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Our group topic: "Causes and Effects of Wars" provoked me to write about the threatening dispute of "Jammu and Kashmir" which has become more threatening after the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan. My main claim revolves around the theme that the burning dispute of Kashmir, between India and Pakistan can play a vital role in the emergence of third world war and can act as battle-field for a nuclear war. Due to geographical and social impacts on the world these countries have realized some big nations to resolve the issue. South Asia, a land of deep historical and cultural representations has more than one billion population. Dominated by British colonization for nearly a century, this region contains a variety of imprints of British rule. South Asia is the region that holds evidences of one of the ancient civilization of the world. The unsettled conditions of the eighteenth century provided an opening for the European imperialism in this region. In 1957, British Empire took hold of the Indian sub-continent and South Asia was colonized by British Empire. In 1947, when British Empire surrendered control of the Indian sub-continent, the land was divided into two major parts. The Hindu majority area became the independent nation of India and Muslim majority area became the independent nation of Pakistan. Since then they have fought many wars and several battles that have affected the both nations as well as the neighboring countries. Now as both nations have gained the nuclear capabilities so they are predicted as the battleground for a possible nuclear war. " If one were to take to praise Kashmir, whole books would be written"¦Kashmir is a garden of eternal spring, or an iron fort to the palace of kings-a delightful flower-bed, and a heart expanding heritage for dervishes"Danger In Kashmir 3. Kashmir, with its lush valley nestled among some of the world's most spectacular mountains, was once one of the South Asia's premier tourist destinations; now, however, it is a battle-scarred war zone. Kashmir is an area on the northern borders of India and Pakistan: officially known as Jammu & Kashmir. Kashmir is famous for its natural beauty and has often been referred to as the "Switzerland of the East". "The population according to latest data exceeds than fourteen million inhabitants" Diversity Amid Globalization 505. The heart of the area is the fertile Valley of Kashmir, which lies between the Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Here the climate is mild and the soil well watered. "Kashmir covers an area of 222,237 Km2 85,800 square miles. Mount Godwin Austen/K2 8,611m/28,250 ft and Mount Nanga Parbat 8,123m/26,650 ft lie in Northern Kashmir" The root causes of the Kashmir problem are to be found in the events leading to the partition of the Indian subcontinent and the ideological perspectives of the All-India Muslim League AIML and the Indian National Congress INC. The AIML stood for Muslim separation and the creation of a Muslim homeland while INC stood for the Hindu separation and the creation of Hindu homeland. During the British rule on South Asia, Kashmir was a large province having a majority of Muslim population. Kashmir also included a Hindu district named as Jammu in its territory. Due to the difference in religion, culture, social life, customs and opposite traditions and believes it was very hard to mix the both religions. At the time of partition, Kashmir had being ruled by a Hindu Maharaja King who was sharing Kashmir as a legacy of his forefathers. The people of Kashmir wanted get rid of their Hindu ruler due to the difference in the religion. At that time the Maharaja called on India to help him. He knew that he could not count on Pakistan for help, as Pakistan was a Muslim country. On the contrary, India was willing to help him. They sent their troops into Kashmir to help Maharaja. India soon took over the Kashmir by deploying its army. At that time, Indian authorities, which had good relationships with Viceroy from British Empire, conspired against Pakistan and Kashmir. Due to this secret conspiracy, Kashmiri inhabitants were left alone. India stated that it would arrange fair elections and that kashmiri inhabitants would be able to choose their own leader. Till then, neither an election nor a referendum has been introduced by Indian government. "The partition of Indian continent, as was to be expected, did not resolve the problem of two communities. Instead of ending the Hindu-Muslim conflict, the division of the country merely elevated the inter-community blood-bath into inter-state rivalry. By the time India was partitioned, considerable venom had been injected into the body politics of both countries. Partition itself was accompanied by some of the worst carnage in Indian history and all semblance of goodwill, decency, and sanity disappeared" Perspectives on Kashmir 48. Pakistani authorities did not accept the partition of Kashmir and objected the decision made by Viceroy. Ultimately they decided to fight. In the first war that was fought in 1948, Pakistan gained a slice western and northern Kashmir, but the main territory's core remained under Indian control. Since then both nations have fought several wars and remained locked today in bitter animosity and has caused an extreme political instability in the region. The two main wars between these two nations were fought in 1965 and 1971 respectively. These two wars, accompanied by several battles and extreme exchange of military attacks on the line of control border between India and Pakistan are the outgrowth of the burning issue of Kashmir. These two wars resulted as serious political tensions, economic disaster and loss of property and lives. These two wars proved as nightmares for the inhabitants of this region and stopped the development of the two nations, that is why, the region is one of the poorest region in the world. According to famous generalist: Alastair lamb US, " In one sense the Kashmir problem can be seen as a consequence of British failure to find a satisfactory method for the integration of the Princely States into the independent India and Pakistan which succeeded the British Raj. There were 562 Princely States in British India by the time of the transfer of power, and they covered over one-third of the total area of the Indian Empire" The Kashmir Problem 3. So it can be assumed that issue of Kashmir has proved the bone of contention between the relationships of both nations and has resulted in the bitter animosity. Each country claims Kashmir as a part of its territory. As a result of a rebellion in 1947 and the subsequent wars between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, the area is separated by a Line-of-Control LOC or cease-fire line. To the east of the LOC lies the vale of Kashmir, Jammu that is administered by India. To the west lies the area now known as "Azad [Free] Kashmir' that is governed by its own government with strong ties with Pakistan. Inhabitants of the Indian side of Kashmir or Occupied Kashmir are fighting for the freedom for last fifty years. They have been sacrificing their lives and are being martrayed by Indian Army for last several years. There are many freedom-movements working in the area that has also resulted a large number of innocent deaths. They are fighting for their freedom and as the result inhabitants have to face the brutal violence by Indian Army. There are many other movements working in the area for the independence of the region. Indian government has always blamed Pakistan for its involvement in that movements and Pakistan has always regretted the objections. "The US State department, Amnesty International and Human Rights watch have recorded varying categories of human rights violation in Kashmir by Indian army. These include: Disappearances. Rape. Torture and custodial killings. Use of Excessive force and violations of humanitarian laws. Political and extra judicial killings. Arbitrary interference into privacy, family, home and correspondence. Denial of fair trial. Suppression of religious freedom. Suppression of freedom of peaceful assembly and association. Suppression of freedom of speech and press. Opprobrious treatment of elderly. Repression against holding peaceful demonstrations. Due to these excesses, more than 60,000 Kashmiris have been killed since 1990, with a lot more unaccounted for. Thousands of helpless Muslim Kashmiris have fled across the Line-of-Control to Azad Kashmir and Pakistan are now living in refugee camps" According to Amnesty International, following data shows the number of deaths and number of violent activities by Indian troops in the dispute valley of Jammu and Kashmir. According to the latest information, more than sixty thousand inhabitants have been mercilessly butchered to death since 1989 in the valley. "Kashmir has suffered an in-human violence since the partition of South Asia, but 1989, the violence is increased and has resulted in the deaths of innocent inhabitants. The following chart shows the number of inhabitants that were made disabled by extreme and brutal violence by Indian army along with the precise number of deaths for last ten years" More recently, India has increased its army in Kashmir to suppress the Kashmiri Inhabitants. " The deployment of 600,000 troops to silence the voice of Kashmiri people is seen as the only solution by the Indian government, resulting in gross violations of human rights" Divided Kashmir 2. According to the United Nation, "About ten to twelve innocent people are killed every week by Indian paramilitary forces. There is only one soldier to every six Kashmirs and approximately eight thousand Kashmiris are martrayed every year" The Amnesty International is trying to draw attention of world's big nations towards this issue. According to their data, since 1992, indiscriminate firing caused the deaths of 59,170 Kashmiri people. 585 were burnt alive, more than two thousands Kashmiri people lost their lives due to extreme torture, record cases of deaths caused by throwing in rivers reaches to four thousand, more than 100,000 were forced to leave their homes and seventy thousand are still missing. Is this what India was called for? Is this what Indian government calls "peace". Human rights violations that includes extra judicial killings, rape, torture, arbitrary arrest and detention, disappearances, destruction of homes and shops, denial of fair trial and excessive paramilitary force and violation of humanitarian laws, suppression of freedom of speech. Due to the self-determination of Kashmiri people, Indian army can't control them so they are using illegal and brutal ways to control them. Killing can't solve the problem. Indian troops kill young children right in front of their parents. They rape innocent girls in front of their brothers and fathers. The extent of torture, killings and rapes perpetrated on Kashmiri people by Indian forces are already creating a new record of atrocities. Gouging of eyes, cutting off of men"s genitals, use of ever-new methods of torture and endless curfews would shame Hitler"s SS death squads. The Indian occupation army"s deviltry such as gang rapes, burning of entire villages and crops, destruction of economic life of whole communities and genocide of the Kashmiri people in defiance of international human rights laws, are everyday affairs. According to UN, "An estimated one million women have been bereaved, tortured or humiliated and beaten up or killed; many hundreds have been subjected to barbaric sexual assaults. Sexual harassment is used as a weapon to subvert people into submission" This database represents only a minute proportion of the Indian atrocities in Kashmir as the majority goes undocumented. On the other side, Pakistani government thinks that it owes Jammu and Kashmir. Though they haven't recognized that they are supporting freedom fighters in Jammu and Kashmir, infect they provide them some ammunition and moral support. This resulted in extreme violence in Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan is spending huge money from its annual budget on Kashmir and on its defense despite the fact that Kashmir is not under its control. Similarly, "Indian government is spending 10.7 percent of its annual budget for its defense in Kashmir" Annual Budget of India 1999' 674. While South Asia grapples with the existence of nuclear weapons, ethnic conflict, terrorism, and other threats, it also affords new opportunities for market reform, growth of democratic institutions, and closer ties with the United States. In the fourth month of 1999, when both nations conducted nuclear tests, the situation has become tenser and has produced a threat of nuclear war in the region. Many experts and intellectuals have pointed the region as the battlefield of the next world war that might be a nuclear war. That is why, United Nation is trying to resolve this matter and stabilize the political instability of South Asia. Since 1948, United-Nation has tried to solve the tense situation many times, but it has not been able to resolve the dispute. Many experts criticize that UN hasn't played a sufficient role to resolve the dispute. Security Council and General assembly have passed twenty resolutions but all in vain and couldn't reach a peaceful settlement. The Security Council promised a referendum, in the form of a plebiscite, to the people of Kashmir in 1948. India then accepted the principle of plebiscite but has since obstructed all attempts at arranging fair elections or referendum. Since then the situation got out of hands of United Nation and still UN is unable to provide a peaceful solution. Pakistani Information Minister in his interview with CNN in 1999 said, "We have been saying that the United Nations and the secretary-general should intervene because this is a threat to peace and regional stability" On May 11, 1998 the Indian government announced that they had conducted a series of successful nuclear tests at their test facility in the Rajasthan Desert. On May 13, the Indian government announced that it conducted two further tests. The Pakistan government responded with a series of there own tests. On May 28 the Pakistani government announced that they had exploded 5 nuclear devices in the southwestern part of Pakistan. These tests were followed by another test on May 30. As now both nations have gained nuclear capabilities, it is a very critical situation for the whole world. Now their nuclear capabilities have drawn the attention of the entire globe to this dispute and many experts have pointed the region as the battleground for next world war. It is very important for both nations to have peaceful relationship because the dispute of Jammu and Kashmir has played a vital role to make them one of the poorest regions in the world. Pakistan: a populous country of 160 million inhabitants is spending twenty five percent of its annual revenue for its defense capabilities. In 1999, Pakistan's annual revenue was approximately eleven billion dollars. Out of which, approximately three billion was spent on the army. It is a very huge amount for a poor country like Pakistan. That is why, Pakistan spends two percent of annual revenue on education and as a result sixty three percent of its population is illiterate Kashmir in The Crossfire 46. Similarly in India, government is spending one-fifth of its annual revenue to its defense capabilities and as a result it has become one the most poorest nation in the world. They should spend money on the needs of ordinary citizens rather than wasting money on their defense capabilities. Today the burning dispute of Jammu and Kashmir remains unsolved. It seems that both nations are filled with bitter animosity for each other and as a result the dispute is still there as it was fifty years ago. Both nations are escalating the conflict and it seems that there might be no solution until any serious action is taken by United Nation. The United Nation and The United States had arranged many table talks to resolve the conflict. For a moment it was seemed that they would solve this issue, but as soon as the talks were over, both countries started using propaganda's. To resolve this burning issue, all big nations should participate in the United Nations peace programs and should stress India and Pakistan to solve the conflict as soon as possible. United Nation should stress India to hold election in Kashmir. The best solution will be the United Nation's contribution in the election to make them fair and safe. All countries should try to establish good relationship between these neighbors. Kashmiri people have suffered the loss of thousands of lives since partition and it is the time that this issue should be solved according to the will of Kashmiri people.
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Our group topic: "Causes and Effects of Wars" provoked me to write about the threatening dispute of "Jammu and Kashmir" which has become more threatening after the nuclear capabilities of India and Pakistan. My main claim revolves around the theme that the burning dispute of Kashmir, between India and Pakistan can play a vital role in the emergence of third world war and can act as battle-field for a nuclear war. Due to geographical and social impacts on the world these countries have realized some big nations to resolve the issue. South Asia, a land of deep historical and cultural...

To resolve this burning issue, all big nations should participate in the United Nations peace programs and should stress India and Pakistan to solve the conflict as soon as possible. United Nation should stress India to hold election in Kashmir. The best solution will be the United Nation's contribution in the election to make them fair and safe. All countries should try to establish good relationship between these neighbors. Kashmiri people have suffered the loss of thousands of lives since partition and it is the time that this issue should be solved according to the will of Kashmiri people.

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1960-1970 Table Of Contents Women's Movement...1960-1970 Table Of Contents Women's Movement I. Gloria Steinem pages 1 - 4 Cold War I. Life into Orbit pages 5 - 7 II. Arms Race pages 8 - 12 III. Berlin Wall pages 12 - 20 Bibliography pages 21 - 22 Gloria Steinem Gloria Steinem is heroine. When she was little, Gloria lived with her crazy mother. Gloria went to graduate from Smith College, and then she moved to India to study. While she was in India, she realizes just how much females were discriminated against. In India it was much worse than the USA"¦ but still. When she came back to the United States, She became a journalist. She started the Ms. Magazine, which looks issues from a feminist point of view. Gloria Steinem made the way for independent women and made her point known to America. Gloria Steinem was born March 25, 1934 to Ruth and Leo Steinem. Leo was from a well known family in Toledo, Ohio; his dad was good at his trades and his mother was a pioneer in the women"s suffrage movement. Leo's mother helped write Ohio"s first juvenile court laws, she even made a high school and was the first woman on the Toledo Board of Education. Leo's mothers love for work, however, didn't rub off on her son. Gloria"s mother, Ruth, was the daughter of a railroad engineer and a teacher. Growing up in Toledo, Ruth worked hard for her scholar. Ruth became a respected newspaper writer. When Gloria was born, Ruth had stopped working and was taken to the hospital for a nervous breakdown. During the winter, the Steinem family traveled, buying and selling antiques and Ruth tutored Gloria and her little sister. The rest of the year, they lived at a resort in Michigan that Leo, her dad, had built in hopes that it would attract big bands. Here, a cigarette girl taught Gloria to tap dance, fueling her dream of becoming a dancer Rockette. When World War II started, the resort closed and Ruth became more and more depressed. With her dad gone and her little sister at college, Gloria cared for her mother by herself. To make some money, Gloria put her dance lessons to use and danced everywhere, doing several jobs. These early years taught her independence and the ability to handle doubt. Gloria went to Smith College, a female counterpart to the literally all-male Ivy League schools. When Ruth found out that her daughter had been accepted, she sold her house to help pay for tuition. Ruth was determined to give her daughter Gloria the college experience she"d never had. Gloria majored in government and spent her junior year in Switzerland studying European politics. Gloria later accepted a two-year, post-graduate fellowship in India. Right before leaving, Gloria found out she was pregnant. Since abortions were illegal in the United States, she went to England. In the end, Gloria found out for herself how women felt about unwanted pregnancies, which led her to organize women"s right to control their bodies. The movement later made abortions legal, because people figured that women would be more likely to live if the abortions were able to be done in a hospital with a doctor, not in back alleys with untrained persons. In India, Gloria took classes in New Delhi and Calcutta, but then she decided that she could learn more by experiencing India firsthand. She became active in Indian politics and traveled the country. Involved in the Bhoodan land gift movement, Gloria walked all over India, protesting the landlord-tenant system. During the years that Gloria spent in India studying and being an activist, Gloria also wrote for Indian newspapers and created a guidebook for the government whose purpose was to encourage more American students and professors to study there. Gloria later and very reluctantly returned home in 1958. In the 1970s, a new era of feminism came over the country"¦ Gloria Steinem as the activist leader. Gloria believed that men and women should be treated equally, just the same as whites and blacks were regarded as equals under the law. Gloria supported the Equal Rights Amendment, which stated that women could not be discriminated against because of their sex. She also was a pro-choice abortion rights representative, believing that women should be able to decide what"s best for their bodies. During this decade, Gloria organized the largest women"s-rights demonstration in American history: the Women"s Strike for Equality. Across the country, rallies, marches, pickets, sit-ins and lectures. Even after all this and when women finally won the right to vote, it seemed that the nation was still dazed. In 1971, Gloria started the National Women"s Political Caucus or group, an organization that encouraged women to run for political office, and the Women"s Action Alliance, supporting feminist projects. Gloria created a newsletter for the WAA, titled Ms. Magazine, the first national feminist magazine since Susan B. Anthony edited Revolution. It talked about women"s problems such as working or managing a home, relationships with husbands, medical or sexual issues, and getting an education. There were NO fashion pages, recipes OR make-up tips were included. The idea that women should be treated as equals to men dazzled the American nation, both men and women. Gloria Steinem is possibly the most outstanding activist in the Women"s Rights movement of the twentieth century. Women were given the "green light" to demand equal pay for equal work. Men were encouraged to participate in family life, from caring for children to cooking and cleaning. Women were no longer viewed as needing a man for survival; they could stand on their own. These ideas were popularized in Ms. Magazine, and as an intellectual, outspoken, and attractive woman, Gloria Steinman actually showed her ideas, she worked and helped with every one of them. There is much to respect about Gloria Steinem. She stood up for what she believed in and did what few people women even considered, by making a national feminist magazine. From her chaotic childhood in Ohio to her studies in India, Gloria is and always will been a leader. She is an American representation in every sense. Life into Orbit When you know you're about to do something perilous, you usually have something or some one do it before you to know if it is safe or not. This is the story of how we, the human race, were able to go into orbit: because of the sacrifice of animals such as dogs, monkeys etc., who went before us to test our outer space and orbit experiments. The first animal ever put into orbit was a dog-named Laika, which means Barker in Russian. She was sent in the rocket, Sputnik 2. There were life supports and other essentials for a living breathing animal on board. Even though the craft didn't make it far and was lost in space after a couple of days, Laika and Sputnik two are still remembered today. Laika for her set example that a living being could be sent onto orbit and Sputnik as a building block for other spacecrafts for the future. The USA named Laika, Muttnik and soon after Muttnik captured the hearts of many citizens. Her batteries for life support ran out, and later Sputnik 2 fell out of orbit and burned on April 14, 1958. There is even a monument in Star City out side of Moscow, erected just for her! I realize this isn't in the 60's but it's a building block! There were many dogs like Laika, all sent into outer space. Some came back and others didn't. Here is a small list of their names: Bars Panther or Lynx, Lisichka Little Fox, Belka Squirrel, Strelka Little Arrow, Pchelka Little Bee, Mushka Little Fly, Damka Little Lady, Krasavka Beauty, Chernushka Blackie, Zvezdochka Little Star, Verterok or Veterok Little Wind and Ugolyok or Ugolek Little Piece of Coal. Laika, Bars, Lisichka, Pchelka, and Mushka were the dogs that died during their orbit. These dogs and many more animals including cats, frogs, chimpanzees, monkeys, rats, mice and plants were all used in experimentation for our own good. They were all used and not all survived. They became building blocks for the worlds to send human beings into orbit. Alan Shepard was the first male American to be launched into orbit. Even on a 15 minute flight of less than one orbit in the Mercury capsule Freedom 7 May 5, 1961; It was still a great experience for the USA to finally be able to say, "Hey we've been there too!" There was a conflict for women to go into orbit, Jerrie Cobb a male part of the Mercury 13 craft complained to congress that NASA wasn't giving women equal rights to go into orbit. Space hero John Glenn even talked to congress and said that the space agency wasn't following the nations "social order", when NASA wouldn't allow women to fly. In the end, the race to get the first man into space really just help us build more efficient flight machines, and to discover our universe. We learned more about space, and the worlds in it. We became more adapted, for we learned a very important thing"¦ people could live off our Earth. If our all of a sudden our planet just died, we're prepared to go live on the moon, or some where else. The Arms Race The nuclear arms race started during World War II when the United States were told that the Nazi"s could possibly be building a weapon of mass destruction"¦ the atom bomb. The United States, realizing that if the Nazi"s could possibly even, with a tiny amount of possibility, make this weapon would be making them unstoppable. So the US, not liking to be held one step below any one started their own nuclear weapons program, called the Manhattan Project. The U.S. won the first nuclear arms race when they tested the first nuclear weapon on the Alamogordo Bombing Range in New Mexico on July 16, 1945. The modern nuclear arms race, that is the race between the US, under Harry Truman, and the USSR Russians, under Joseph Stalin, began in 1946, when the American representative of the newly formed United Nations UN, Bernard Baruch, suggested that nuclear weapons be eliminated. The Russians refused this proposition and the arms race started. From the time between 1946 and 1949, little in the way of advances came for nuclear weapons. Americans were satisfied with their atomic weapons while the Russians were quickly trying to create their own atomic force. They succeeded in August of 1949 with their first nuclear test. The Americans responded to this test with the development of the Hydrogen Bomb Program. Hydrogen bombs are considered "clean" nuclear weapons, that is they give off little radiation but has a tremendous explosive force. These weapons can be thousands of times more powerful than those dropped on Japan. The US tested its first hydrogen bomb in March of 1954. The bomb was dropped from an American bomber; it literally made a small island in the South Pacific Ocean disappear. The first Soviet thermonuclear test was in 1955, when the USSR dropped their thermonuclear device in Kazakhstan. Since these tests, a neutron bomb has been developed. This weapon has a smaller explosion than the atom and hydrogen bombs, but makes large amounts of penetrating radiation. This weapon, if it were used, would"¦ primarily on a battleground by artillery to take out enemy troop and armor positions, kill the soldiers but cause little damage to equipment. The focus of the arms race was to develop an effective first strike capability. First strike capability is the ability to effectively disable the enemy"s military and political force, making retaliation impossible. Once each side has reached what they saw as an effective first strike capability, the need rise to develop a second strike force. This force would let a nation surprised by a nuclear attack to retaliate with a full nuclear force. The popular belief at the time was that once each side had an effective second strike force, that stability would result as each side would realize the pointlessness of using nuclear weapons, even with their first strike, they would still be hit with the rival nations second strike force. Like a neatly fit puzzle This concept became known as mutually assured destruction. The number of nuclear weapons held by the United States and Russia during the Cold War increased drastically because of the need for a first strike and later a second strike force. The highest numbers of nuclear warheads held by these countries was approximately 12,000 for the USSR and 10,000 by the US. This many nuclear weapons has the potential to destroy life on earth more than 1,500 times over. Oh my gosh! The UN United Nations created the Atomic Energy Commission in 1946. Renamed the UN Disarmament Committee in 1952, and later, in 1969, to The Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, it was the first committee to look at issues concerning nuclear weapons and nuclear power. The first productive treaty to come out of this committee came in 1957 when the U.S. and Russia signed an agreement to demilitarize Antarctica and to ban testing of nuclear devices there. In 1963, the first major attempt at limiting the testing of nuclear weapons came into the existence as a treaty was signed banning allexcept underground testing. Up to this date, almost 20 years after the first nuclear test, nearly 500 nuclear weapons had been tested in the atmosphere as well as countless others in the oceans around the world. Also, in 1963 a "hotline" was set up between the leader of the U.S. and the leader or Russia after the Cuban Missile Crisis. The "hotline" was a direct link between leaders so that rapid communication could be done in the event of a nuclear accident and was also set up to help prevent an accidental nuclear war. In 1967 the U.S. and Russia jointly presented a proposal to the UN Disarmament Committee to try to limit the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Major limitations were put on the testing, development, and deployment of nuclear weapons. The treaty was signed in 1968 by the five declared nuclear nations, and by 59 non-nuclear states. Some potential nuclear nations, that is, the nations with the capability to develop a nuclear weapons program, did not agree to the terms of this treaty, as it meant giving up an opportunity to become a nuclear power. Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, and Pakistan did not agree to these terms. The treaty finally went into effect in 1970. Also presented and signed in 1967 was the Outer Space Treaty, where military installations were forbidden on celestialspace/outer space bodies as well as in orbit and nuclear weapons were also banned from space. Another small but still important treaty, was the Seabed Arms Control Treaty, it came in 1971 and it banned nuclear weapons from being placed on the ocean floor outside the 12 mile zone of any nation. In the mid 1970"s, a plan, known as the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, was offered to the world"s nuclear powers in an attempt to completely stop the testing of nuclear weapons. This plan was canceled by U.S. president Ronald Reagan because of increased tensions with Russia. In 1996, however, the plan once again was offerd and called for 44 nuclear and non-nuclear nations to sign and ratify this treaty for it to become international law. To date, 41 countries have signed the treaty and 26 have ratified it. The ultimate goal of this treaty is the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. In1991, the Cold War finally ended, and with it, the immediate threat of nuclear war. The arms race, however, was nowhere near over. There has been little in the way of reducing nuclear weapons of stopping weapons testing since the end of the Cold War, and nuclear stockpiles remain in many Russian satellites. Many nations are still trying to build nuclear weapons, and those with them are refusing to disarm. The world is far from safe, but with every new treaty, the arms race is one step closer to completion. The Berlin Wall The Berlin Wall, for twenty-eight years, separated friends, families, and a nation. A lot of suffering began for Germany when World War II commenced, but by the end of the war Germany was in the mists of a disaster waiting to happen. After WWII was over Germany was divided into four parts. The United States, Great Britain, and France controlled the three divisions that were formed in the Western half; and the Eastern half was controlled by the Soviet Republic. The Western divisions eventually united to make a federal republic, while the Eastern divisions became communist. Even though Berlin lay deep within the Soviet sector, the Allies thought it best to divide this capital. Therefore Berlin was also divided into four parts. The Soviet Union was in control of the eastern half of Germany. The Soviet Union made East Berlin the capital of East Germany. The other three counties were each in control of a small part of what was to be West Germany. These three countries decided that they would come together to form one country out of their three divided parts. Those three divided parts formed West Germany. After all the land was divided the Soviet Union controlled East Germany. Just like the Soviet Union, the economy in East Germany was struggling to get back on its feet after the war. While West Berlin became a lively urban area like many American cities, East Berlin became what many thought of as a 'Mini-Moscow'. In East Germany there was literary almost nothing. The shelves in the stores were practically bare, and what was there was not in very good quality. At first, the divisions between East and West Berlin were uncertain. There was nothing that divided the city. For more than ten years after the official split of the city, East Berlin saw a major emigration of East Germans, unhappy with the communist system. Emigration was easy. With nothing physical to separate East and West Berlin, migration from totalitarianism to democracy was as easy for East Berliners as changing houses. The Soviet Union went against their promises to the people of East Germany, and made East Germany a Communist country. This decision by the Soviet Union separated East Germany even more from the rest of Europe. East Germany was now all by itself, and by the summer of 1952 the border between East and West Germany was closed; only in Berlin was the border was still open. On June 17, 1953 the workers of East Germany were fed up, and they started a riot. By noon the riots had escalated and the workers from East Germany were marching through the Brandenburg Gate into West Germany with intension to combine with workers from West Germany. All of this came to an end when the Soviet Union called in tanks, and other troops, to take care of the riots. The Soviet tanks shot into the crowds of people killing many, and injuring many others, they even shot into the crowds in West Germany that were rioting. The people of East Germany realized that they were trapped in East Germany, and if they wanted out they would have to risk their lives in doing so. In the late 1950's approximately 8,000 to 10,000 people from East Germany left and each day they would move further and further west. Many of these people were from East Berlin, and the government of East Germany knew that they couldn't afford to loose all of these people. Their economy was suffering already, and with the loss of so many people the economy would be hopeless. Many of the people that were leaving were skilled trades men, or members of professions. There were many escape tunnels dug under the wall. The tunnel system was an unexpected resistance movement dug by hundreds of East Berlin students with thousands more willing to help. The first successful tunnel was in an East Berlin Graveyard. Mourners brought flowers to a grave and then dropped out of sight. More than half of the emigrants between 1949 and 1961 were under the age of 24. For people under 60 years old, lawful emigration was not easy. Legal processes were lengthy and difficult, and they were eventually successful in discouraging the young people from leaving the country. However, emigration for the elderly was no problem since they had no big role in the growth of the Communist State. East Germany did not have any ideas on how to stop all the people from leaving in groups, until a person came up with an idea to build a wall so high, and so booby-trapped that no one would try to get over the wall. This idea, thought up by some unknown person, became the infamous Berlin Wall. Winston Churchill named this barrier the Iron Curtain. The Berlin Wall was built on August 13, 1961. Walter Ulbricht, who was the German Communist leader under the command of Stalin, organized the construction of a large wall to be built in order to restrain illegal emigration from the East to the West. They tore up the streets to use the paving stones to build the wall. It stunned people from both East and West Germany. Workers from East Germany that worked in West Germany were separated from their family that night, and they were separated for years. The Berlin Wall was 96 miles long. It consisted of 67 miles of concrete segment wall, which was four meters high, 42 miles of wire mesh fencing, 65 miles of anti-vehicle trenches, and 79 miles of contact or signal fence. There were 302 watchtowers, and 20 bunkers. Behind the wall was a trench to stop vehicles. After that was a patrol track with a corridor for watchdogs, watch towers, and bunkers. Behind all of that was a second wall. This area of no man"s land cut off one hundred-ninety two streets. Checkpoint Charley was the main crossing point for the American sector of West Berlin. It was six hundred-eighty feet west of the Brandenburg Gate. Many people are mistaken and think that it only divided East and West Germany. The wall did not only divide Berlin through the center and all around the outer part of the city, it was built on the border between West and East Germany, from the Baltic Sea southward through the center of Germany all the way to Hildburghausen. From there it went east toward the border of Czechoslovakia. While the Wall was being built, the West began protests and speeches that prohibited the complete isolation of East Berlin. The United States, in particular, was opposed to the establishment of the Wall. President John F. Kennedy was essential to the cause, declaring his moral commitment with the infamous words: " As a free man, I take pride in the words - Ich bin ein Berliner I am a Berliner" Unfortunately for East Berliners, however, Western involvement did not go much beyond protests and speeches. When building the wall, houses were both torn down and replaced with mined strips and watchtowers, or they were sealed to prevent escapes. Even a Huguenot cemetery with entrances on each side of the sector border was closed off, and West Berliners were not allowed to visit family graves in East Berlin. At this time the people of Berlin knew it was more than just their worst nightmare, it was reality. The people of East Germany were trapped in East Germany. There was no way to see relatives or anything on the west side of the wall. The people of West Germany were granted permission to go to the East side of the wall, but they could not take anything with them. They were allowed to stay for only a week, and they could only do this a couple times each year. The people of East Germany knew there was nothing they could do, so they tried to live their lives as best they could. Occasionally someone would try to get through to the west, and would either be shot, arrested, or sometimes make the escape to freedom. In all around 5000 people made it to the west, around 3200 were arrested trying, around 160 were shot in killed trying, and around 120 were shot and injured by trying to make that escape to freedom. Years past and nothing changed, the East Germans still had no freedom. At the brink of nuclear war, the United States and the Soviet Union reached a deadlock, but the Berlin Wall remained, representing the remaining Cold War related tension between the two countries. In the mid 1980's there was a beginning of change in the relationship of East and West Germany. Finally, in November of 1989, emigration barriers finally dropped in November 1989, which allowed free passage between East and West Berlin. Soon after the free passage was allowed the Berlin Wall was taken down. The entire wall was taken down except for the areas of historical meaning, such as the part in front of the parliament of Berlin and the places with graffiti artwork. The collapse of the Berlin Wall signified the true end of the Cold War and its terrifying era. The Cold War was coming to a gradual end. Mikhail Gorbachev, who was then the leader of the Soviet Union, said that his country, and the world, was in need of reform. After Gorbachev got his point across to many people, and even many government officials, the end of the Cold War was in close sight. By September 10, 1989 the Hungarian government had opened the border for the East German refugees. This was a big step for the East Germans freedom. On October 6, 1989 East Germany celebrated its 40th anniversary of statehood. Then just two days later thousands took the streets shouting "no more violence!" and "join us join us." On November 9, 1989 the Berlin Wall was finally opened. The crowds were remarkable; thousands of people were at the wall going over to see friends and family that they hadn't seen for years. The celebrating continued throughout the night, and the next day. On the 10th and 11th of November the flow from East to West Germany was endless. The evening of November 11th the first concrete slab was taken from the wall, and as this happened the cheers from the crowds were heard from miles away. The last step was the opening of the Brandenburg Gate, which was finally opened on December 22, 1989. That was the end of the legendary Berlin Wall, and the beginning of the rejoining of Germany. The rejoining of Germany was a great victory for the German people and the nations of the west, but the Berlin Wall has left economic and emotional scars that can only be healed by the work and understanding of generations to come. The building of the Berlin Wall was an important milestone in the growth of the Cold War. It was the expansion that represented the thinking of a determined Communist system. Western Capitalism, who was more powerful, eventually defeated the system. The struggle between these two political poles exists to this day. During the time of the cold war East Germany went through many hard times, but they had went through hard times before. They did a great job of dealing with all of their hardships. The destruction of the massive wall that did so much harm to a country that did not deserve it was finally destroyed, and the people of Germany could now live the way they all wanted to live. They could live the life of freedom. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall East Germany has went through a lot of changes, and it still is not easy for all of the people in East Germany. But no matter how hard it is for the people of East Germany now, it is better than being alone and separated from the rest of Europe.   

1960-1970 Table Of Contents Women's Movement I. Gloria Steinem pages 1 - 4 Cold War I. Life into Orbit pages 5 - 7 II. Arms Race pages 8 - 12 III. Berlin Wall pages 12 - 20 Bibliography pages 21 - 22 Gloria Steinem Gloria Steinem is heroine. When she...

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