Related Keywords

No Related Keywords

Register NowHow It Works Need Essay Need Essay
Napoleon Bonapartes Continental System
0 User(s) Rated!
Words: 1228 Views: 266 Comments: 0
Write a position paper on the following question: Should Napoleon Bonaparte have used the Continental System in his attempt to defeat Britain? Napoleon Bonaparte has been considered one of the most successful military leaders in history, driving France to conquer virtually all of Europe. However, despite all of his success, he was not over-confident. He recognized the fact that France lacked the resources to invade Great Britain, and he had already learned the defeat of his navy in the battle of Trafalgar that the French navy was no match for the strength of the British navy. Facing the fact...
not issued the Berlin Decree, none of this would have happened the way it did. Granted, Napoleon would likely have invaded Portugal and Russia anyway, but the circumstances would have been different. Perhaps France would have been better able to finance the invasions, allowing Napoleon to build a stronger and more effective army. Maybe Napoleon would have won the Battle of Nations at Liepzig in October, 1813. Maybe Napoleon would never even have faced exile. It is impossible to know for sure what could have happened, but I know that things would definitely have ended differently for Napoleon Bonaparte.

Become A Member Become a member to continue reading this essay orLoginLogin
View Comments Add Comment

"The Roaring Twenties refers to... "The Roaring Twenties refers to the North American time period of the 1920s, which has been described as one of the most colorful decades in Canadian history.1" The 1920s was a prosperous time period which was called as the Roaring Twenties. Young soldiers from the fronts of the First World War returned home in victory as their daughters, wives and mothers were still fighting for equal rights at the home front. The years of the Roaring Twenties are marked by several inventions and discoveries which lead to an industrial boom and a high consumer demand. Also an import economic transformation occurred when Britain became Canada's main economic partner. During the 1920s, tension arose between a new generation, with liberal and progressive ideas. The country was going through a dramatic lifestyle change. A new and different era was felt to be coming up through the influence of the United States. Money was plentiful and people were going out and having fun. The famous Jazz age also began in the twenties which created a tremendous surge in popularity among many segments of society. Technologies like trains, cars and mass communication by radio spread the idea of modernity to a large part of the population. Canada was affected by the twenties through economically, politically and socially. The end of World War I brought a massive economic growth to Canada. "The period from 1923 to 1929 was one of great economic advances in Canada, but prosperity was unevenly distributed. 2" An important advance during the twenties was the development of the great mineral wealth of the Canadian Shield. The discovery of air transportation made it possible to discover mineral wealth in Canada. "It has been predicted that Canada is likely to become the leading producer of minerals in the world"¦Canada contains 16 percent of the world's coal reserves, and has greater asbestos, nickel and cobalt deposits than any other country"¦ Ontario is the greatest mineral producing province in Canada"¦ In the Hollinger mine Ontario possess the third greatest producer of gold in the world. British Columbia also achieved in 1924 new records for that province in the out put of lead, zinc, silver, and copper. 3" The twenties created a new demand for Canadian wheat and launched the greatest wheat boom that Canada had ever known. "In the pre-war age, wheat had been the one great export staple, round which the whole economic life of the country had centered. 4" The war-torn countries were in need of cheap food, and Canada's low-priced wheat looked very attractive to the European countries. "In 1928, Canada harvested 567,000,000 bushels of wheat, which was sold at $.1.60 a bushel. 5" The demand for Canada's wheat became so great that Canada became the largest wheat-exporting nation in the world. The railways also shared in the wealth. The privately owned Canadian Pacific Railway continued to show excessive amounts of profits. They were well maintained and were constantly upgraded to modern improve their efficiency. The Canadian railways became world-famous for their comfort and excellent service. An enormous boom occurred to the automotive industry during the twenties also. "The automobile manufacturing industries became so important that by 1929 it ranked fourth among the manufacturing industries in Canada. 6" Ford, Chrysler and General Motors were the three big companies which consumed all of the other independent automobile manufacturing companies during the twenties. The most popular vehicle at the time was Ford T. It was sold for $400 and it was seen everywhere around Canada. The cars which were made in the twenties had to be hand-cranked to start, and they did not have a heater. Such luxuries as adjustable seats, brake lights, and foot pedals for acceleration were added later. During the winter, many people parked their cars and did not drive at all. "By the end of the twenties one out of every two Canadians families owned an automobile. 7" All of the mentioned factors above have helped Canada roar in the nineteen twenties economically. Canada had been affected politically and it was very clear because the ideas of government were being altered dramatically in order to accommodate new ideas. The expansion days into vast and rich western farm land was about to end. The government had to work with the powerful railway industries side by side in order to receive more profit from it. There was an enormous labor movement in Canada which had to be dealt with. New liberal ideas were born with the help of William Lyon Mackenzie King together with his Quebec Lieutenant Ernest Lapointe. He recognized the political and social needs of the new industrial society that developed rapidly in Canada after World War I. "Like two earlier prime ministers, John A. Macdonald and Wilfred Laurier, King was a master at compromise and delay. He rarely passed new laws unless the country was strongly in favor of them. Given Canada's different regions, languages, ethnic groups, and religions, King felt that this was necessary. 8" The liberal government eventually implemented major aspects of Canada's social safety net, including public pensions, and unemployment insurance. The liberals were also the first to name a woman to the Senate, soon after the celebration of woman being able to become members of the Senate. Also this was the time when prohibition was put into effect and all importing, exporting, transporting, selling, and manufacturing of intoxicating liquor. Although prohibition had led to a decline in drunkenness and liquor-related crimes, it never worked very well. Crime had increased and bootleggers such as Rocco Perri who was assumed to be the "Canada"s King of the Bootleggers" was born. Eventually the law was broken down. The Royal Canadian Air Force RCAF was formed during the twenties to take on tasks of anti-smuggling patrols, forest fire watches, aerial forest spraying, and surveying/aerial photography. Poltics in the twenties had changed. The ties between Canada and Great Britian were slowely loosened. In 1922, Prime minister King showed that Canada waas a separate country from Great Britain. He refused to support Britain in a possible war with Turkey. He also would not send any troops to Britain. But this was not enough for King. He wanted Canada to be recognized on its own and not in relation to its ties to Great Britain. King and representatives from other dominions took part in an Imerial Conference in London. He and British representatives met. King fought for dominion independence. The British representatives declared the dominion an independent member of the British Commonwealth. A great deal technological advancements were established during the 1920"s. This created a new change in the social aspect of the Canadian society. New inventions that were once unaffordable to an average family could now be afforded. An example of an affordable technology was the dial telephone. The first dial telephone was introduced to Canada in Toronto in 1924. By the end of 1920, almost three-quarters of Canadian homes had telephone service. This is a big difference considering only one quarter of Canadian homes had phone at the start of the 1920's. The telephone not only brought friends and relatives together, it brought the whole nation together. Also Hydro-electric power had a huge impact in Canada in the twenties. The development of hydro-electric power gave provinces cheap and efficient supplies of electricity for residential, commercial and industrial zones. Because of the hydro-electricity development, industries started manufacturing Electrical appliances for home use excessively because they were in high demand. The electrical appliances made it easier for Canadians to live their life. They spent more time relaxing and enjoying their life rather than cooking and cleaning all the time. Women in Canadian society began pushing towards equality in the twenties. During World War 1, women served their country in almost every possible capacity. They took jobs in steel foundries, chemical plants, and ammunitions factories. They worked at places where society considered the jobs to be a man's job. "After years of discrimination woman in the Canadian Society finally had their voice heard. 9" They were granted the right to vote. It was up to this time period that women were not seen as an important aspect in Canadian society. The Canadian constitution claimed that only "person" could be appointed and that women did not qualify as "persons". Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney, Henrietta Muir Edwards, and Irene Parlby joined together to challenge the definitions of "persons" in the constitution. Since all five of these prominent women were from Alberta, they became known as "the Alberta five." These women were all active in the community and in politics. They tried to change laws so women would be more fairly represented and treated. "They were champions of women's rights. 10" As if rebelling from the previous position of practically non-existence, women changed their clothing, their fashion, and even cut their hair shorter which were very similar to the style of men. Before World War I, women wore their hair long, had ankle length dresses, and long cotton stockings. In the twenties, they wore short, tight dresses, and rolled their silk stockings down to their knees. "Between 1910 and 1930 the proportion of women in the labor force remained at about 20 percent. 11" Statistics proved that the involvement of woman in the labor force was low but there was a notable change in the kinds of work that some women did. The number of female cooks, dress makers and household servants dropped. The number of women doctors, bankers, lawyers, police and probation officer, social workers, and hairdressers rose. The change in the role of woman in society was also reflected in media. Marlene Dietrich a famous actress in the twenties symbolized a new image of women. In most of her movies, she presented herself to be a hardworking woman that had reached equality with men. This image influenced society a lot and created a whole new image for the female society. Thus the Roaring Twenties gave a new definition to womanhood"”a new woman was born who smoked and drank in public, kept her hair short, wore make-up, dressed differently, and confidently participated in economic activities. The spirit of the roaring twenties had influenced every single citizen who had lived in Canada. The Twenties showed a revolution in art, literature and music, which greatly reflected the nation. It was a fabulous decade outlined by a booming economy, and big business finding new ways to become bigger and it had also helped for the development of technology. This was the decade where nobody was left out because equal rights had been given to most of the citizens in Canada, and all of this would have not happened if the government did not adjust to its peoples needs. In conclusion the 1920's did roar for everyone in Canada.   

"The Roaring Twenties refers to the North American time period of the 1920s, which has been described as one of the most colorful decades in Canadian history.1" The 1920s was a prosperous time period which was called as the Roaring Twenties. Young soldiers from the fronts of the First...

Words: 1833 View(s): 721 Comment(s): 0
In the early years of the...In the early years of the Cold War, both the Truman and Eisenhower administrations pursued a policy of containment to counter perceived Soviet aggression. Generally, the presidential administrations pursued this policy to maintain stability in the international arena, to maintain a balance of power, and also in a sense, to express disapproval of totalitarian, non-democratic regimes. Containment was expressed through a variety of policies and institutions: economic, political and, of course, military. The ways the early presidential administrations defined and implemented containment strategy inevitably changed in focus, importance, and emphasis over time. While both external and internal reasons accounted to an extent for the specifics of the containment policies of both administrations, the Truman administration was more concerned with maintaining a balance of power within the international community than necessarily appeasing internal pressures, especially fiscal pressures. The Eisenhower administration, on the other hand, assigned a greater importance to domestic politics in formulating its containment policies. First I will outline the differences of the two administrations, and then I will argue that the differences in the two administrations stem from their predominant influences: whereas external threats mainly shaped the Truman administration"s containment policy, internal politics mainly shaped the Eisenhower administration"s containment policy. First of all, both administrations had different economic priorities. Although Truman was concerned about keeping taxes low and government spending capped, he also saw the need for military expenditures in Europe and Asia to keep an adequate balance of power. Truman implemented an assortment of aid packages to Europe and Asia, in effect, to help those countries help themselves. He saw economic stability as essential for peace and stability in the intentional arena. Moreover, he saw giving aid to these countries as a way to subtly influence the ideology of their constituents. Furthermore, Truman accepted ongoing government economic intervention as an appropriate way to direct resources within the economy. Eisenhower, on the other hand, was more interested in a conservative fiscal policy, and tight control on government spending. He was more intent on trading with the countries of Europe than sending over aid packages. Of course, Eisenhower inherited a different world climate that was potentially less economically volatile than Truman. Nonetheless, Eisenhower saw an emphasis on trade as advantageous to America, even in the short term. Also, Eisenhower did not accept government economic intervention on a more ideological level -- he considered government planned economies too much like socialism. Secondly, the administrations pursued different military strategies. Truman made more of a distinction between nuclear and conventional warfare. He saw that conventional warfare as a more plausible answer to peripheral containment, and clearly valued a strong conventional military. Eisenhower, for economic reasons, was less inclined to spend an exorbitant amount of money on conventional armies across the globe. He succeeded in blurring line between nuclear and conventional warfare and encouraged the idea that he was ready to use nuclear weapons at any time. The Truman administration was more influenced by balance of power considerations than any other considerations, including domestic politics. Because of the external threats to the United States between 1947-1953, it was inevitable that these policies would have been pursued. Most significantly, Stalin at this point was perceived by the Western powers as having expansionist tendencies. Truman saw the Soviets as highly motivated to dominate the world, and committed to aggressively exploiting all opportunities to enlarge their sphere of influence. Considering the context of Truman's post-W.W.II administration -- an era in the wake of a world war waged by totalitarian expansionist powers Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan "“ it is not difficult to see that the possibility of ideological expansionist tendencies from a totalitarian regime seemed to the populous and the politicians as extremely real and threatening. It is important to note, though, that the Truman administration was not threatened by communism per-say, as subsequent administrations would be but more with aggression. Or, to put more explicitly, he was more concerned with hostility coupled with capabilities. Such was the threat of the Soviet Union. Truman also argued that it was "arbitrary rule in and of itself, whether Left or Right, that contributes to instability in the world" and he was committed to containing this sort of expansion. Truman was not, however, committed to an ideological crusade against communism, even at the height of the paranoia brought on by McCarthyism. His containment strategy was instead founded on sound balance of power principles. Furthermore, the Truman administration was alarmed at Soviet expansion into clearly strategic areas of the world -- even those countries arguably beyond America's "sphere of influence", namely Iran, Turkey and Greece. Before Truman, both FDR and Churchhill had seen Stalin as "interested in exploiting opportunities for an expansion of Soviet control in the direction of the Mediterranean and the Near East." These were areas of strategic importance that threatened US security and economic interests. As Truman outlined in his Memoirs, "he saw the Russian pressures on Iran and Turkey as an immediate threat to the global balance of power." If the Soviet had control over Iranian oil, clearly the balance in capabilities would be upset. Truman was under the impression that nothing but brute force would stop the Soviets. Because of this, he began to pursue a military policy, along with his economic or political policies, to contain the Soviets. Indeed, after 1950, containment was, for the most part, militarily. Even if Truman had wanted to pursue a strategy of containment based on economic deterrence - say, influencing Western bloc countries through aid packages and favorable trade agreements to support democratic institutions and democratic parties, instead of the new communist parties - it is arguable whether this would have been successful. The Marshall Plan was one such way to influence these countries, but nonetheless as we can see in France, Italy, Greece and Turkey communist parties secured a foothold in their country's political arena and gained popularity. Also, if Truman had wanted to pursue a strategy of containment based on political persuasion - say, convincing Germany solely with rhetoric that America would support a united Germany which, indeed, they did try to do - it is arguable whether that would have worked in deterring the popular Soviet-influenced communist parties. Clearly, the Truman administration had to pursue a strategy of military containment. However, internal politics dictated quite the opposite strategy. The republican leadership in both the Senate and the House was committed to fulfill their campaign promises of a 20% reduction of income taxes. At this point, Truman had to convince both the Senate and the American people how pressing the international situation was, and how important it was to pursue these expensive policies of containment. This led to the Truman Doctrine, in March 1947. Eventually, Truman was able to pursue a perimeter defense containment strategy -- a more singular, coherent, easy-to-swallow policy -- to persuade Congress and the populous of the pressing threat of the Soviets. Kennan had warned against framing a rigid policy towards the USSR because he believed that transforming expertise into policy guidelines distorted the expertise: "It was misleading to assume it possible to describe in a few pages a program designed to achieve US objectives with respect to the USSR." pg 52, Geddis But Truman had to. He needed to appeal to the masses, and like all leaders of democracies, he was shackled to public opinion. However, Truman and his eloquent Secretary of State ultimately led Congress and the populous to adapt his point of view and, unlike the Eisenhower administration, was not led by them. It must be said, though, that Truman was not totally unmoved by domestic politics, especially the need to cap spending. Regardless, under NSC-68 he increased military spending to $45-50 bill. a year. The perceived threat by the Soviets led Truman to pursue this strategy which he rightly considered essential. Clearly, any president in Truman"s situation would have pursued the same policies of military containment because it was the only option made available to him. The Eisenhower administration, though, had a more subjective influence on their containment strategy. First of all, two months into the Eisenhower administration, Stalin died and with him the threat of a Stalinization of Eastern Europe. It would be 2 more years until Kruschev came to power, and until that time, the Soviet Union had no leader and coherent international expansionist strategy. It is difficult to determine how much of the perceived Soviet threat was indeed accurate, considering the shaky domestic politics of the USSR, and how much of the threat was illusionary. But even before his election, Eisenhower himself was committed to containing Soviet expansion. Eisenhower even ran for president to take the bid from Taft whom he believed would revert the United States back into unilateralism and isolationism. To Eisenhower, this was detrimental, as he believed personally in containment strategies. Dulles, Eisenhower's Secretary of State, was also a committed anti-Soviet. The Eisenhower administration sought to portray the USSR as strictly an aggressor state even so it is arguable that it really was because this is a more simplistic foreign policy line to sell to Congress and the American people. The Eisenhower administration, though, was much more inclined to favor public opinion and domestic politics in shaping their containment policies. Eisenhower's primary goal was to cut government spending and taxes. His cabinet consisted solely of conservative fiscal policy makers, who were determined to reduce all but the most essential expenditures. This led the administration to cut out economic assistance plans altogether, and to focus militarily on nuclear arms as a tactical and strategic deterrent. This was cost-effective. Granted, Eisenhower's reasons for his conservative fiscal policies could also be attributed to balance of power concerns. Eisenhower was worried that the effects of an over-inflated and over-heated US economy could be detrimental to America's abilities in the global arena. Indeed, Eisenhower warned, "'It has been coldly calculated by the Soviet leaders ... by their military threat to force upon America and the free world an unbearable security burden leading to economic disaster.'" Eisenhower argued that a strong American economy might well be the most valuable asset it possessed. Nevertheless, as a politician, he knew how important it is to cut taxes to retain popularity; it cannot be disputed that Ike was a popular president who knew how to maintain his popularity. Because Eisenhower pursued a strategy of nuclear deterrence, it was important that he subsequently blur the line between nuclear warfare and conventional warfare. He had to give the Soviets the impression that he was ready to use nuclear arms at any point when he felt that American security interests were at stake. In various crisis, namely the Suez Canal crisis, Eisenhower and Dulles were overly confident in their strategic nuclear strike capabilities. As Brown argues, the administration was confident that they could deter Soviet military moves as long as they held the threat of nuclear attack over their heads. Thus, Eisenhower was able to deter possible Soviet expansion without raising taxes and upsetting the domestic program. In conclusion, although both the Truman and Eisenhower administrations sought to contain the Soviet Union's expansionist tendencies, they took their influence for policy from different sources. Thus, their foreign policy had a different approach. The Truman administration was more concerned with Stalin's expansionist tendencies, and sought to contain him by the best means possible, which he considered to be conventional warfare. Truman used rhetoric and threat to sell his policy to Congress and the American people, because his policy was expensive. Eisenhower, on the other hand, was more concerned with his popularity and cutting taxes than pursuing expensive overseas militaries. He was able to cut costs by using nuclear capabilities as a deterrent against the Soviets. Thus, he used a more capital-intensive, and less labor-intensive means to detract Soviet expansion. Because he was able to cut costs so effectively, it was not as important for him to sell him policy to the public. That is namely why Eisenhower was such a popular president.   

In the early years of the Cold War, both the Truman and Eisenhower administrations pursued a policy of containment to counter perceived Soviet aggression. Generally, the presidential administrations pursued this policy to maintain stability in the international arena, to maintain a balance of power, and also in a sense, to...

Words: 2022 View(s): 161 Comment(s): 0