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The Unjust Isolation of Frankenstein's Creation and Other Reasons to Never Become a Model: Societal Prejudices in Shelley's Frankenstein A Swiss Proverb once enlightened, "When one shuts one eye, one does not hear everything". Sadly, vision is the primary sense of mankind and often the solitary basis of judgment. Without human's limitations of the shapes, colors and textures of our overall outward appearances, the world would be a place that emphasizes morals, justice and intelligence rather than bravado, cuteness, and sexual attraction. For if there were no predetermined ideal models defining the beautiful possibilities of the human body's variation, one would never suffer isolation due to one's disability, unattractiveness, or unusual physical attribute. Mary Shelley's novel, Frankenstein, sheds light on the eternal illusory and importance of appearance through the tale of an unwanted creation that is never given a chance. Ironically, the supposed beast was initially much more compassionate and thoughtful than his creator, until his romantic and innocent view of the human race was diminished by the cruelty and injustice he unduly bore. Not only does the creature suffer the prejudice of an appearance-based society, but other situations and characters in the novel force the reader to reflect their own hasty crimes of judgment in an intelligent and adult fashion. The semi- gothic novel includes several instances of societal prejudice that include the isolation and outcast of Frankenstein's creation, the creature's biased opinion of the cottagers, and the unbalanced and inappropriate classification of Victor. Throughout the course of the creature's isolated and pathetic journey, he is never given the opportunity to participate in human interaction, as he so deeply deserves. Upon his creation, the reaction of Victor, his maker, is so vividly appalling; one forgets that this is actually the birth of a human being. His 'father', Victor, is so selfish and has such a lack of responsibility and foresight, that he creates a human being for the simple purpose of recreation, intellectual stimulation, and the thrill of 'the chase'. Frankenstein himself refers to his own creation as, ""¦the life which I had so thoughtlessly bestowed" 88; ch.1; vol. 2. Victor is solely interested in the beneficial aspects on the surface of creating, just as his interest in the exterior 'monster' is superficial. Not only is Victor's quest selfish, but his goal is frivolous as well. Victor's initial opinion of his creature is that of disappointment, although he succeeds in his destination to create a living being from inanimate pieces. The disappointment is not only irrational, but also shows his further jaded ideal of perfection in the fact that he considers ugliness a weakness. If that were true, ugliness would be the creature's only weakness, as the story goes on to tell of the selfless acts of kindness the creature administers. Victor describes his supposed miserable failure as a deformed monster when he says "His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of lustrous black, and flowing his teeth of pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only form a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shriveled complexion and straight black lips" 56; ch.5; vol.1. Later, Victor sees the creature after a long period of his aimless roaming, and he "trembled with rage and horror" 95; ch. 3; vol .2. Victor wished to engage in mortal combat because he had a faint premonition the creature might have possibly killed his son. The senseless idea was formed simply because of the creature's physical features, and that he may have been in the vicinity. Even though the monster was shunned, hated, labeled prematurely as a killer, and cursed by his very own maker, he sees the goodness of the human heart and desires to learn more about the human race. As the supposed monster journeys onward, he is delighted and allured by the moon and sun, and other peaceful, natural and romantic settings. He describes a community as, "miraculous" 102; ch. 3; vol. 2, and sacrifices his own hunger by refusing to steal from poverty-stricken cottagers. Contrary to the creature's serene emotions, the villagers react in an absurd frenzy: "the children shrieked, and one of the women fainted" 102; ch. 3; vol. 2. The creature's deformity even took a profound effect on his own state of mind. The creature reflects, " Alas! I did not entirely know the fatal effects of this miserable infirmity" 110; ch. 4; vol. 2, and ponders, "Was I, then, a monster, a blot upon the earth, from which all men fled and whom all woman disowned?" 117; ch. 5; vol. 2. The reader wonders if the creature has fell into the unfeeling void of prejudice and believes he is an outsider to mankind that deserves his bleak fate. Finally upon hearing the creature's story Victor expresses a hint of pity for the creature, "I compassioned him and sometimes felt a wish to console him"¦" 142; ch. 9; vol. 2, although Victor goes on to say, " But when I saw the filthy mass that moved and talked, my heart sickened and my feelings were altered to those of horror and hatred" 142; ch. 9; vol. 2. At the conclusion of the novel, Victor refuses to create another, and end the creature's miserable asylum due to the simple belief that beasts cannot nor should live peacefully in the comfort of love and kinship. The cottagers also display a contrast of truth and appearance. The creature almost falls in love with the family from a distance. He thinks they exude natural innocence and kinship by simply viewing them from afar. Without actually interacting physically or emotionally with the group, the monster incessantly passes discernment while safely camouflaging himself in the background and daydreaming. Although the monster notices the differences of age and varying body forms, he nonetheless gives the cottagers decent and moral roles with no intelligent basis. The creature remarks, "One was old, with silver hairs and a countenance beaming with benevolence and love: the younger was slight and graceful in his figure, and his features were molded in the finest symmetry" 105; ch. 3; vol. 2. Merely due to the disparity of the creatures physical attributes and the cottagers, the creature looks upon them as, "superior beings" 111; ch. 3; vol. 2, and believes "that they would be disgusted by my gentle demeanour and conciliating words " Satirically, the gentle and soothing words of the cottagers would be natural and fitting, as the 'monster's' appears repelling. Alas, the creature discovers the true souls of these treasured humans whom he has so greatly bestowed the hope of equality. When the younger cottagers invade the comrades' peaceful discussion, their horror and consternation is indescribable to the articulate being. The blind man slightly penetrates the inhibitions of appearance when he says, "there is something in your words which persuades me that you are sincere" 130; ch. 7; vol. 2. Although even he falters the evil test of true equipollence when he utters, "I am blind and cannot judge of your countenance" If the blind man only knew the error of his words, the creature may have found a true home. The untimely assessment of Victor as an inoffensive and harmless existence symbolizes the generous leniency one gives to another that through appearance is viewed as a reflection of oneself. Victor has several nervous breakdowns and becomes reclusive at times. His unusual behavior goes unnoticed by his family and friends due to his seemingly safe and passive physical stature. Victor reflects on the grievances of his beloved Elizabeth and father. He sheds light on the disagreement between his image of innocence and the true broken shell of a man he inhabits: "Frankenstein, your son, your kinsman, your early, much-loved friend; he who would spend each vital drop of blood for your sakes- who has no thought nor sense of joy, except as it is mirrored also in your dear countenance" 86; ch. 8; vol. 1. After several episodes of intense worry and emotional drain, Victor descends into another world of physical and emotional pain that proceeds to affect the emotional states of his family and friends. Victor's guilt is expressed when he says, "My father's care and attentions were indefatigable; but he did not know the origin of my sufferings" 179; ch. 5; vol. 3. Even when Victor avoids society and is in a state of utter despair, his father refuses to acknowledge that this normal, pleasing-looking, blood-related, and seemingly sane human is indirectly responsible for such horrendous acts of malice. Victor, like his creation, was the victim of hasty opinions regarding the nature of their personal inner countenances. The semi- gothic novel includes several instances of societal prejudice that include the isolation and outcast of Frankenstein's creation, the creature's biased opinion of the cottagers, and the unbalanced and inappropriate classification of Victor. The universal quest for acceptance has led many humans to irrevocable and indecent acts. No one truly desires for their own brethren to lead a life of eternal heartache and hardship, yet we allow it to happen everyday. The simple meaninglessness of a person's appearance can cause isolation no human should have to endure. The flashes of airbrushed and plastic beauty that are copied and pasted on every media outlet in today's information age give usually intelligent and morally-intent human beings short attention spans for anything other than our own selfish well-being. For the small duration of time we do think about anything beside ourselves, we are bombarded with pity cases for the specifically cute and child-victims. In the meantime, the not-so-cute and older victims are left to fend for themselves and most human beings go on pretending the confidant and assertiveness that come with knowledge and modern civilization rule society. Meanwhile, people of all ages, sexes, and races continually binge and purge, starve and isolate themselves, and become depressed or angry. We incessantly turn a blind eye to the superfluous suffering of our brothers and sisters, and even condone the labeling of Victor's benevolent 'child' as 'monster'. Had the image-obsessed society paused for one moment to introspect the personality that they feared, a multitude of lives could have been saved.
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The Unjust Isolation of Frankenstein's Creation and Other Reasons to Never Become a Model: Societal Prejudices in Shelley's Frankenstein A Swiss Proverb once enlightened, "When one shuts one eye, one does not hear everything". Sadly, vision is the primary sense of mankind and often the solitary basis of judgment. Without human's limitations of the shapes, colors and textures of our overall outward appearances, the world would be a place that emphasizes morals, justice and intelligence rather than bravado, cuteness, and sexual attraction. For if there were no predetermined ideal models defining the beautiful possibilities of the human body's variation,...
and older victims are left to fend for themselves and most human beings go on pretending the confidant and assertiveness that come with knowledge and modern civilization rule society. Meanwhile, people of all ages, sexes, and races continually binge and purge, starve and isolate themselves, and become depressed or angry. We incessantly turn a blind eye to the superfluous suffering of our brothers and sisters, and even condone the labeling of Victor's benevolent 'child' as 'monster'. Had the image-obsessed society paused for one moment to introspect the personality that they feared, a multitude of lives could have been saved.
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Explore the social institution of... Explore the social institution of marriage in Austen"s society in a comparison of the proposals of Mr. Collins and Mr. Darcy to Elizabeth Bennett In this essay, I will attempt to answer the above question by going through a number of stages. I will firstly gather a detailed knowledge of what marriage was like in Austen's society. From this I will be able to apply my findings to the proposals of Mr. Darcy and Mr. Collins. Whilst doing this, I will compare and contrast the two proposals and look at the reasons why they wanted marriage, their approaches to the matter and their reactions from the responses of Elizabeth Bennett. In Jane Austen's society, marriage was hugely different than that of today. This was evident in every aspect of marriage. Marriage was necessary for women in Austen's society. Without it they would have no income and could not create one for themselves. Women were also unable to inherit property after the death of a previous landowner. These factors mean that women were keen to marry early and not for the reasons associated with marriage of today. Nowadays, people wouldn't even consider marrying if love wasn't involved. During the time in question, however, love was somewhat irrelevant. Public perception of the couple was taken into consideration, however, regardless of the intentions of the couple. Marriage was seen as a status symbol and was closely linked to the class system. Jane Austen knew this society well as she was the unmarried daughter of a clergyman which fell in the social class known as gentry. She had no income and therefore had to depend on her brothers for support. All these factors must be considered when looking at the proposals of Mr. Darcy and Mr. Collins. The Bennett family has five daughters ranging in age from fifteen to twenty-five. They have no sons. In Austen's time, this would have been seen as a burden rather than an advantage. For each daughter that is married, a dowry has to be paid and in the case of the Bennett's, you are looking at a huge financial burden. The Bennett family is relatively well off and own land "“ 'Longbourn House'. As daughters cannot inherit, the land would pass on to Mr. Collins, a cousin of the family. Mrs. Bennett is desperate to find husbands for her daughters. Because of this, she is somewhat rash in making decisions for her daughter's futures. Elizabeth Bennett, the daughter who is focused on in this essay, is the most independent and assertive and unlike most women in Austen's time and society, will only marry for love. She presents a problem for the family as she is independent and thinks for herself and is likely to be the most difficult to get 'married off'. The Bennett family has five daughters ranging in age from fifteen up to twenty-five. They have no sons. At Jane Austen's time, this would have been seen as somewhat of a burden. This is because, for each daughter that is married, a dowry has to be paid and in the case of the Bennett's, you are looking at a huge financial burden. The Bennett family are quite well off and own areas of land, in this case, 'Longbourn house'. As daughters cannot inherit, the land would pass to Mr. Collins, a cousin of the family. He will be focused on later in the essay. Mrs. Bennett is desperate to find husbands for her daughters. She is somewhat rash in making her daughters' decisions which will decide their future though you can see it from her point of view as she has five daughters to marry off. Elizabeth Bennett, the daughter who is focused on during this essay, is the most independent and assertive and unlike most women of the time and society, will only marry for love. She presents a problem for the family and will undoubtedly be the most difficult to get married off. Austen's opening description of Mr. Collins' approach to proposal tells us a lot about his character. Austen writes, 'Mr. Collins made his declaration in form' This quotation tells us two things about the character of Mr. Collins. Firstly, Austen uses the word 'declaration' rather than 'proposal'. This tells us that Mr. Collins is extremely confident that he will receive a positive answer and even if he doesn't, he remains confident that he will marry Elizabeth. Austen also writes 'form'. This gives the implication that Mr. Collins is not talking about a subject which is 'close to his heart' but is laying down his personal reasons for marriage. This fact is later proved correct. So, before the 'proposal' has even begun, from a one line description of Mr. Collins, we have learnt that he is extremely selfish and probably does not really love Elizabeth. Austen follows this line with, 'Having resolved to do it without"¦"¦"¦"¦..business.' The first part of this quotation shows us that the only reason Mr. Collins is proposing at that particular time is because he does not want to miss another Sunday at church. These are not the actions of a man truly in love. Austen follows this up with a remark that Mr. Collins is proposing in a 'very orderly manner'. This reiterates my first point surrounding the lack of love in the 'relationship'. Austen finishes with the word 'business'. This proves to be an operative word in the analysis of Mr. Collins and is to be discovered later on. After asking to talk to Elizabeth, we see the perceptive side of her character as she begins to move away and refuse to talk to Mr. Collins. This shows us that she knows what is going on yet clearly is not interested in Mr. Collins. This alone would be considered enough to deter him. He is the opposite of perceptive, however, and continues with the 'proposal'. Mrs. Bennett 'insists' upon Elizabeth's staying and it is clear that neither her or Mr. Collins are concerned about Elizabeth's feelings. It is quite evident that she does not want to be in the position she has been forced into yet Mr. Collins perceives this quite differently, 'Believe me"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦perfection's.' Rather than accepting the obvious refusal of Elizabeth, Mr. Collins follows this up with a compliment directed towards Elizabeth in a futile attempt to win her over. From a reader's point of view, this seems pathetic and even humorous as Mr. Collins' true character begins to surface. Even after this, he continues to have the audacity to compliment her further. He says, 'Almost"¦"¦"¦"¦life.' This is not the complete truth, however, as he originally attempted to marry Jane yet was deterred by Mrs. Bennett. In Mr. Collins' 'finest moment', Austen writes, 'before I run away with my feelings.' This appears not only humorous to the reader but also to Elizabeth who has realised the futility of Mr. Collins' proposal, 'The idea"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦continued,' Mr. Collins now proceeds to list his reasons for marrying amongst which love is not mentioned once, he says, 'My reasons"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦..parish.' This line is fascinating in my opinion and has a certain edge of irony as Mr. Collins lacks perception yet is worried about the public's perception of him. This makes him appear all the more pompous and arrogant. He continues, 'secondly"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦.happiness.' Note Mr. Collins says 'my' happiness and again does not take Elizabeth's feelings into consideration. Mr. Collins is overtly ignorant to Elizabeth's attempted interruptions and continues to discuss the fact that his patroness, Mrs. Catherine De Bourgh also wishes him to marry. It seems that there is more reason for marriage between Mrs. Bennett and Lady Catherine De Bourgh than there is between the 'couple'. This, in itself is ridiculously humorous. Mr. Collins has humoured Elizabeth but not insulted her as of yet. This is to come, however, 'The fact is"¦"¦"¦"¦.years'. The implications from this are that he wishes her father dead so that he can inherit the land. This is not only selfish and tactless but also hurtful towards Elizabeth. Mr. Collins then says, 'And now"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦affection'. Just as it seems that Mr. Collins is to finally discuss love and affection, he contradicts himself by going on to talk about the matter of the dowry and his inheritance. He continues his contradictory manner by saying, 'To fortune"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦..indifferent'. Although he says so, it is clear that he is not indifferent to the matter of the dowry as he brings it up and discusses it on a number of occasions. Elizabeth finally gets the chance to speak and shows strength of character and is polite yet firm. Mr. Collins now appears ridiculous as his naiveté leads him to discuss the fact that Elizabeth secretly means to accept his proposal. Elizabeth notices the fact that Mr. Collins wants to be rich and is selfish et cetera and finally succeeds in refusing but only by leaving the room. From the proposal of Mr. Collins, a lot can be learnt about both his and Elizabeth's characters. Elizabeth is polite, firm and assertive and by far the most strong-minded character featured. She knows what she wants from life and takes the correct steps in achieving her aims. Mr. Collins, however, is much less of a character. He is overtly arrogant, audacious and naïve. He is selfish, pompous and arrogant. He lacks perception and is tactless. From the perspective of a non-reader of the novel, it would seem that I have simply listed all the negative words in the dictionary. This is Mr. Collins' character, however, and it is in my opinion that Elizabeth was correct to turn down his 'proposal'. Elizabeth later receives another proposal from Mr. Darcy. Austen writes, 'When they"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦Kent'. So, from this quotation, we have learnt even before the arrival of Mr. Darcy, that Elizabeth bears a grudge towards him yet her cause for this is later proved incorrect. Austen continues to describe Elizabeth's dislike for Mr. Darcy. When Elizabeth first sees Mr. Darcy, it is described as being to her 'utter amazement'. This proves to the reader that Mr. Darcy is the last person Elizabeth expected and probably hoped to see. Darcy proceeds to inquire after Elizabeth's health and Austen writes that Elizabeth, 'Answered him with cold civility'. This, in my opinion, is admirable on Elizabeth's part as it is evident that she possesses a distinct hatred for this man yet still has the manners to be civil with him. From the very beginning of Darcy's proposal, it is clear that his differs substantially from Mr. Collins'. The opening line of Mr. Darcy's proposal reads, 'In vain"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦.love you'. This quotation tells us two things about the character of Mr. Darcy. His opening line is rather inconsiderate towards Elizabeth's feelings as he is saying that he has struggled against loving her. The reasons for this become evident further on. He does, however, use the word 'vain', Which shows that his love for Elizabeth outweighed his reasons for not proposing. This proves that he really loves Elizabeth and is proposing solely for reasons of love. Elizabeth's reaction to Darcy's proposal are very useful in analysing her character and looking at her feelings towards Mr. Darcy. Austen writes, 'Elizabeth's astonishment"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦.silent'. This, to me, proves Elizabeth's complete and utter state of disbelief in hearing the beginning of a proposal by Mr. Darcy. This was the last thing in the world she expected. She had assumed a hatred between herself and Mr. Darcy, one which did not feature on his behalf and this will surely influence her decision. Although Mr. Darcy speaks less fluently than Mr. Collins, it is obvious that his speech is coming from the heart. This real love for Elizabeth is the eventual deciding factor in the marriage. Even though Elizabeth is insulted when Mr. Darcy tells her that he is marrying someone of a lower class and he purposely put his friend off marrying Elizabeth's sister, I feel that this is huge evidence of his love for Elizabeth. He accepts the fact that he broke up her sister's marriage yet goes on to say that his love is too strong to do likewise here. Although her anger prevents her from seeing this immediately, it is this which leads her to eventually marrying Mr. Darcy. There are many great differences evident between Mr. Darcy and Mr. Collins. There are a few similarities, however. In both cases, it is definitely a case of unrequited love and Elizabeth is shocked by both proposals. There are more differences though. After being rejected, Mr. Darcy, unlike Mr. Collins keeps his cool and remains gentleman-like in accepting it. As already mentioned, Mr. Darcy speaks more of love than the marriage merely being a business agreement and is reminiscent of modern proposals in terms of intent and purpose. In today's society, marriage is a partnership between equals and done for love but in Austen's society, women had to marry to survive financially and it was usually a business agreement. Social class was also an issue. With Mr. Darcy's case as an exception, you did not usually marry out of your own class. There are many numerous other factors which make marriage today significantly different to that in Austen's society, which have been proven by my analysis of characters in the previous pages.   

Explore the social institution of marriage in Austen"s society in a comparison of the proposals of Mr. Collins and Mr. Darcy to Elizabeth Bennett In this essay, I will attempt to answer the above question by going through a number of stages. I will firstly gather a detailed knowledge...

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William Shakespeare's play Macbeth, written in...William Shakespeare's play Macbeth, written in the 1600's is a perfect example of Shakespeare's ability to manipulate his audience through creating a tragic hero. A tragic hero who, because of a flaw, tumbles from a well-respected hero to a cowardless murderer. It is through Shakespeare's manipulation of figurative language, dramatic conventions and social expectations of the seventeenth century, do the audience witness the demise of this mixed up man. Macbeth's persona of the tragic hero is enhanced even more when the characters around him influence his decisions, creating mayhem inside his mind and disorder throughout Scotland. Shakespeare positions his audience to respond to the central theme: the struggle between good and evil, by illustrating to the audience his weaknesses, which through the guidance of the supernatural, leads to murder and mayhem and eventually madness. It is this influence of the supernatural that leads to Macbeth's tragic persona and in turn his physical and mental destruction. Shakespeare utilises these techniques to embody in Macbeth characteristics indicative of that of a seventeenth century tragic hero. Aristotle described the Greek image of the tragic hero as one who takes: part in a fictional account of a set of events that is serious, complete and of a certain magnitude." The Poetics Macbeth conforms to the image of the tragic hero by possessing a flaw and dying because if it. His flaw of being led too easily is evident through the actions of characters who influence Macbeth. Macbeth is involved in a story intertwined with evil, disorder, conflict and failure; all resulting finally in his death. Part of being a tragic hero is possessing a flaw. A flaw which will inevitably lead to self-destruction; the fall of the tragic hero. In the play, the central protagonist Macbeth, is confronted with the supernatural and the prophesy of becoming king. He cannot help but want this position, as this flaw also includes his weakness through over ambition. It is generally said that those possessing a flaw will die. The first Thane of Cawdor was a traitor, Duncan was too trusting, Banquo did not act on the knowledge he had about Macbeth's murders, Lady Macbeth helped plot the murder of Duncan, and Macbeth destroyed the natural order and harmony of the time. All of these deaths are a result of Macbeth's over ambition to become king, fuelled by the prophecies of the evil witches. Like Macbeth, a tragic hero has choices, a conscience of right from wrong and in the end must die, because to live would create mayhem and a feeling that his actions were justified. Macbeth conforms to all of these traits and is aware from the beginning that his success is inspired by his own damnation. However, he does not care and it is this pride and over ambition caused by his interaction with evil, which creates his inevitable breakdown in the end. The real tragedy of the play is that the impending events never would have taken place if it were not for Macbeth's tragic flaw and the supernatural foretelling and disorder which came about when the societal norms of the seventeenth century were broken. Life in the seventeenth century influenced Shakespeare's writings as well as the audience response, due to societal myths. Values and attitudes were naturalised through the Elizabethan view of society: a hierarchal structure that demanded order and loyalty. Superstitions were prevalent throughout Elizabethan society and Shakespeare draws on the evil associated with this aspect, to play the essentially evil part of Macbeth; pushing him towards destruction. The fact that Macbeth possessed tragic hero qualities meant he had to die. This is due to his flaw, which urged him into sending innocent people to their deaths, creating chaos and deception in a society which could not handle it and which were not accustomed to such mortality. By sending Macbeth to his death, moral order was re-instated within society, making fully aware Shakespeare's stance on those who were not willing to conform. Part of creating a tragic hero is to generate a particular response in the audience. This response is known as catharsis "“ a feeling of emptiness followed directly by wholeness, as normality is placed back in society once more. This response is created when a tragic hero like Macbeth, sins due to his flaw, only realising too late of his wrongdoings. The audience feels for Macbeth because of this, already knowing his destined fate, although not being able to do anything about it. Those surrounding his decisions enhance the degree of reaction the audience has towards the tragic hero. The play Macbeth is about a tragic hero who, through not only supernatural encounters but also those around him, is driven to commit murders. One such influential character is that of Lady Macbeth; his manipulating, deceiving wife. It is because of Macbeth's flaw, does Lady Macbeth find controlling and manipulating Macbeth so easy. Her character has been created to oppose what is accepted in society. She wishes to lose her feminine qualities: "unsex me here" I.V.40 to obtain more power and in turn use her acquired strength and intelligence for evil gains. This gives her the power to control a lot of Macbeth's "deeds" II.II.33 and force him to continue when he begins to doubt himself and his actions. Lady Macbeth is portrayed as manipulative, and this is evident to the audience when she tells him to look and act pure, but be evil on the inside: Look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent underneath I.V.64-65. Macbeth draws comments like that one from those around him who he respects and admires, which can be extremely persuading because of his flaw. Through Lady Macbeth's death, the audience is encouraged to experience the psychological emptiness involved in committing murder and how she manipulated Macbeth to achieve his deadly desires. It was due to her, that Macbeth was driven to perform all those murders, however his realisation of his doings was encouraged by Banquo; his best friend whom he murdered for knowing too much. Shakespeare allows Banquo's death in Macbeth, because he is endorsing a value of truth and honesty. Banquo knew of Macbeth's murder of Duncan, but kept it quiet, possibly because he was Macbeth's best friend, or he was simply waiting for the right time to tell all. For his hesitation, he payed with his life. Banquo's manifestation in front of Macbeth's eyes in the banquet scene initiates the downfall of the tragic hero. The audience is aware that the illusion of Banquo's ghost is symbolic of Macbeth's instability and disorder within his mind and character and they absorb his need for stability. Due to Banquo's ghost - a vision of evil, we see Macbeth enter a downwards spiral of self-destruction and madness: can such things be?"¦you make me strange even to the disposition that I owe III.IV.111-114 which inevitably leads to his tragic death, due to his non-conformity to society's accepted values and attitudes. Banquo's ghost is seen as a manifestation of Macbeth's guilt for murdering his best friend, merely for knowing too much. The audience realises this and sympathy towards is Macbeth is formed. This is part of the tragic plot Shakespeare utilises to create a dramatic convention. Macbeth is a play created by Shakespeare, evolving around a tragic plot. The tragic plot of a once worthy and loyal soldier to the king, who encounters a supernatural evil and because of a flaw, is led slowly to his death. The form of evil prophesises Macbeth's kingly position and because of his over ambition, seeks to carry this prediction out before its due time. This brings upon him murders, deceit, and eventually his wife's and his own death; along with that of many innocent others. That is what makes Macbeth such a tragic story and is why Shakespeare has utilised this tragic plot. It acts as a foundation in which Macbeth starts his rise to a temporary power and then inevitably is his downfall. Shakespeare uses the theme of good versus evil to demonstrate to the audience that evil will never prevail; it can only create chaos. Macbeth does not accept this as true and 'sells his soul' to the unknown, thinking he will live a prosperous life as king of Scotland. However because he delved into the supernatural, the unknown, the dark side of human creation, he cannot live. This is the basis of his tragic hero persona. Shakespeare enhances it even more through his use of figurative language. The success of a tragic play relies on whether or not the playwright can produce a believable story through the use of figurative language. He enhances the attitude of the audience towards supernatural elements being evil. Shakespeare does this by drawing on metaphors and symbolism to represent feelings, or foreshadow an event. He first creates an atmosphere through which the tragic hero can develop in and it is through this atmosphere, that the audience relates the tragic hero to the evil doings. In Macbeth, the atmosphere is one of gloom and death. This is supported through the numerous mentionings of "blood" II.III.105 "“ a word associated with life and death. This creates and uncertain atmosphere and the audience become aware of it. Macbeth is forced to carry on through his indecisive period, which will result in bloodshed that he will have little control over. Perhaps the most significant metaphor of the play and Macbeth's tragic demise, is that of the manifestation of a dagger pointing towards Duncan's sleeping chamber. It foreshadows the looming murder, but also indicates the crazed state of mind Macbeth is currently in due to the supernatural soliciting: Is this a dagger which I see before me"¦a dagger of the mind, a false creation. II.I.33-38 The audience realises this and empathy towards Macbeth is imminent, however is soon ended when he ruthlessly murders Duncan. This is what makes Macbeth such a tragic hero; the feeling of sympathy one moment and hatred towards him the next. This can again be reinforced through the use of soliloquies and asides Macbeth exhibits. Asides and soliloquies are perhaps the most powerful form of expression and Shakespeare employs these techniques so the audience is able to grasp a better understanding of the state and mind of Macbeth. Through his indecisive times when he was faced with the choice between good and evil, all can be revealed in a single soliloquy; from his regretful feelings to foreshadowing events that are only apparent to the audience: for them the gracious Duncan have I murdered, put rancours in the in vessel of my peace only for them, mine eternal jewel given to the common enemy of man. III.I.65-68 This shows Macbeth's guilt for murdering the "gracious" Duncan and the rancour bitterness, which has invaded his conscience. He also indicates he has sold his "eternal jewel" soul to the "common enemy of man" which is none other than the devil. The audience is aware of his regrets, however cannot fully forgive him for his murder. In that way he conforms to the paradigm of a tragic hero, and through the fact that he had a choice concerning his actions. Seventeenth century society was one built on order and morality. Shakespeare's tragic play Macbeth enforces this cultural need and through dramatic conventions, is able to create the appropriate atmosphere for a tragic hero to thrive in. In this masterpiece, Shakespeare has created a character which embodies everything someone should not be. Through the struggle between good and evil, values and attitudes were developed. However it is through the tragic hero, that the real meaning of the play is derived. From a once noble and well-respected man, Macbeth delves into the evil side of human creation and through his over ambition is forced to commit sinful deeds. Those who delved into the supernatural, the 'evil', the darkness, did not conform to what was expected and accepted in society, so had no choice, but to meet their demise. However in the Christian society Macbeth lived in, he had a choice; a characteristic of a tragic hero. He chose to delve into the forbidded supernatural. He chose to mix with the unknown, while his fate was foreshadowed from the beginning. From his extensive verse to the acknowledgement of his wrongful acts, the audience was able to admire and stand in awe of that tragic hero. From conflict, chaos and death, came the reign of a new king. A king devoted to his people and all that is finally important in the restoration of the right order. After the death of Macbeth, a feeling that evil had been destroyed and goodness reinstated, was all that society needed to correct itself from the awe founding tragic demise of that tragic hero; Macbeth.   

William Shakespeare's play Macbeth, written in the 1600's is a perfect example of Shakespeare's ability to manipulate his audience through creating a tragic hero. A tragic hero who, because of a flaw, tumbles from a well-respected hero to a cowardless murderer. It is through Shakespeare's manipulation of figurative language, dramatic...

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