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Our group topic: "Causes and Effects of Wars" provoked me to write about the threatening dispute of "Jammu and Kashmir" which has become more threatening after the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan. My main claim revolves around the theme that the burning dispute of Kashmir, between India and Pakistan can play a vital role in the emergence of third world war and can act as battle-field for a nuclear war. Due to geographical and social impacts on the world these countries have realized some big nations to resolve the issue. South Asia, a land of deep historical and cultural representations has more than one billion population. Dominated by British colonization for nearly a century, this region contains a variety of imprints of British rule. South Asia is the region that holds evidences of one of the ancient civilization of the world. The unsettled conditions of the eighteenth century provided an opening for the European imperialism in this region. In 1957, British Empire took hold of the Indian sub-continent and South Asia was colonized by British Empire. In 1947, when British Empire surrendered control of the Indian sub-continent, the land was divided into two major parts. The Hindu majority area became the independent nation of India and Muslim majority area became the independent nation of Pakistan. Since then they have fought many wars and several battles that have affected the both nations as well as the neighboring countries. Now as both nations have gained the nuclear capabilities so they are predicted as the battleground for a possible nuclear war. " If one were to take to praise Kashmir, whole books would be written"¦Kashmir is a garden of eternal spring, or an iron fort to the palace of kings-a delightful flower-bed, and a heart expanding heritage for dervishes"Danger In Kashmir 3. Kashmir, with its lush valley nestled among some of the world's most spectacular mountains, was once one of the South Asia's premier tourist destinations; now, however, it is a battle-scarred war zone. Kashmir is an area on the northern borders of India and Pakistan: officially known as Jammu & Kashmir. Kashmir is famous for its natural beauty and has often been referred to as the "Switzerland of the East". "The population according to latest data exceeds than fourteen million inhabitants" Diversity Amid Globalization 505. The heart of the area is the fertile Valley of Kashmir, which lies between the Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Here the climate is mild and the soil well watered. "Kashmir covers an area of 222,237 Km2 85,800 square miles. Mount Godwin Austen/K2 8,611m/28,250 ft and Mount Nanga Parbat 8,123m/26,650 ft lie in Northern Kashmir" http://www.ummah.org.uk/kashmir. The root causes of the Kashmir problem are to be found in the events leading to the partition of the Indian subcontinent and the ideological perspectives of the All-India Muslim League AIML and the Indian National Congress INC. The AIML stood for Muslim separation and the creation of a Muslim homeland while INC stood for the Hindu separation and the creation of Hindu homeland. During the British rule on South Asia, Kashmir was a large province having a majority of Muslim population. Kashmir also included a Hindu district named as Jammu in its territory. Due to the difference in religion, culture, social life, customs and opposite traditions and believes it was very hard to mix the both religions. At the time of partition, Kashmir had being ruled by a Hindu Maharaja King who was sharing Kashmir as a legacy of his forefathers. The people of Kashmir wanted get rid of their Hindu ruler due to the difference in the religion. At that time the Maharaja called on India to help him. He knew that he could not count on Pakistan for help, as Pakistan was a Muslim country. On the contrary, India was willing to help him. They sent their troops into Kashmir to help Maharaja. India soon took over the Kashmir by deploying its army. At that time, Indian authorities, which had good relationships with Viceroy from British Empire, conspired against Pakistan and Kashmir. Due to this secret conspiracy, Kashmiri inhabitants were left alone. India stated that it would arrange fair elections and that kashmiri inhabitants would be able to choose their own leader. Till then, neither an election nor a referendum has been introduced by Indian government. "The partition of Indian continent, as was to be expected, did not resolve the problem of two communities. Instead of ending the Hindu-Muslim conflict, the division of the country merely elevated the inter-community blood-bath into inter-state rivalry. By the time India was partitioned, considerable venom had been injected into the body politics of both countries. Partition itself was accompanied by some of the worst carnage in Indian history and all semblance of goodwill, decency, and sanity disappeared" Perspectives on Kashmir 48. Pakistani authorities did not accept the partition of Kashmir and objected the decision made by Viceroy. Ultimately they decided to fight. In the first war that was fought in 1948, Pakistan gained a slice western and northern Kashmir, but the main territory's core remained under Indian control. Since then both nations have fought several wars and remained locked today in bitter animosity and has caused an extreme political instability in the region. The two main wars between these two nations were fought in 1965 and 1971 respectively. These two wars, accompanied by several battles and extreme exchange of military attacks on the line of control border between India and Pakistan are the outgrowth of the burning issue of Kashmir. These two wars resulted as serious political tensions, economic disaster and loss of property and lives. These two wars proved as nightmares for the inhabitants of this region and stopped the development of the two nations, that is why, the region is one of the poorest region in the world. According to famous generalist: Alastair lamb US, " In one sense the Kashmir problem can be seen as a consequence of British failure to find a satisfactory method for the integration of the Princely States into the independent India and Pakistan which succeeded the British Raj. There were 562 Princely States in British India by the time of the transfer of power, and they covered over one-third of the total area of the Indian Empire" The Kashmir Problem 3. So it can be assumed that issue of Kashmir has proved the bone of contention between the relationships of both nations and has resulted in the bitter animosity. Each country claims Kashmir as a part of its territory. As a result of a rebellion in 1947 and the subsequent wars between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, the area is separated by a Line-of-Control LOC or cease-fire line. To the east of the LOC lies the vale of Kashmir, Jammu that is administered by India. To the west lies the area now known as "Azad [Free] Kashmir' that is governed by its own government with strong ties with Pakistan. Inhabitants of the Indian side of Kashmir or Occupied Kashmir are fighting for the freedom for last fifty years. They have been sacrificing their lives and are being martrayed by Indian Army for last several years. There are many freedom-movements working in the area that has also resulted a large number of innocent deaths. They are fighting for their freedom and as the result inhabitants have to face the brutal violence by Indian Army. There are many other movements working in the area for the independence of the region. Indian government has always blamed Pakistan for its involvement in that movements and Pakistan has always regretted the objections. "The US State department, Amnesty International and Human Rights watch have recorded varying categories of human rights violation in Kashmir by Indian army. These include: Disappearances. Rape. Torture and custodial killings. Use of Excessive force and violations of humanitarian laws. Political and extra judicial killings. Arbitrary interference into privacy, family, home and correspondence. Denial of fair trial. Suppression of religious freedom. Suppression of freedom of peaceful assembly and association. Suppression of freedom of speech and press. Opprobrious treatment of elderly. Repression against holding peaceful demonstrations. Due to these excesses, more than 60,000 Kashmiris have been killed since 1990, with a lot more unaccounted for. Thousands of helpless Muslim Kashmiris have fled across the Line-of-Control to Azad Kashmir and Pakistan are now living in refugee camps" http://ummah.org.uk/kashmir. According to Amnesty International, following data shows the number of deaths and number of violent activities by Indian troops in the dispute valley of Jammu and Kashmir. According to the latest information, more than sixty thousand inhabitants have been mercilessly butchered to death since 1989 in the valley. "Kashmir has suffered an in-human violence since the partition of South Asia, but 1989, the violence is increased and has resulted in the deaths of innocent inhabitants. The following chart shows the number of inhabitants that were made disabled by extreme and brutal violence by Indian army along with the precise number of deaths for last ten years"http://ummah.org.uk. More recently, India has increased its army in Kashmir to suppress the Kashmiri Inhabitants. " The deployment of 600,000 troops to silence the voice of Kashmiri people is seen as the only solution by the Indian government, resulting in gross violations of human rights" Divided Kashmir 2. According to the United Nation, "About ten to twelve innocent people are killed every week by Indian paramilitary forces. There is only one soldier to every six Kashmirs and approximately eight thousand Kashmiris are martrayed every year" http://www.un.org. The Amnesty International is trying to draw attention of world's big nations towards this issue. According to their data, since 1992, indiscriminate firing caused the deaths of 59,170 Kashmiri people. 585 were burnt alive, more than two thousands Kashmiri people lost their lives due to extreme torture, record cases of deaths caused by throwing in rivers reaches to four thousand, more than 100,000 were forced to leave their homes and seventy thousand are still missing. Is this what India was called for? Is this what Indian government calls "peace". Human rights violations that includes extra judicial killings, rape, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, disappearances, destruction of homes and shops, denial of fair trial and excessive paramilitary force and violation of humanitarian laws, suppression of freedom of speech. Due to the self-determination of Kashmiri people, Indian army can't control them so they are using illegal and brutal ways to control them. Killing can't solve the problem. Indian troops kill young children right in front of their parents. They rape innocent girls in front of their brothers and fathers. The extent of torture, killings and rapes perpetrated on Kashmiri people by Indian forces are already creating a new record of atrocities. Gouging of eyes, cutting off of men"s genitals, use of ever-new methods of torture and endless curfews would shame Hitler"s SS death squads. The Indian occupation army"s deviltry such as gang rapes, burning of entire villages and crops, destruction of economic life of whole communities and genocide of the Kashmiri people in defiance of international human rights laws, are everyday affairs. According to UN, "An estimated one million women have been bereaved, tortured or humiliated and beaten up or killed; many hundreds have been subjected to barbaric sexual assaults. Sexual harassment is used as a weapon to subvert people into submission" http://ummah.com/kashmir/atroc. This database represents only a minute proportion of the Indian atrocities in Kashmir as the majority goes undocumented. On the other side, Pakistani government thinks that it owes Jammu and Kashmir. Though they haven't recognized that they are supporting freedom fighters in Jammu and Kashmir, infect they provide them some ammunition and moral support. This resulted in extreme violence in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan is spending huge money from its annual budget on Kashmir and on its defense despite the fact that Kashmir is not under its control. Similarly, "Indian government is spending 10.7 percent of its annual budget for its defense in Kashmir" Annual Budget of India 1999' 674. While South Asia grapples with the existence of nuclear weapons, ethnic conflict, terrorism, and other threats, it also affords new opportunities for market reform, growth of democratic institutions, and closer ties with the United States. In the fourth month of 1999, when both nations conducted nuclear tests, the situation has become tenser and has produced a threat of nuclear war in the region. Many experts and intellectuals have pointed the region as the battlefield of the next world war that might be a nuclear war. That is why, United Nation is trying to resolve this matter and stabilize the political instability of South Asia. Since 1948, United-Nation has tried to solve the tense situation many times, but it has not been able to resolve the dispute. Many experts criticize that UN hasn't played a sufficient role to resolve the dispute. Security Council and General assembly have passed twenty resolutions but all in vain and couldn't reach a peaceful settlement. The Security Council promised a referendum, in the form of a plebiscite, to the people of Kashmir in 1948. India then accepted the principle of plebiscite but has since obstructed all attempts at arranging fair elections or referendum. Since then the situation got out of hands of United Nation and still UN is unable to provide a peaceful solution. Pakistani Information Minister in his interview with CNN in 1999 said, "We have been saying that the United Nations and the secretary-general should intervene because this is a threat to peace and regional stability" http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9905/27/pakistan.reax. On May 11, 1998 the Indian government announced that they had conducted a series of successful nuclear tests at their test facility in the Rajasthan Desert. On May 13, the Indian government announced that it conducted two further tests. The Pakistan government responded with a series of there own tests. On May 28 the Pakistani government announced that they had exploded 5 nuclear devices in the southwestern part of Pakistan. These tests were followed by another test on May 30. As now both nations have gained nuclear capabilities, it is a very critical situation for the whole world. Now their nuclear capabilities have drawn the attention of the entire globe to this dispute and many experts have pointed the region as the battleground for next world war. It is very important for both nations to have peaceful relationship because the dispute of Jammu and Kashmir has played a vital role to make them one of the poorest regions in the world. Pakistan: a populous country of 160 million inhabitants is spending twenty five percent of its annual revenue for its defense capabilities. In 1999, Pakistan's annual revenue was approximately eleven billion dollars. Out of which, approximately three billion was spent on the army. It is a very huge amount for a poor country like Pakistan. That is why, Pakistan spends two percent of annual revenue on education and as a result sixty three percent of its population is illiterate Kashmir in The Crossfire 46. Similarly in India, government is spending one-fifth of its annual revenue to its defense capabilities and as a result it has become one the most poorest nation in the world. They should spend money on the needs of ordinary citizens rather than wasting money on their defense capabilities. Today the burning dispute of Jammu and Kashmir remains unsolved. It seems that both nations are filled with bitter animosity for each other and as a result the dispute is still there as it was fifty years ago. Both nations are escalating the conflict and it seems that there might be no solution until any serious action is taken by United Nation. The United Nation and The United States had arranged many table talks to resolve the conflict. For a moment it was seemed that they would solve this issue, but as soon as the talks were over, both countries started using propaganda's. To resolve this burning issue, all big nations should participate in the United Nations peace programs and should stress India and Pakistan to solve the conflict as soon as possible. United Nation should stress India to hold election in Kashmir. The best solution will be the United Nation's contribution in the election to make them fair and safe. All countries should try to establish good relationship between these neighbors. Kashmiri people have suffered the loss of thousands of lives since partition and it is the time that this issue should be solved according to the will of Kashmiri people.
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Our group topic: "Causes and Effects of Wars" provoked me to write about the threatening dispute of "Jammu and Kashmir" which has become more threatening after the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan. My main claim revolves around the theme that the burning dispute of Kashmir, between India and Pakistan can play a vital role in the emergence of third world war and can act as battle-field for a nuclear war. Due to geographical and social impacts on the world these countries have realized some big nations to resolve the issue. South Asia, a land of deep historical and cultural...

To resolve this burning issue, all big nations should participate in the United Nations peace programs and should stress India and Pakistan to solve the conflict as soon as possible. United Nation should stress India to hold election in Kashmir. The best solution will be the United Nation's contribution in the election to make them fair and safe. All countries should try to establish good relationship between these neighbors. Kashmiri people have suffered the loss of thousands of lives since partition and it is the time that this issue should be solved according to the will of Kashmiri people.

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In the wake of the Industrial...In the wake of the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, the rift between the rich and the poor became wider and more irreparable. For those trapped in the underclass workforce, life seemed bleak and ridden with poverty give that they had no representation in the political arena and working conditions were perilous. The Industrial Revolution created a society where social classes were sharply schismatic. Charles Dickens under the visage of fiction and Karl Marx via nonfiction critiqued and offered solutions to the adversity that attended this period of industrial development. Karl Marx: Karl Marx's pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, details the basic objective of Communism whilst simultaneously explicating the theory which buttresses the movement. According to Marx, "all history has been a history of class struggles, of struggles between exploited and exploiting, between dominated and dominating classes as various stages of social development" 472. The relationship between these different classes is normally characterized by the exploitation of the proletariat, the wage laborers, by the bourgeoisie, the boss or the employer. Inevitably, a revolution will springboard from this volatile relationship of overt inequality and subjugation and there will be a reordering of society, a new class will take the place of the bourgeoisie. Such class relations were clearly present during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries and continues to affect our society today under the guise of capitalism, an economic system founded upon private investment and profiteering. For Marx, capitalism is a way of life that is inherently quixotic; stepping on others to achieve personal gain can only leads to acrimony and conflict. The Industrial Revolution "has drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervor, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom"”Free Trade" 475. Not only did industrial development stunt social mobility but it also effaced individualism; hence, it had the net-effect of translating the bond between man and man into a money relation defined by self-interest. Yet, the proletariat make up the majority of the workforce and remain perpetually bound by their lack of privileges; therefore, the aforementioned self-interest that all should be afforded is subject to an entire system driven by their oppressors, the bourgeoisie. Moreover, the Industrial Revolution became evermore pervasive not only due to technological advancement but rather bourgeoisie control and proliferation of information regarding capitalism and industrial development. "The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class 489." In a nutshell, the ruling class molds society by promulgating ideas that best fulfill their ultimate goals; thus, industrial development and capitalism gained popular support by the bourgeoisie so as to maintain the existing social order. Eventually, he believed the proletariat would solve their problems by uniting and leading a revolution that would result in a dramatic shift in power. This revolution would not be like others before it, where property was simply passed on to the next ruling class. Since, the proletariat have no means of changing their property status, when they come to power there will be no need for ownership of private property, and society will be composed of one homogenous class of proletariat. Class conflict will no longer be a problem. The ultimate goal of The Communist Manifesto was to bring about social change by informing people about the communist movement. Charles Dickens: Coketown, as depicted in Dickens' Hard Times is a model of an industrial town; such towns were often located near newly founded factories. It may be a fictional location in the context of the industrial age, but it serves Dickens' purpose of portraying the negative effects of the Industrial Revolution. Many of the details of Coketown are based on the harsh realities of industrialization, but Dickens employs hyperbole to focus the readers' attention on the points he would like to criticize. At the time, it was believed that higher industrial output would increase national income which would be advantageous to everyone; under this presupposition, Coketown exists. The workings of the town are very rational; all scarce resources are utilized efficiently. Beautification is not a priority since it does not contribute to higher industrial output. Coketown jettisons the idea of individuality and identity. The town is deprived of sentimentality and creativity by virtue of the cold mechanical philosophy of rationalism and industrialization that permeates the local populace. Coketown's buildings are void of character. With bitter irony, Dickens explains the difficulty in differentiating the infirmary from the jail; utilitarian rationale has deprived each of its own distinctiveness whilst assigning the healing process in an infirmary greater semblance to serving a sentence in jail. The church, traditionally steeped in spirituality, is no longer any different from a warehouse, a storage area for retail goods; now it is simply a product of industrialization and Utilitarianism. Dickens believes industrialization and Utilitarianism go hand in hand. "Fact, fact, fact, everywhere in the material aspect of town; fact, fact, fact everywhere in the immaterial." Utilitarianism is encapsulated in this statement and in the town; everything serves a material process. In Coketown, women are oppressed by men, because they are perceived as impractical and their work does not benefit society as much as men since they are physically stronger. Therefore, women have less value in this society. Mrs. Gradgrind has no voice and no opinion of her own. As industrialization grew so did the need for skilled labor which meant more people needed to be educated. Education was not for the development of individuality or creativity. On the contrary, it served a much more utilitarian purpose which encompassed the betterment of the whole. Learning became impersonal; students were taught in large groups where teachers did not know their names. Students were taught to be practical. The process of memorizing as many facts as possible is referred to as "educational cramming." A teacher are considered "cannons loaded to the muzzle with facts, and prepared to blow them [the students] clean out of the regions of childhood". Children lose their importance as individuals and are referred to by index numbers. Education is simply a means by which Utilitarianism creates little machines to carry out the dirty work of an industrialized society. Dickens' description of the Coketown community show that workers have no escape from their problems. People are forced to resort to alcohol and drugs; crime is out of control and there is no counsel for the people. Life seems hopeless to them. Industrialization provides no comfort for the "Hands," the factory workers. Workers are described "clattering" home like the sound of machinery. Stephen Blackpool's own "iron-grey" hair is associated with the Industrial Revolution, which made heavy use of iron. His hair is almost colorless, which symbolize the replacement and destruction of himself by Utilitarianism and machinery. Dickens brings Utilitarianism to a personal level via Thomas Gradgrind and Bounderby. Both are materialists and members of the middle class; yet they firmly believe in the superiority of facts over the imagination or "idle fancy". Bounderby is driven by self-interest; hence his constant desire to maximize production in his factory. As the boss, he has no obligation to respect his workers; he does not care about the needs of other people. Living a life dedicated to self-interest may help one climb the social ladder but that prestige will be short-lived. On the other hand, Thomas Gradgrind falls into a different category. He adopted Utilitarianism because he believed it was in the best interests of the people. His beliefs are a genuine mistake, as he did not try to advance his own interest by suppressing those of others. This is evidenced by his desire to tell Sissy, the girl from a local circus, about her father abandoning her because he values honesty. He does not intend to hurt her feelings. His ability to see the holes in his philosophy is redeeming and saves him from the self-destructive nature of his impersonal values and from becoming another propellant of industrialization. Dickens indicts the Industrial Revolution on charges of social malaise; the destruction of personality; for robbing people of the only valuable thing they have "“ their individuality; for oppressing the women and the working class; and finally of depriving the children of a special stage in their lives "“ their childhood. Conclusion: Dickens and Marx would have been able to agree on a remedy but only with compromise. Industry, capitalism, utilitarianism, self-interest, fact, rationalism, are forms of turpitude which decay the self-interior of one's individuality, sentimentality, and creativity. Restore man's emotions and reform the aforementioned evils, than societal rehabilitation will be one step closer to harmony. Social inequality must be reset in order allow all persons liberty and equal opportunity; once we all have the same footing we can discuss how to fix our world.   

In the wake of the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, the rift between the rich and the poor became wider and more irreparable. For those trapped in the underclass workforce, life seemed bleak and ridden with poverty give that they had no representation in the political arena...

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Creating a new Society 14 July...Creating a new Society 14 July 1789 to 9 Thermidor II,27 July 1794 snapshot Napoleonic France 1804 According to Joseph Weber, foster brother of Queen Antoinette, there were three primary causes of the French revolution "the disorder of the finances, the state of mind, and the war in America." The "disorder in the finances" acknowledged that the bankruptcy of the monarchy opened the doors to defiance of the King"s authority. The greatest single cause of the revolution was the economic crisis, which forced the King to recall the redundant Estates General which had not been called since 1614, which opened the debate for people to make complaints with the current system through the cahiers of the three Estates. The "state of mind" largely attributed to the philosophes of the Enlightenment who challenged the very foundations that the Ancien Regime was based on. Another contributing factor to the crisis was a plight of millions of peasants, and the even more critical situation of the landless vagrants and the unemployed masses in the towns. Between 1715 and 1789 the population in France had increased from 18 million to 26 million. Land was a fixed resource, and thousands could not work in rural regions. As a result peasants were forced into the towns. Their situation was exacerbated by the bad harvest of 1788, which saw inflation of basic commodities such as bread, widespread unemployment and destitution accentuated the crisis. *** Original revolutionary goals*** Original ideology: Enlightened Document: Declaration of Rights of Man The August decrees cleared the way for the erection of a constitution, but first they decided to lay down the principles on which it was based. It is a curious mixture of enlightenment theory and bourgeois aspirations. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen , passed into law by the National Assembly on the 26 August 1789, It condemned the practices of the Ancien Regime and expressed the broad agreement which was to be found in the cahiers of all three orders. 1. Men are born free and equal in their rights 3. The fundamental source of all sovereignty resides in the nation - an application of Rousseau"s principle of the "general will" 7. No man may be accused, arrested, or detained except in cases determined by the law 13, General taxation is indispensable for the upkeep of the public force and for the expenses of government. It should be borne equally by all the citizens in proportion to their means 17. the right to property is inviolable and sacred The Declaration of Rights represented a total break from the past. In the Ancien Regime authority had been deriven from g-d and the king. ** The Declaration primarily appealed to bourgeois and nobility spread to proletariat via propaganda see Townson pg.43 POWER STRUCTURE - NATIONAL CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY June 1789 - 30 September 1792 - deputies based the writing of the constitution on the Declaration of Rights of man - deputies saw the reluctance of the King to accept the changes that were taking place - and decided that he should have a suspensive veto - *at this point no one considered abolishing the monarch completely and setting up a republic - it was decided that Legislative power reside in the National Assembly - over the next year went about reorganising French govt., laws, finances, and economy LOCAL GOVERNMENT - deputies wanted to make sure power was decentralised, passing from the central govt. in Paris to local authorities - making it more difficult for King to recover the power he had before - wanted the elected representatives to be responsible to those who elected them - already the principles of the Declaration of Rights were being undermined, as citizens were divided into "active" and "passive" citizens. - Only active citizens who paid the equivalent of three days" labour in taxes, voted for the municipal officials, those who did not earn that amount from wages were not allowed to vote and known as "passive" - "active" citizens also voted in the Primary Assemblies when national elections were held - the positions you could apply for increased in prestige the more you earnt - eg. to become a deputy in the Assembly you had to be able to pay the equivalent of 50 days labour in tax - 61% of Frenchmen had the right to vote in some elections - at a municipal level most peasants had the right to vote - b4 1789 govt officials ran the provincial administration - 1790 no govt officials at local level, elected councils replaced them - councils in the towns were more effective - as it was made up of more literate and talented people - in the villages they found it hard to fill the council with men who could read or write - therefore rural communities carried about their duties badly FINANCIAL REFORM - new tax system could not be set up immediately - most unpopular taxes were abolished - the poor benefited - burden of taxation fell on produces rather than the consumers - fairer system - were keeping with the Declaration of Rights - as all property and income taxed on the same basis ECONOMIC REFORM - deputies in the Constituent Assembly believed in Laissez-faire trade and industry free from any govt. interference - the people wanted the price and distribution of all essential goods to be controlled - *** for the first time there was a uniform system of weights and measures, the decimal system was applied to the whole of France JUSTICE - no longer different laws in the North and the South - there were to be the same law courts throughout France - "Lettres de cachet" were made illegal by the Declaration of Rights - trials were held before a jury of 12 citizens, who would decide guilty or innocence - the idea came from English law - head of judicial system was the court of appeal - torture and mutilation were abolished - anyone arrested had to be brought before a court within 24 hours - number or crimes for which death was the penalty was reduced and in March 1792 the same speedy method of execution the guillotine was to be used for al condemned to death - ***FOR THE FIRST TIME JUSTICE WAS ACCESSIBLE, IMPARTIAL AND CHEAP AND THEREFORE POPULAR - " French system of justice had been one of the most backward, barbarous, and corrupt in Europe. In two years it became the most enlightened." According Towson RELIGION - Constituent Assembly wanted to make sure the church was free from abuses, foreign control, democratic and linked to the new system of local government - Unpopular decree in Dec. 1789 which gave civil rights to Protestants, and later extended to jews in September 1791 - August - the Assembly abolished the tithe, and also ended old corporate privileges of the Church - such as right to decide how much taxation it would pay - Most clergy supported these measures - Also accepted sale of the church lands, as would be paid more then they had under the ancien regime - No serious conflict with the Church until the Civil Constitution of the Clergy in July 1790 - This adapted the organisation of the church to the administrative framework of local govt. - The attempt to extend democracy to all aspects of govt. also expanded to the church - Clergy no longer to be appointed but elected - Most clergy opposed the principle of election, but majority were in favour of finding a way of accepting the Civil Constitution - The Assembly decreed that in Nov. 1790 the clergy must take an oath to the Constitution - This split the clergy - When the Pope condemned the Civil Constitution, many who had taken the oath retracted - There were now in effect two Catholic Churches in Frances, one the constitutional church accepted the Revolution, the other, a non-juring Church non-jurors or refractories, approved by the Pope but regarded as patriots as against the revolution - **** One major effect of this split was that the counter-revolution, the movement which sought to overturn the revolution, received mass support for the first time - before it had been supported by only a few royalists and émigrés - * many villagers complained that the Assembly was trying to change their religion - they felt a sense of betrayal, which combined with their hostility to other measures such as conscription, was to lead to open revolt in 1793 in areas such as the Vendee - ********** Disaffection with the Revolution, which eventually turned into civil war, was, therefore, one result of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy REVOLUTIONARY CLUBS AND POPULAR DISCONTENT Political clubs had begun to form soon after the Estates-General met in May 1789. Jacobin Club - high entrance fee, members mainly came from most wealthy sections of society. Dominant members of the Jacobin club up to the summer of 1791 were liberal constitutional monarchists. In July the Jacobin Club split over the petition calling for the removal of the King. 900 such clubs in the spring of 1791, Corderliers Club - founded in April 1790, more radical than the Jacobin club and had unrestricted admission. It objected to the distinction b/w active and passive citizens and supported measures which the sans-culottes favoured: direct democracy. Much support amongst the working class, although leaders were bourgeois. Most notorious write Marat, L"Ami du Peuple. Became chief spokesman of the popular movement. ** As there were no political parties, the clubs played an important part in the revolution. Kept - kept the public informed major issues of the day - acted as pressure groups to influence the members in the Assembly - the peasants and sans-culottes were not satisfied with what they had received from the revolution - when the peasants realised in the spring of 1790 that their harvest dues were not abolished realised in the spring of 1790 that their harvest dues were not abolished outright but would have to be bought out were deeply disillusioned - wave of strikes by workers against the falling value of their wages early in 1791 - grain prices rose by up to 50 per cent after poor harvest 1791 - *** the discontent of the workers could be used by the popular societies, who linked economic protests to the political demand for a democratic republic, AND by groups in the Assembly seeking more power - THIS MADE THE REVOLUTION MORE RADICAL IN WAYS WHICH THE BOURGEOIS LEADERS OF 1789 HAD NEITHER INTENDED NORE DESIRED. THE RISE OF A REPUBLICAN MOVEMENT Louis" flight to Varennes - Mirabeau, outstanding politician and orator in the Constituent Assembly, died in April 1791, the moderates were becoming more influential in the Assembly - They feared the new clubs and emergence of an oganised working-class movement - *wanted to end the revolution but for this to happen, had to be a compromise with the King - LOUIS DASHED ALL THEIR HOPES BY ATTEMPTING TO FLEE - ********One immediate result of his flight is that he lost what remained of his popularity, which was dependent on him being seen to support the revolution. - PPL started talking openly about replacing the monarchy with a republic - Deputes in the assembly acted calmly to the situation - did not want a republic - 16 July the Assembly voted to suspend the King until the Constitution had been completed - he would be restored only after swore to observe it CHAMP DE MARS - radicals appalled when the King was not dethroned or put on trial - their anger directed against the Assembly - Cordeliers and some Jacobins supported a petition for the King"s deposition - **This split the Jacobin club - Robespierre left to preside over more radical rump - Parisian defectors formed a new club the Feuillants, which, for the moment had control over Paris - 17 July 1791, 50,000 people flocked to the Champ de Mars, a huge field where the Feast of the Federation had been held 3 days earlier celebrating fall of the Bastille. - They were there to sign a republican petition on the "altar of the fatherland" - this was a political demonstration of the poorer sections of the Paris population - the Commune,, under pressure from the Assembly, declared martial law - sent Lafayette with the National Guard to the Champ de Mars, where they fired on the peaceful crowd trying to stop freedom of expression - **** FIRST bloody clash between the different groups in the Third Estate, greeted with pleasure in the Assembly - popular leaders arrested - moderates had won, could now work out a compromise with the King without facing mob violence - Feuillants now more then ever committed to making an agreement with the King THE CONSTITUTION OF 1791 - main aims of the Constituent Assembly had been to draw up a Constitution - which would replace absolute monarchy with a limited one - * real power was to pass from an elected assembly - much of the constitution - that the King should have a suspensive veto and that there should be one elected assembly - had been worked out in 1789 but the rest now passed until sept.1791 - King, whose office was hereditary, was subordinate to the Assembly, as it passed laws King had to obey - "In France there is no authority superior to the law"¦it is only by means of the law that the King reigns." - In September the King was forced, reluctantly , to accept the Constitution THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY 1 October 1791 - 20 September 1792 - when the King accepted the Constitution in September 1791, the Constituent Assembly was dissolved - to prevent opponents dominating next Assembly, Robespierre proposed a self-denying ordinance - stating that not member of the N.C.A could sit for the Legislative Assembly - assembly elected almost wholly bourgeoisie - few nobles - at the beginning 264 members Feuillant Club, who considered the revolution to be over136 members Jacobins - other 350 deputies did not belong to either - many emitters - ** Assembly passed two laws in November - 1. Declared that all non-jurors were suspects - 2. All emitters who had not returned to France by 1 January 1792 would forfeit their property and and be regarded as traitors GOING AGAINST D.R.O.R. 17!!! - when King vetoed these laws his unpopularity increased: he appeared to be undermining the revolution - yet despite mistrust of King, it seemed likely that the Constitution of 1791 would survive - what prevented to this was the war with Austria, which began April 1792 - *****THIS EVENT HAD MORE DECISIVE AND FAR-REACHING REULTS THAN ANY OTHER IN THE WHOLE OF THE REVOLUTION - ************* WAR FINALLY DESTROYED THE CONSENSUS OF 1789**** LED DIRECTLY TO THE FALL OF THE MONARCHY, TO CIVIL WAR AND THE TERROR THE COMING OF WAR - CRISIS FOR THE REVOLUTION - the Great Powers had shown no interest in intervening during the first two years of the French Rev - Leopold II, Habsburg Empire approved of many of the liberal reforms in the Revolution and did not want a return to absolutism - Like other soverigns, was plaes at the collapse of French power and no longer regarded France as a serious rival - After the flight of Varenned the Austrians felt they had to make some gesture to support Louis - THEREFORE, AUGUST 1791, ISSUED DECLARATION OF PILLNITZ, in association with Prussia - Said they were ready, with other sovereigns to restore the King of France to a position of power which he couuld strenghthen foudations of monarchical govt. - *appeared to be a threat to interfere with French internal affairs, but in reality it was no threat at all - in France, dec. did not create much of a stil - ***SOME PEOPLE IN FRANCE WHO CAME TO BELIEVE, FOR DIFFERENT REASONS, THAT WAR WAS IN THEIR OWN BEST INTEREST - Marie Antoinette - saw that "conciliation is out of the question..armed force has destroyed everything and ony armed force can put things right." She hoped for a war in which Louis would be defeated, enabling him to recover his powers - King shared her view - ***at this same time he was taking an oath for the constitution, Antoinette was writing to the Austrian ambassador, "giving the impression of adopting the new ideas is the safest way of quickly defeating them." - Lafayette and Dumouriez also wanted war - The desire for war resulted in the cooperation of Laafayette and his follwers with the Brissotins, who also wanted war - Brissot one of the first to support the republic after Louis" flight to Varennes and wanted abolition of monarchy - He saw King had not really accepted the Constitution, and thought a war would force the King to come out into the open, as it would traitors who were opposed to the revolution - Robespierre not in favour of war - made feeling known in Jacobin club - Austrian threats and Girondin attacks on the "Austrian Committee" at Court forced the King to dismiss his Feuillant ministers in March 1792 and appint a more radical government, including some Girondin ministers - ***THIS WAS A DECISIVE CHANGE - the old ministers had carried out wishes of the King, the new ones obeyed the Assembly - both the Assembly and the Govt now wanted war, especially new foreign minister Dumouriez - he hated Austria, but had aims similar to that of Lafayette - France declared war on Austria 29 April 1792 - Prussia declared war on France a month later THE FALL OF THE MONARCHY - War showed the weakness of the French armiestreason and traitors were blamed for for French defeats and with some justification: Marie Antoinette had sent details of French military plans to the Austrians - Govt also had other problems to deal with, such as opostion from non-juring preists and counter-revolutionaries - 27 May Assembly passed a law for the deportation of refractory preiest - another law dibanded King"s Guard, and third set up a camp for 20 000 National Guards known as federes, because their arrival coinced with the feast of the federation - were to protect Paris from Invasion and the govt. from a coup - Louis refused to approve these laws - Leader of the sections responded to these events by holding armed demonstrations on 20 June anniversary of the Tennis Court Oath - Leaders came from Cordeliers club - 8000 demonstrators , many of them national guards, poured into the Tuilleris - Louis behaved great dignity - probably saved his life - This journee did not achieve its desired end: King did not recall the Girondin ministers - **did show very clearly the weakness of the King and the Assembly and the power of the Sections - Assembly soon took steps which recognised the growing imporance of the sans-culotttes - 11 July it declared a state of emergency, issuing "la patrie en danger" the father land in danger which called on every french man to fight - titled the favour to democrats - how could u ask a man to fight and not give him the vote? - Federes demanded the admission of passive citizens into the sectional assemblies and National - Tension in Paris was increased by the arrival of federes from the provinces and by the Brunswick Manifesto - The fedres were military revolutionaries and republicans , unlike the Paris National Guard, whose officers were conservative or royalist - **THE BRUNSWICK MANIFESTO, issued by the commander in chief of the Austro-Prussian armies, was published in Paris 1 August - it threatened that any National Guard captured fighting would be punished as "rebels of the king" - Parisians were collectively held responsible for the safety of the royal family - If it was harmed the allies would execute "an exemplary vengeance"¦by delivering the city of Paris to a military exectuion." - The Manifesto was intended to help the King, but had the opposite effects - **FRENCH MEN INFURIATED and many who has supported the monarchy not turned against it - a new innsurrection was was being prepared by radicals and federes, Girondins changed thie rattitude of oppostion to the King and tried to prevent a rising - Louis was warned that there was likely to be more violent uprising then that of 20 June, and to recally the ministers he had dismissed 13 June - Louis rejected their offer - Robespierre abandoned his previous support for the Constitution of 1991 and called for the overthrow of the monarchy - He also wanted a national Convention, elected by a univeral male suffrage to replace the Legislative Assembly - *On 3 August, Petion, Mayor of Paris, went to the Legislative Assembly and demanded, on behalf of the 47 out of the 48 sections, the abolition of the monarchy - *yet Assembly refused to depose the King - *9 August Sans-culottes took over the Hotel de Ville, overthrew the old municipality and set up a revolutionary Commune - the next morning several thousand National Guard, now open to passive citizens, and 2000 federes, led by those from Marseille marched on the Tuileries - the paace was defended by 3000 troops - 2000 of whom were national guard - the others were Swiss mercenaries who were certain to resist. - During the morning the royal family had sought refuge in the Legislative Assembly - The National Guard defending the Tuileries, joined the insurgents, who entered the courtyards - Belived the attack was over until the Swiss started firing, King ordered his Swiss gurads to cease fire - ***THE RISING WAS AS MUCH A REJECTION OF THE ASSEMBLY AS IT WAS OF THE KING - Deputies had to hand over the King to the Commune, who imprisoned him - ***As a consequence of the fall of the monarchy, the 1791 Constitution became inoperative. The Assembly had to agree to the election, by universal male suffrage, of a National Convention to draw up a new , democratic constitution - The constitutional monarchists, about 2/3 of the deputies, did not feel safe, so they stayed away from the Assembly and went into hiding - Left the GIRONDINS in chargee, the beneficiaries of a revolution they had tired to avoid - Convention met for the first time 20 September 1792. On the next day they abolished the monarchy REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT AND THE TERROR -symbol of the Terror is the guillotine, and is symbol most ppl have in mimnd when they think of the French Revolution, bloodthirsty purges, terrified citizens, dictatorship and the supression of the liberties which had been so triumphantly announced in the Declaration of Rights and Man in 1789. French historians Furet and Richet saw the period from August 1792 to July1794 as time when millitant sans culottes knocked the revolution off course STRUGGLE FOR POWER: GIRONDINS AND JACOBINS THE CONVENTION 20 September 1792 - 26 October 1795 - all men over 21 could vote in the elections to the Convention - but the result was distorted by fear and intimidation - IN Paris, all who had shown royalist sypathies were disfranchised - Thus all 24 members for Paris were Jacobins, repubicans, and supporters of the Commune - Robespierre came head od the poll in the capital - At first about 200 Girondins and 100 Jacobins in the Convention - Majority of the deputies, uncommitted to either group, know as the Plain or March - middle ground they sat - Until 2 June 1793 the history of the Convention is that of a struggle between the Girondins and Jacobins - The latter came to be known as Montagnards Jacobins as Girondins too members of the Jacobin club - Girondins and Montagnards were all bureois and agreed on most policies - Both strongly in the Revolution and the Republic, hated privilges, were anit-clerical and favoured a liberal economic policy - Both wanted a more Enlightened and humane France - Differed in soure of suppor - Both Girondins and Montagnards committed to winning the war but the latter more flexible in their approach - Girondins thought that Robespierre wanted a bloody dictatorship, the Montagnards convinced that the Girondins would compromise with conservative, even royalst , forces to stay inpower - They therefore, accused them of supporting couter-revolution - As neither side had the majority in the Assembly each needed to have the support of the Plain - They too were bourgeois, blieved in economic liberalism and were deeply afraid of the popular movement - At first supported the Girondins, who provided most of the ministers and dominated mnost of the Assembly"s committees SEPTEMBER MASSACRES - August the situation of the French armies on the fronttier was desperate, Lafayette fled to the Austrians on 7 August - With leading general deserting, who could still be trusted? - Panic and fear of treachery swept the country - By the beginning of September Verdun, the last major fortress on the road to Paris, was about to surrender - Commune called on all patriots to take up arms, thousands volunteered to defend the capital and the revolution - *****BUT ONCE THEY HAD LEFT FOR THE FRONT, THERE WAS CONCERN ABOUT THE OVERCROWDED PRISONS, WHERE THERE WAS A RUMOUR WHERE THERE WERE MANY PRIEST S AND NOBLES, COUNTER REVOLUTIONARY SUSPECTS - a rumour arose that they wee plotting to escape, kill the helpless population and hand the city over to the Prussians - Marat, called for conspirators to be killed - Massacre of prisoners began 2 September and continuted for 5 days - Killers the sans-culottes - **this massacre cast a shadow over the first meeting of the Convention - just as the routunes of war had brought about the September Massacres, they also brought an end to this part of the Terror - political history of the first phase of the National Convention 20 September 1792 to 2 June 1793 is that of the power struggle b/w Girondins and montagnards - it was clouded by the debate over the arraignment, trial and execution of the King, and the political contest for power among the divided republicans is convused and compunded by the escalatoin of the more limited war of 1792 into the war of the First Coalition THE TRIAL OF LOUIS XVI -Jacobins insisted on the trial of the King, in order to start republic more firmly - increasingly depended on the sans-culottes, who wanted the King tried and executed - held him responsible for the bloodshed at the Tuileries in August 1792 - Girondins tried to prevent a trial - What finally sealed the King"s fate was the idea of Marat to have an "appel nominal" ppl had to say there vote in public - KING EXECUTED 21 JANUARY 1793 For radical republicans this was a logical action since Article VI of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Ctizen stated that "the law must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes." - First Jacobin victory in the Convention - By Louis" execution the Montagnards gained an ascendancy in the Convention which they rarely lost afterwards THE WAR EXTENDED - At same time war, civil war in the Vendee - to the surprise of the French the war went badly EFFECTS OF THE WAR - by winter 1792-3 the counter rev. in France had virtually collapsed - REVIVED by the expansion of the war and conscription - Govt. ordered a levy of 30000 troops in Feb.1793 - This led to massive risings in the Vedee - Troubles in the Vendee had begun long before 1793 and conscription - Peasants there were paying more in land tax than they had under the ancien regime and so dislike dthe reovutionary government - This dislike turned into hatred with the Civil Constitution of the Clergy - Sale of church lands also unpopular - Economic problems, for which the war was lrgely responsible, added to the difficulties of the government - To pay for the war more and more assignats were printed and had fallen to half their nominal value bhy February 1793 - This pushed up price - Although good harvest Nov1792, bread scarse - The results of high prices and scarcity, were as usual , widespread riots and dmands from the sans-culottes for price controls - Support of the people necessary to fight the war, so it was clear some of their demands would have to be met - Realised first by the Montagnards - The Plain joined the Montagnards in favour of repressive measures - BARERE, A LEADER OF THE PLAIN, TOLD THE CONVENTION THAT IT SHOULD RECOGNISE THREE THINGS: IN A STATE OF EMERGENCY NO GOVERNMENT COULD RULE BY NORMAL METHODS, THE BOURGEOIS SHOULD NOT ISOLATE THEMSELVES FROM THE PEOPLE, WHOSE DEMANDS SHOULD BE SATISFIED, THE BOURGEOIS MUST RETAIN CONTROL OF THIS ALLINACE, AND SO THE CONVETNION MUST TAKE THE INIATIVE BY INTRODUCING THE NECESSARY MEASURES." ****These meausures were passed by the Convention between 10 March and 20 May 1793. They had 3 objectives. 1. to watch and punish suspects 2. to make govt. more effective 3. to meet at least some of the demands of the sans-culottes 10 MARCH - REVOLUTIONARY TRIBUNAL SET UP - tribunal set up in Paris to try counter-revolutionary suspects and was intended to prevent massacres like those of September 1792 - tribunal to become one of the main agencies of the terro - owing to the resistance to conscription, and the suspcion of generals after Dumouriez"s defection , representatives on mission were sent to the provinces - they were deputies of the Convention, mainly Montagnards, whose job was toi speed up conscription and keep an eye on the conduct of generals ***on 6 April perhaps th emost important of all these measures , THE COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY, was set up to supervise and speed up theactivities of ministers, whose authority is superseded - Committee not a dictatorship , depended on the support of the Xonvention which renewed its powers each month - Who was to be on the new Committee? - All these measures - Revolutionary Tribunals, representatives - on-misson, watch committees, the Committee of Public Safety summary execution decree - were to become vital ingredients of the Terror THE FALL OF THE GIRONDINS - 2 June 80000 National Guardsman surrounded the Convention and directed their cannon at it - they demanded the expulsion of Girondins from the Assembly and a maximum price on al essential goods - when deputies tried to leave they were forced back - for the first time armed force was being used against an elected parliament - to avoid a massacre or a revolutionary commune seizzing pwer, the Convention compelled to agree to the arrest of 29 Girondin deputies and two ministers THE NEW COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY - 2 June most deputies freared and distrusted the Montagnards - however, did not want to see the Republic overthrown by domestic or foreign ememies and so for the next 14 monmths they were reluctant accomplices of the Jacobin minority - when a new Committee of Public Safety was formed between July and September 1793, the 12 members were all either Montagnards, or deputies of the Plain who had joined them - the new committee was to become the first strong govt. since the Revolution began - all members were re-elected to the Committee by the Convention every montyh from Sept. 1793 to July 1794 - Robespierre joined the Committee on 27July - As Robespierre shared many ideas with the sans-culottes he was popular with the peole of Paris but he was never one of the people as Marat was THE JACOBIN REPUBLIC AND THE REIGN OF TERROR JUNE 1793-JULY 1794 The crisis of the Revolution - June - December 1793 -when the Jacobins assumed state power in early June 1793 the Frency Republic was beset by multiple crisis over the summer and autumn of 1793 the gravity of this crisis would augment to a pint where the very survival of the Republic, and hence of the Revolution the Republic was simultaneously threatened by foreign invasion across all land frontiers - counter revolution in Western France, internal rebellion the federalist revolts savage inflation - assignats, the volatility and potenial anarchy of the sans-culottes in the cities, and the rural community who remained, over whelmingly , Catholic and royalist at heart under the violently anti-clerical republic regime - when Marat assassinated 13 July 1793, Parisians feared that the virus of counter revolution had finally penetrated the captial itself THE FEDERALIST REVOLTS AND THE DISINTERGRATION OF NATIONAL UNITY - "federalist" revolts that broke out like an epidemic in France in the summer of 1793 were the fruit of both factional conflict in the Convention b/w the Gironde and the Mountain in APRIL-May and of the Paris insurrection of 31 May-2-June which forced downfall Girondin govt. - whatever form the "federalist" revolts assumed - civil disorder, passive resistance to national govt., armed rebellion, or factional terrorism, in provinces - federalism revolts were seen as royalist plots to destroy the unity of the Republic - Federalism appeared as a serious threat to the Government - **most serious consequences of the revolts was the disruption of the harvest, and dislocation of the war effort, and the severance of lines of communication to the ffrontiers CREATING THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE TERROR - the Terro should be viewed as an outgrowth of the siege mentality that gripped Paris in Year II - as a response to pressure from the sans-culottes for total solutions to toal problems, and as a reacton to ther exigency of war, rebellion and counter-revolution - it was always viewed by the convention, the Jacobin Party,and the sans-culottes as a temporary phase in the history of the Republic, as a disruption of the normal course of development of the revolution - strictly speaking the Terro means extra-parliamentary govt. - it becaem de jure on 5 September, 1793, when the constituion of 1793 ws made inoperative - during the reign of terror - delcared that they "were revolutionary until the peace" - the machinery of the Terro was fashioned in an atmosphere of patriotic exaltation, suspcion and violence CONSTITUTION OF THE TERROR - OCT 1793 INSTITUTIONS OF THE TERRO The Executive Committees - b/w July and December the Convention slowly defined and enlarged the funtions and powers of the executive committees of fincance, public safety and general security - the Convention retained sovereign power in the formal sense that it elected all members of the three committees each month, and the committees were ultimatley responsible to it - committee of public safety and General Security were given enormous discretionary powers, and by the end of 1793 had become virtually autonomous - eventually, during the first half of 1794, the Committee of Public Safety came to monopolise all the powers of govt., a situation in which quite literally 12 ruled France The Levee en masse and the creation of Armees Revolutionnaires - rev. govt. helped enormously in its work of national defence by the levee en masse of 23 August, 1793 - and the creation of civic militia - - the levee en masse was both an act of military conscription and a call for a national, patriotic risingto extirpate the enemies of the Republic - response in Paris electric, but in provinces the peasnty had to be bludgeoned into the army and terrorised into co-operation with civil authority - to make dangerous generalisation - e/where throughout France townsmen responded magnificiently to this call for a national rising, while in rural communities it was received with apathy and fatalistic passivity - the armees revolutionaries recruited in Paris and the larger towns, staffed by sans-culottes elected by the rank and file, para-military, ultra-revolutionary, and dangerously autonomous, went out into the countryside in the autumn and winter of 1793-4 to promote recruitment, to requistion grain, ECONOMIC POLICIES AND CONTROL - the principal economic policies of the Convention b/w June and December 1793 were introduced in response to sans-culotte pressure - most important economic decree abolished all remaining feudal rights without indemnification - declared monopoly of capital crime, stabilised the assignats, established, established a compulsory loan - *** Of these decrees the LAW OF MAXIMUM - 29 SEPTEMBER 1793 - was the most important - it empowered the state to regulate the supply and prices of essential commodities food stuffs, fuels, industrial raw materials. Representatives on Mission and the Agents Nationaux - C.P.S. slowly centralised its power over the provinces during the autumn and winter of 1793-4 with the aid of ad hoc and permanent officials - Reps on mission at one time up to 100 members of the Convention carried the power of the state personally into the more troubled regions of France and made lightning chekcs on the armies of the frontiers - The power of the reps on mission symbolised for frenchmen in the Provinces waas both august and terrible GREAT TERROR - the govt wanted to be in complete control over repression, so in May 1794, it abolished all the provincial Revolutionary Tribunals - all enemies of the Republic had now to be brought to Paris, to be tried by the Revolutionary Tribunal - did not mean Terror less sever - Law of Prairial, passed 10 June 1794 "Enemies of the people; were defined as those "who have sought to mislead opinion..to dprave customs and to corrupt the public conscience." - Terms so vague almost anyone could be included - No winesses were to be called and judgement wa to be decided by the "conscience of the jurors" rather then by any evidnce produced - Defendants were not allowed defence council and the only possible verdicts were death or aquittal - this law removed any semblance of a fair trial and was designed to speed up those process of revolutionary justice - MORE PEOPLE WERE SENTENCED TO DEATH BY THE REVOLUTIONARY TRIBUNAL IN THE NINE WEEKS AFTER 10 JUNE THAN IN THE PREVIOUS MONTHS OF ITS EXISTENCE 9 THERMIDOR - FALL OF ROBESPIERRE -throughout July, moves were being made within the Committees and the Convention to organise a coup against the Robespierris - the conspiracy was very difficult to organise, since it encompassed moderates and extremists whose dislike for eatch other was only subordinate to their greater hatred and fear of Robespierre - in the end it was Robespierre"s final speech to the Convention on the 8 Thermidor that finally cemented an alliance of the Thermidorians - the speech took several hours to deliver - as it progressed became increasingly hysterical, irrational, and paranoid - near the end Robespierre made wild allegations of reason and corruption within the Committees of Fincance, General Security, and Public Safety, but when challenged to name the traitors he refused - when the Convention reassembled the next day 9 Thermidor, 27 July a motion to impeach and outlaw the Robespierrists was moved and carried - Robespierre arrested and executed - Thus began the Thermidorian reaction - Within a month of the whole machinery of the governemtn of the Terror would be dismantlye NAPOLEON The effective ruler of France, Napoleon Bonaparte, 30 year old general, first consul between 1796-1799. After years of turmoil, or rebellion, revolution and counter-revolution, people yearned for a stability and security. In 1802 another plebiscite approved Napoleon"s appointment of consul for life, in 1804 he assumed the title of emperor. At the crowning ceromony 2 December 1804 Napoleon took the crown from the hands of the pope and placed it on his own head as a symbolic enthronement of a "self-made" emperor The bank of France established to stabilise the currency. New codes of civil law, pean and commercial were formulated into the Code Napoleon, ensureing equality before the law and bestowing a sense of permanence on the gains of the Rev.. OUTCOME AND INFLUENCE OF THE REVOLUTION - rev many diff. Things to many diff people - its effects varied from city to country side, from northern France to the south - evaluation of the significance of the revolution brought about during the rev. involves an identification of the aims of the revolutionaries, and judgement of the extent they were attained - both "democratic" and "liberal" aspirations became influential forces in European society as a result of the Rev. period - in the early stages of the rev. the liberals and democrats were united in theier efforts to achieve an alteration of the old order THE REVOLUTION AS AN ASSERTION OF REPUBLICANISM - the establishment of a repubic had not been one of the primary aims of the revolutionaries - a form of constitutional monarchy was widely preferred opinion in the early years - after the republican administrations had failed to achieve stability and order, the French people returned to the monarchical form of govt. DESTRUCTION OF PRIVLEGE - through the momentous 1789 declarations abolishing feudalism and proclaiming the rights of the citizen, together with that abolishing the monarchy 1792 - french revolutionaries destroyed the power and prestige of both previously privleged aristocracy and the monarchy - people could no longer be "born to rule" and the principle of divine right did not return THE REDUCTION IN AUTHORITY OF THE CHURCH -through the revolutionary proclamations of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and the confiscation and sale of Church lands, the Roman Catholic Chruch lost its dominant position in French society in effect society was largely de-Christianised and secularies IMPORTANCE OF REV. HISTORIANS VIEWS Since the revn most historians have argued that for better or worse, the revn profoundly altered most aspects of life in France. Since mid 1950s, when Alfred Cobban atacked "the myth of the french revolution" revisionist historians have increasingly questioned the long accepted certainties of the origins and outcomes of the rev. British historian Roger Price "In political and ideological terms the revolution was no doubt crucial importance, but humanity was not transformed, thereby at the end of all the political upheavels fo the revolution and Empire little had changed in the daily life of most frenchment."   

Creating a new Society 14 July 1789 to 9 Thermidor II,27 July 1794 snapshot Napoleonic France 1804 According to Joseph Weber, foster brother of Queen Antoinette, there were three primary causes of the French revolution "the disorder of the finances, the state of mind, and the war in America." The...

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