vietnam Wars, this inference was not as easily made. Thus, those belonging to the Revisionist and Orthodox tenets only need to look at the Cold War overall to gain the perspective necessary to gage an educated proposal for blame and not just focus on isolated events. Again referring back to the quotation by Eisenhower, we must always remember those immortal words and learn from past mistakes and realize that communication and diplomacy are the supreme exemplars of brotherhood and unity, more so that paranoia and arms races will ever be. We must never repeat the mistakes of the past and never again utter Churchill's famous words of the 'iron curtain' to report on international events: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent"¦.If the western democracies stand together in strict adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter, their influence for furthering these principles will be immense and no one is likely to molest them. If, however, they become divided or falter in their duty, and if these all-important years are allowed to slip away, then indeed catastrophe may overwhelm us all. Halsall
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This is from AP history and bear with me because some of the stuff got a little screwed up in transit. :- Dwight D. Eisenhower once said, "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signified, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold but not clothed." There was never a war that this idea can be more correct applied to than the Cold War. According to noted author and Cold War historian Walter Lippman, the Cold War can be defined as a state of tension between...
mistakes of the past and never again utter Churchill's famous words of the 'iron curtain' to report on international events: From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent….If the western democracies stand together in strict adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter, their influence for furthering these principles will be immense and no one is likely to molest them. If, however, they become divided or falter in their duty, and if these all-important years are allowed to slip away, then indeed catastrophe may overwhelm us all. Halsall
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The Civil War split our nation,...The Civil War split our nation, Americans fighting Americans, brother against brother. The war lasted four long years, a key battle fought westward was the turning point in the war: the Battle of Vicksburg. Between Cairo, Illinois, and the Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi River twists and winds for nearly 1,000 miles. Commonly referred to as 'the trunk of the American tree'. The river was vital to both the American Government and to the Confederate forces in the west. The city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, 250 feet high, overlooks the Mississippi River on the Louisiana-Mississippi state border. Confederate forces mounted artillery batteries ready to challenge the passage of Union ships. Receiving control of Vicksburg and the Mississippi River was a huge benefit in the war. Due to the Geographic location made it ideal for defense. Before the outbreak of the Civil War, Vicksburg, Mississippi had become one of the most prosperous and sophisticated towns on the old southern frontier. The city was a booming center of trade, its wharves crowded with boats carrying all manner of goods and commodities. It boasted a municipal orchestra, a Shakespeare repertory company, and an imposing courthouse in the Greek revival style. To its proud citizens, Vicksburg was the "Queen City of the Bluff" and a center, as one of them wrote, of "culture, education and luxury." All this was to change with coming of the war. By early 1862 the peaceful town had become one of the most strategically important spots in the entire Confederacy- and would soon be one of the most bitterly fought over. From the beginning of the war in 1861, to protect their most prized possession, the Confederacy put up fortifications at strategic points along the river. Federal forces eventually captured post after post. After fighting their way southward from Illinois and northward from the Gulf of Mexico. Until by late summer of 1862, only Vicksburg and Port Hudson appeared to be major constraints to the Union. Of the two posts, Vicksburg was by far the strongest and most important. Setting high over looking a bend in the river, protected by artillery and dangerous swamps. So far the city had defied Union efforts to force it into submission. In order to protect the Mississippi Valley, Confederates established a line of defense, which ran from Columbus, Kentucky, overlooking the Mississippi River trough Bowling Green to Cumberland Gap where the bright flank was secure on the mountains. On the Mississippi River, south of Columbus, fortifications were also placed on island number 10 and on the Chickasaw Bluffs north of Memphis. Seventy miles below New Orleans, two powerful masonry forts supported Jackson and St. Philip stood guard at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Anxious to confront the task, Union land and navel forces moved from two directions. In a huge attack to gain control of the Mississippi from the Confederate troops heading south from Cairo, Illinois, federal forces took forts Henry and Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers respectfully and opened the pathway of invasion to the south. Efforts by Union land and navel forces to capture Vicksburg and open the great waterway to navigation ended in failure. It was only a matter of time before war centered in on Vicksburg. The first threat developed in May 1862, when the ships from the West Gulf Blockading Squadron arrived bellow Vicksburg and demanded that they surrender. The surrender was refused. It was then realized by both Union and Confederate high commands that if Vicksburg were going to fall, it would be in the hands of a huge combined land and navel effort. A decision was made to construct a line of defense around the city, which would guard the road and railroad access to Vicksburg. Strategists in Washington had no choice but to use ground forces. Therefore appointing Ulysses S. Grant in October of 1862. He was chosen to be the commander of the Department of the Tennessee and in charge of clearing the Mississippi of Confederate resistance. Grant's long campaign to capture Vicksburg on the Mississippi was one of the most important series of connected battles during the Civil War. So long as the Confederacy controlled the great river, it could prevent the Union from bringing its full weight to bear against Lee in Virginia. Viclesburg's situation on a bend of the river made it extremely hard to attack. Navel assaults were fruitless, as shown by the fate of the U.S.S. Cairo's, which was sunk in just a few moments. During the winter of 1862-1863, Grant conducted the Bayou Expeditions, or amphibious operations, all to try to reduce Vicksburg. Needless to say-they all failed. After months of frustration and failure, Grant had reached crossroads in his military career. There was a lot of talking in the northern press to remove him from command. Even members of the U.S. Cabinet urged President Lincoln to replace Grant as commander of the western army. The President could not spare this man because he fought. He decided to try him a little longer. At this point, Grant was where he had started 2 months ago. He traveled down the west side of the river stopping northwest of Vicksburg. Unsuccessfully, Grant tried to reach Vicksburg: two attempts to bypass the city to the south and another two attempts to cross the Yazoo Delta to the north. The date was Mach 1863 and Grant was still at square one. On March 29, 1863, Grant opted to march south. Grant ordered Major General John A. McClernand of the thirteenth corps to open a road form Milliken's Bend to New Carthange on the Mississippi River below Vicksburg. The movement didn't actually begin until March 31. Grant's infantrymen made their way south through Louisiana, building roads and bridge each step of the way. On diversion, brought on by Major General Frederick Steele, was to move a division north of Vicksburg to destroy supply stations and take livestock that Confederate forces desperately needed. And on the plus side, Steele was going to get Pemperton's attention in the north, spread his forces, and conceal Union movement to Hard Times. This was surprisingly a success. Hurlbut contributed the second diversion; he was to launch a pattern of cavalry raids to strain Pemperton's already thin defense. Sherman had the third diversion. He was to draw forces away from Vicksburg towards Haynes Bluff. Grant, beginning to think his plan had failed, encountered an escaped slave. The slave then notified Grant on the location of a good road to Bruinsburg. Grant moved his forces further south. On May 1, 1863, Grant finally reached the eastside. He then began making a supply base while waiting for Sherman and his forces. While Grant was waiting for supplies from Memphis, which was taking too long, he left with out them. He knew if he would wait for the supplies, Vicksburg would have time to be reinforced. Grant decided not to wait for the supplies any longer and just move to Jackson and attack Vicksburg from the rear. The Union leaders hardly agreed with this "carry-what-you-can" plan and sent a message to Grant to wait for the supplies in Baten Rouge. This message never made it to Grant, it was too late and he was already in the execution phase. Sherman joined Grant on May 7th; the exact same day Grant would begin his movement to Jackson. He moved thru Rocky Springs to Raymond. McClernand was ordered to move straight north to Auburn. Grant wanted Pemperton to assume that his next target was Champion's Hill. McPherson and Sherman got to Raymond on May 12th after Confederate forces retreated to Jackson. Soon, McClernand met up with Grant and Raymond, Grant made McPherson destroy the railroad in Clinton to prevent reinforcements and re-supply, then move eastward to Jackson. Sherman was to attack Jackson from Raymond, and McClernand was to stay in Raymond to protect the rear and reinforce Sherman or McPherson. Jackson had 6,000 Confederate troops to Grant's 25,000 Union troops. Needless to say, Jackson was taken relatively easily. The commander at Jackson, General Joe Johnston, retreated his forces north to Canton. Grant's decision to keep going without supplies was key to this victory. If he had waited for supplies, they would have then had to face an increasingly growing Confederate army of over 14,000 troops with another 9,000 close behind. Grant was now in position to take what he initially came to take: Vicksburg. At this point, the Confederate's moral was very low while the Union's confidence was increasing. Union forces almost seemed invincible. Grant's success was defiantly having an impact. On May 18th, the federal army crossed the Big Black River and pushed towards Vicksburg. The first Union forces arrived in this direction was the 15th Army Corps under the command of Major General William T. Sherman, Grant's most trusted and experienced subordinate officer. The next corps to get there was that of the 17th Corps commanded by the young James McPherson. The final Corps arrived, the 13th Army Corps commanded by Major General John McClernand, as these troops arrived, they started to slowly make their lines longer to the left and to the right. While investigating the Confederates works and prepare for the attack, which they knew, would be ordered shortly. On May 19th, Grant decided to make a better reconnaissance then furl his entire force against Vicksburg on May 22nd. Early that morning, Union artillery fell silent. Union Soldiers moved forward for over three miles, toward the defense of Vicksburg. Again they succeed in planting the red, white, and blue on the parapets of Vicksburg and many other places making a short line at a railroad redden one McClernand's front, but where forced back a second time with a devastating loss. In the assault on May 22nd, killed, wounded, or missing"¦Grant lost over 3,000 people. When Grant got to Vicksburg in mid-May, he tried two assaults that didn't really work. The second assault on May 22nd had worse results than the first on May 17th. Realizing his attacks wouldn't work, Grant decided to settle down to regular siege operations. Pemperton couldn't get any supplies in and no confederates could get out of Vicksburg. Grant knew Pemperton wouldn't last very much longer. Grant also got reinforcements to increase Union numbers to 70,000 to Pemperton's 30,000 Confederates. As Grant thought about his next move, he left behind his dead and his wounded many that have been lying exposed since May 19th. Being exposed to the sun, rain, and heat took a number on the lying corps. The bodies of the dead started to bloat and turn black. The stench was so sickening; one Confederate thought the Yanks were trying stink them out of Vicksburg. On May 25th, white flags appeared along the Confederate line, Union soldiers were hopeful that the city would soon be surrendered and given up to the Union forces. This wasn't the case, however, as word quickly spread that a note was passed from Pemberton to Grant saying that in name of humanity that Grant should bury his dead as the odor had become very offensive. A Mississippi summer consists of temperatures exceeding 110 degrees, and humidity always up around 200%. This means that water has to be a huge necessity. Disease began to spread rapidly throughout the ranks, dysentery, diarrhea, malaria, and various fevers took a toll on human life. Hundreds of men could be seen lying their weapons down and walking or crawling as best they could towards the direction of the hospitals in Vicksburg. Public buildings were completely filled, many residences were converted into hospitals, but even there, there weren't any medications that could be provided to them. Each day, dead wagons as they were called, made the rounds of the hospitals and the dead brought out in everyday increasing numbers. They were laid to rest in the city cemetery, north of town. As May eventually faded into June, Grant moved up his infantry and artillery, first within 300 yards, then 200 yards, then 100 yards. The object was to get as close to the enemy as possible. So if an attack was ordered, all they had to do was get out of their man-made ditched, over the parapet and among the enemy. This would help cut down on casualties and help the troops strengthen which would vacate the enemy. An option was to tunnel underneath the enemy, hollow out rooms, fill them with black powder and destroy the fortifications of Vicksburg. Union soldiers excavated 13 approaches. Of the 13, the most popular was called Logan's approach, situated along the Jackson Road, here in the center of the Confederate line. They excavated a trench 7 feet deep and 8 feet wide. On June 25th, 2,200 pounds of black powder was placed into the mine. At 3 p.m., the fuse was lit. Tense moments passed then the ground gave way and a column of flame and dirt touched the sky. Before the dust could settle, Union soldiers ran into the crater in an attempt to secure the breach. This battle lasted for 26 hours. The confederates at the point of bayonet sealed the breach. The Union planned had failed. In early July, Pemperton and Grant began negotiations for the conditions of surrender. On July 4th, 1863, the Confederates surrendered. Grant road horseback along the Jackson Road and down to the Warren County Courthouse, where he watched the stars and the stripes be placed on top of the building. When word reached President Lincoln, he sighed, "Thank God, the Father of waters again goes on decks to the sea."   

The Civil War split our nation, Americans fighting Americans, brother against brother. The war lasted four long years, a key battle fought westward was the turning point in the war: the Battle of Vicksburg. Between Cairo, Illinois, and the Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi River twists and winds for nearly...

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Tauseef Ahmed United States History May...Tauseef Ahmed United States History May 13th 2004 Why did the Cold War End? One of the main events of the war-filled twentieth century was the Cold War "“ a state of tension between the United States of America and the Soviet Union from nineteen forty five, at the beginning of the Soviet expansion of communism in newly formed countries after Word War II, opposed by the United States to nineteen eighty nine with the fall of the Berlin Wall. The main focus of this research will be to state the reasons as to why this hugely acknowledged war comes to an end. It was the most unexpected event that happened and the credit must be given to the leaders on both sides. The Cold War eventually came to an end in 1989 as a result of Gorbachev's Glasnost openness and Perestroika reconstruction policies; the Soviet's declining communist economy, the costly arms race, and the freedom issues among Baltic Republics, Poland, and East Germany within the Soviet bloc itself. When Mikhail Gorbachev became the General Secretary of the Soviet Union in 1985, he was determined to end corruption in the Soviet economy and get the U.S.S.R. back on its feet. To achieve this goal he announced two new policies Glasnost and Perestroika. Glasnost or openness was the policy that ended the strict censorship, allowed Soviet citizens to speak openly about their society's problems and issues, and abandoned the ban of books and foreign radio broadcasts. The significance of this new policy was that it helped Soviet Union become a more open society and the media freedom brought many issues in front of the government. The second policy, Perestroika or reconstruction was introduced to help reform the Soviet economy by ending inefficiency and corruption in the system. The policy also promoted private enterprise, according to which the production prices and costs became more efficient. Planning was decentralized so local factories had more power of making decisions. According to this policy multi-candidate elections would be held, although each participant had to be member of a communist party. These were major steps to reform the Soviet Union and eventually this movement toward openness helped end the Cold War. The all new Sinatra Doctrine was also introduced by Gorbachev in 1989 renouncing the Brezhnev Doctrine. Introduced by Alexander Dubcek in 1968, the Brezhnev Doctrine declared that every socialist country in Soviet bloc belonged to the Soviet Empire. It was only the Soviet Union that could make decisions for the socialist republics and no self determination would be allowed in any of these republics. Sinatra Doctrine was named after Frank Sinatra's song "My Way" because the purpose of this doctrine was to let the people in the Soviet republics go their own way. It declared that Soviet republics had no right to get involved in each other's internal affairs. Soviet Union also withdrew and stopped supporting countries, including Cuba, to spread communism. The Sinatra Doctrine signifies the end of the Soviet Empire in 1989, just the opposite of what Gorbachev wanted to achieve from this policy by introducing it. The declining economy of the Soviet Union from 1960's to 1980's was also one of the main reasons that the Cold War ended peacefully in 1989. Due to the less money spent on technology the Soviet Union became weaker. As it was now illegal to censor information and communication networks and hard to control what came from fax machines and to jam radio and TV signals, more and more people got to know about the free West. By this, the personal expectations rose especially concerning the freedom rights and economic systems. So, the economic declines also resulted in political unrest in the Soviet bloc. This declining economy hurt the Soviet businesses and now less people were interested in investing money in Soviet projects. The lives of normal people were also affected as the prices of various household items increased enormously and the lives of workers were also harmed because there was now less income available. Apart from technology issues there were other major economic flaws in the Soviet Union. In April 1986 a nuclear power plant exploded in Chernobyl, killing hundreds of civilians and causing damage which was worth around a billion dollars. Russian oil sales to abroad were also reduced so the government reduced the import of consumer goods. This left Soviet citizens with less to buy and government revenues were also going down. The government soon realized that more money was being spent than the revenues generated. To make up for this, the government started printing more money, which was a sign of increasing inflation. Then people started putting money into banks as they couldn't spend it all and the money in the banks was wasted by the Soviet government as it wasn't invested in worthy projects. The government also tried to increase private farming by offering land to new farmers. However, few people were interested in agriculture as they were not sure if private farming was permanent and so this project also failed. Sometimes the production capabilities were unable to meet the demand of the planner. Growth targets were predicted badly by the Soviets and the economy showed no signs of progress. However, when Gorbachev came to power, his ideas provided little hope of improvements. According to a recent explanation, the Soviet economy didn't start declining in the 1980's, but it had been going down for the last two decades. It was just the change of perspective of the Soviet leaders in the 1980's they realized that the Soviet economy was declining fast and that it wouldn't be possible for the economy to make profits unless some steady changes were made. After the Soviet leaders realized that they would never catch up with the Americans, they were convinced to make a deal with the United States. However, the "New Thinking" of Gorbachev can be credited for the change in perspectives of Soviet leaders in the 1980's. One of the other main reasons that helped to bring an end to the war was the arms race. The U.S.A kept pressure on the Soviet Union to spend more and more money than its economy could maintain. The policies of arms buildup and Reagan Doctrine pressured the Soviet Union. The Reagan Doctrine was created to summarize the goal of Reagan administration which was to support any anti-communist uprising wherever they may be. Although the Soviet authorities tried to spend consistent money on arms and defense, it was no where near enough to compete with the American defense powers. As the arms race was hurting the Soviet economy, Gorbachev started to prepare himself to negotiate with the United States. At the 1986 summit in Iceland, Reagan and Gorbachev agreed destroy all intermediate missiles in Europe. They also considered eliminating all nuclear missiles on both sides, but Gorbachev demanded Reagan to end his Strategic Defense Initiative plan which Reagan refused to do and the deal was left unconcluded. However, in 1987 they did agree to the Range Nuclear Forces treaty, in which all intermediate missiles in Europe were removed. START I and START II treaties were also signed between the two sides. In these treaties MIRV's were removed from certain areas. The treaty of Conventional Forces in Europe was also signed which reduced the number of troops, tanks, and military aircraft in Europe. Both Reagan and Gorbachev were coming ever closer to ending the arms race. Gorbachev's "New Thinking" and Reagan's positive reception brought an end to one of the most deadly arms build-up the world had ever seen. In the ending of the Cold War the major helping hand was provided by the republics within the Soviet bloc. Nationalism in many Eastern European countries was increasing and they all started their campaigns for freedom from the Soviet Union. The Baltic Republics started their demonstration way earlier than any other Soviet republic as they were the most eager for independence. In Poland Solidarity labor unions began to rise in the early 1980's. These unions organized strikes, demanding more pay and a change to the unfair labor rights. As they forced Soviet economy to its decline, they won freedom of expression, politics, religion, and recognition of their labor unions. Finally Polish leaders were forced to allow free elections. The Solidarity participants, however, were only allowed one third of seats and still a communist government was established. The nation faced another era of economic sufferings as electricity, gas, and water prices rose 500 percent. Then eventually the Communist Party gave up and on January 29th 1990 Poland renamed itself as the Republic of Poland. Democratic elections were held and communism failed to prevail. In Hungary and Czechoslovakia, meanwhile, communist parties were falling. In the beginning of the year 1989 Gorbachev announced in the United Nations that he would pull out Soviet troops from Hungary. With this Hungary created independent political parties other than Hungary's Communist Party. Many changes occurred in Hungary as there were younger people taking control of the political parties who were more open-minded and didn't like to use power and violence. Soon the Hungarian Communist Party changed its name to European Social Democrats. Hungary declared itself a republic and now Hungarians were free to travel without a special permission that they had to have previously. These movements in Hungary and Poland were encouraging to Czechoslovakia, which was a neighbor state. There were protests in Czechoslovakia led by Vaclac Havel. The communist government there arrested him and many other illegal protestors. People in Prague protested against the government and in return the police attacked the demonstrators. Hundreds were admitted to hospitals and many were arrested. The following day around 10,000 people demonstrated against the government. The next day, there were 200,000 demonstrators and around 500,000 people demonstrated on the day when the Communist Party agreed to give up. In early December the Communist Party declared that the invasion of Czechoslovakia had been a mistake and by the end of December, Havel was the head of the newly created parliament. East Germany in the meantime also started looking forward to their freedom. On August 23, 1989 Hungary opened its border to Austria, which was a neutral nation, many East Germans traveled to Hungary and then to Austria finding their way to West Germany. An estimated 500,000 had escaped when the Soviet authorities found out about the issue. To prevent further getaways, the Soviet Union closed East Germany's border with Czechoslovakia, but the pressure from civilians didn't cease to mount. Protests and demonstrations also increased after the border was closed and many East Germans were becoming impatient to gain their independence. Gorbachev finally decided to visit East Germany. It was the fortieth anniversary of East Germany when people gathered and asked Gorbachev for help with freedom issues. Reagan once said to Gorbachev "General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberation: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!" Gorbachev gave it along thought and set up Eric Honecker as the communist leader of East Germany to solve this issue. As the demonstrations grew Honecker decided to resign and replacing him was Egon Krenz, who met with the protestors and listened to their demands. It was not long after that he fired the whole cabinet and ordered to break down the Berlin Wall. On November 9, 1989 the wall was opened and millions of East Germans fled to the West Germany seeking for a better life. On March 1990 the communists were voted out and East Germany left the Warsaw Pact. As Germany was the heart of the conflict, the breaking down of the Berlin Wall signifies the end of the Cold War. It is also believed that there was a huge contribution of Pope John Paul II in the ending of the Cold War. If the matter is closely studied we could infer that Pope did help to bring "an awakening" in Poland. Just eight months after becoming the pope, he visited his home nation Poland for nine days. The pope's spokesman said that the pope believed the evil and corrupt Empire of Soviet Union couldn't stay for a long time, its destruction was definite. There were around 250,000 Poles who attended the pope's speech. The pope mentioned that people have a right to have freedom, independence and protection of human rights. People clapped and kept clapping for the next eight minutes, police and politics were no longer of any importance, the pope was believed to be the real power. A year later Solidarity unions came into being and as mentioned earlier, they were one of the main reasons that the Soviet republics gained their independence. This movement had ten million people registered as members and priests had also joined the union. Pope is sometimes also credited for Gorbachev not using Soviet army in Poland and other eastern European countries. What the pope actually did was to motivate the people morally. The Soviets knew very well how to deal with political pressure, but they had no idea how strong and effective moral pressure could prove. In my opinion pope did have some contribution in the independence of the Soviet republics. By 1990 Communism fell in Eastern Europe and lost its influence around the world. The Soviet Union was also demolished and its republics became independent. Many experts predicted that the world would become a safer place now. Mikhail Gorbachev also won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to end the Cold War. His policies of Glasnost and Perestroika helped bring an end to one of the most feared wars in the 20th century. However, the credit could also be given to the American containment policy which pushed Soviet Union to stretch the arms race and finally made its economy weaker. The Soviet republics and their efforts with protests and demonstrations also helped to end the war. The end of the Cold War also signifies the end of the Soviet Empire. Soviet Union was no longer a superpower which left the United States to become the only major superpower in the world.   

Tauseef Ahmed United States History May 13th 2004 Why did the Cold War End? One of the main events of the war-filled twentieth century was the Cold War – a state of tension between the United States of America and the Soviet Union from nineteen forty five, at the beginning...

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