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The World of Laws, Crime and Punishment in Great Expectations Great Expectations criticises the Victorian judicial and penal system. Through the novel, Charles Dickens displays his point of view of criminality and punishment. This is shown in his portraits of all pieces of such system: the lawyer, the clerk, the judge, the prison authorities and the convicts. In treating the theme of the Victorian system of punishment, Dickens shows his position against prisons, transportation and death penalty. The main character, a little child who has expectations of becoming a gentleman to be of the same social position of the girls he loves, passes from having no interest on criminality and its penalties to be very concerned on the issue. By means of other characters, for instance Mrs. Joe Gargery, Dickens tries to define the people's common view about convicts, transportation and capital punishment. In portraying the character of the convict, Dickens sets out the case in hand of two people sentenced to transportation for forgery of banknotes and analyses their psychology. By reading the novel, the reader becomes aware of the Victorian unfair justice regarding poor and illiterate people, but advantageous towards the rich and educated middle-class. The prison system in England may have had a significant effect on the life and writing of Charles Dickens due to his father's imprisonment in Marshalsea Debtors' Prison as a consequence of his debts. These kinds of prisons came to be workhouses for people who had lost all their belongings. In case debtors had family, it must accompany them in prison. This painful experience may have kept way in his mind for the rest of his life. His involvement with the legal world came when he was employed as a clerk at a lawyer's office. His later interest in penology made him read many works related to this subject. For this reason, he incorporated both the treatment of convicts and capital punishment in many novels. Great Expectations is a harsh criticism on the British legal and penal System as well as on Victorian society, achieved after exploring his characters' behaviour, since the laws were only unfair for those on the bottom rung of the social ladder. London was one of the greatest cities in the world in the 19th C. At this time huge amounts of money were invested in industry and buildings as trade with other countries increased. On the other side of the business world, made rich by the cheap labour of the exploited working class, there was a world of poverty, theft and criminality, increased by the Industrial Revolution. In this acquisitive society, the only important thing was to make fortune, so people were much terrified of losing it. Because of this, any sort of theft was regarded as a serious crime and laws were made to show people that this offence was harshly punished. At the time when Great Expectations is set, the 1810-20s, there were a great number of offenders, most of whom were convicted of theft. Theft was considered a felony like homicide and was punishable with death. Jails were dark, overcrowded and filthy. All kinds of prisoners were kept together with no separation of men and women, the young and the old, or the sane and the insane. The poor conditions of the Victorian prisons are described in detail by Dickens in Great Expectations. In the 2nd volume of the novel, Pip comes across "a grim stone building" 163: Newgate Prison. Looking with horror, Pip offers us a portrait of the inside of the prison and criticism on capital punishment: "As I declined the proposal on the plea of an appointment, he was so good as to take me into a yard and show me where the gallows was kept, and also where people were publicly whipped, and then he showed me the Debtors' door, out of which culprits came to be hanged: heightening the interest of that dreadful portal by giving me to understand that ''four on 'em'' would come out at the door the day after tomorrow at eight in the morning to be killed in a row. This was horrible, and gave me a sickening idea of London" 164 At this time the reformation of the British Prison System took place and a new alternative for punishment was found in transportation. Regarding the colonialist question, the Victorians believed that the easiest and cheapest way of eliminating the criminal element from the British society was sending them as far as they could and never allowing them to return under threat of having them executed. Many prisoners were convicted because of little thefts such as stealing pocket-handkerchiefs, watches, and jewellery, and the forgery of banknotes. All these little offences, considered as serious crimes, represented a threat to the Victorian commerce. Dickens writes about transportation in the 1860s, when it ceased to be a system of punishment. Probably, Dickens wanted to show how unfair it was to eliminate criminality of the Victorian society by sentencing convicts to transportation as it were not a social problem. The hulks, the name that received the ships that transported convicts to the penal colony Australia, were used as floating prisons. In the novel, Dickens offers the reader a portrait of the convicts when being transported to the hulks: "At that time it was customary to carry Convicts down to the dockyards by stage-coach ... The two convicts were handcuffed together, and had irons on their legs-irons of a pattern that I knew well. They wore the dress that I likewise knew well. Their keeper had a brace of pistols, and carried a thick-knobbed bludgeon under his arm; but he was on terms of good understanding with them, and stood, with them beside him, looking on at the putting-to of horses, rather with an air as if the convicts were an interesting Exhibition not formally open at the moment"¦" 224 Before reaching Australia, convicts spent about eight months on the hulks doing a hard labour for ten hours a day. It was very difficult to survive the horrors of the hulks because not only they were overcrowded, but also there were contagious diseases and malnutrition. As 'Convicts to Australia' reports, "Convicts were housed below decks on the prison deck and often further confined behind bars. In many cases they were restrained in chains and were only allowed on deck for fresh air and exercise. Conditions were cramped and they slept on hammocks". Also the treatment of convicts on trips was inhuman: "Cruel masters, harsh discipline and scurvy, dysentery and typhoid resulted in a huge loss of life". Governed by rules based on survival instead of mutual aid among convicts, the life on the hulks was quite difficult. The cause was that the legal system mixed thieves with criminals. That is, people who committed little thefts because of their poor condition and people with mental diseases capable of committing crimes. For all these reasons, many convicts attempted to escape from the hulks, which makes an appearance in the opening chapters of Great Expectations as the Hulks are part of Pip's habitat. Pip and his family were eating when the guns were fired, which warned people about convicts' escape from the hulks. Once the convicts entered Australia, they were assigned their labours: to work for the government or to work for a landowner. The common view of Victorian society was that convicts were brutal and senseless criminals as, at the beginning of the novel, Mrs. Joe Gargery explains Pip "People are put in the Hulks because they murder, and because they rob, and forge, and do all sorts of bad" 14. Common people showed their solidarity with the forces of law when helping the soldiers to find the escaped convicts as happens in the first chapters. As showed in the last part of the novel, people liked witnessing trials and executions and enjoyed themselves seeing the condemned suffering. This was like a show, which reminds us of the Roman spectacle in the theatre with gladiators and Christians and lions. Charles Dickens not only analyses the criminal psychology, but also that of the little pieces that compound both legal and penal system. In the novel, Mr. Jaggers is the representative figure of the lawyer of the time. His office is located in Little Britain, the street where lawyers had their offices, near the Old Bailey criminal courts and Newgate prison. That is, the Old Town of London: the world of criminality. Dickens describes the interior of the lawyers' offices through Pip the first moment he enters Mr. Jaggers' office: "To Pip's eyes the rooms seem filled with shabby people "¦.These are sinister misfits whose appearances suggest death and degradation and dirt rather than the predictability and neatness we associate with lawyers today. There is an atmosphere of corruption or at least the possibility of it" Barnes. This sinister office also contains in its walls the busts of two clients who died in gallows. This description has contact with reality, as there was a room in Newgate prison where there were many busts of executed prisoners, in which stuck out the mark that the rope had made in their necks. "There were not so many papers about, as I should have expected to see; and there were some odd objects about, that I should not have expected to see-such as an old rusty pistol, a sword in a scabbard, several strange-looking boxes and packages, and two dreadful casts on a shelf, of faces peculiarly swollen, and twitchy about the nose" 162. The lawyer's office is also near Smithfield market, a cattle market where animals were slaughtered publicly. The comparison between Smithfield and Newgate is established when Pip is conducted inside the prison and imagines that convicts are going to be executed in the same way as animals are in Smithfield. Mr. Jaggers, the sinister lawyer, has a strong character in the exercise of power. He provokes horror on Pip as Pip notices his unpleasant tone when arguing with his clerk, Mr. Wemmick, and the way he threats his clients. "The description of his office suggests that a large part of his work as a solicitor consists of manipulating evidence and he is always seen followed by a troop of supplicants whom he brushes off disdainfully, much as someone might try to get rid of a tiresome puppy "¦. He bullies them and gleefully profits from their problems" Barnes. The treatment of his housekeeper, Molly, is also another example of his character. Molly was time ago one of his clients, accused of murder. After having defended her and won the trial, she became his submissive housekeeper. Being exhibited as an animal, she was forced to show her disfigured and scarred wrists to the guests Pip, Dummle and Startop in a meal 212. Another example of Mr. Jaggers' power is the fact that his clients have never dared steal in his house despite never locking the door and having objects of great value because they fear him. Furthermore, there is also another passage in which Pip accompanies Mr. Jaggers to the Police Court to examine a client. Here readers can see the fear the clients have of Mr. Jaggers when saying something that he didn't approve 200. Regarding Mr. Jaggers' private life, the world of law is his only life because he has not disconnected the private life from the work. Thus his life is only focused on the office, which is contrasted with his clerk's life. Mr. Wemmick separates radically his personal life in the castle and his office life. The separation of the two lives almost makes him like two people who behave differently in the two spaces. As Anne Barnes observes, "Wemmick and other office clerks were more likely to move just south of the river to places like Walworth, from where it was easy to commute daily into the City". "Wemmick himself, who in Walworth seems a model of upright living, sees nothing sinister about wearing pieces of jewellery which have been given to him as bribes by people who have now been executed for their crimes. The acquiring of portable property by dubious means is regarded as a normal part of legal life" Barnes. Contrary to him, Mr. Jaggers lived in a gloomy apartment, near to Little Britain, filled with books related to his profession. The Lord Chief of Justice the judge and the prison authorities are also treated in the novel. Not only are they presented as people who made business by charging the entry for the judicial spectacle, but also stealing clothes after executing prisoners: ""¦ the more so as the Lord Chief Justice's proprietor wore from his hat down to his boots and up again to his pocket-handkerchief inclusive mildewed clothes, which had evidently not belonged to him originally, and which, I took it into my head, he had bought cheap of the executioner" 164. Moreover, there was a law whereby the money of an emancipated convict who dared to return Great Britain was confiscated by the government. Dickens exemplifies this in the novel when Magwitch is caught in the river and all the money given to Pip is seized by the government. Apart from this, prison authorities made business just inviting people to enter there by some money, which is shown through Pip's eyes: "While I looked about me here, an exceedingly dirty and partially drunk minister of justice asked me if I would like to step in and hear the trial or so: informing me that he could give me a front place for half-a-crown, whence I should command a full view of the Lord Chief Justice in his wig and robes-mentioning that awful personage like waxwork, and presently offering him at the reduced price of eighteenpence" 164. Through the novel, Dickens tries to demonstrate that convicts were victims of the cruel laws that sentenced people to death or transportation, just only for being poor. By doing this, he explores the criminal psychology to difference the good-hearted criminal punished for his/her social status and that greedy criminal who uses people to get profit. As Leavis and Lewis point out, "Dickens is always asking questions such as 'Why do people in similar circumstances and under the same pressure behave differently?' ". Abel Magwitch is one of the two criminals portrayed in the novel who represents the honest man punished for his social status. He was a vagrant who survived due to little theft. He spent all his youth "in jail and out of jail" 342 and all his adulthood in Australia. He was imprisoned for putting forged banknotes into circulation, a common activity that increased during the first half of the 19th C. He received a harder sentence because of his harsh manners when defending himself and his wretch appearance, but mostly for his antecedents 346. Then, he was punished with transportation and was sent to New South Wales, Australia. There, he was assigned to a private landowner and worked as a shepherd until his master's death also an emancipated convict, when he was left all his money and emancipated himself. As an honest man he earned the money by working several years instead of stealing it. Australia meant a new life for the convicted poor because it was rich in primary resources and there were lots of opportunities to get rich. Magwitch understands that despite being wealthy, he will never ascend the social ladder in a heartless society that rejects convicted and ex-convicted people. Magwitch once heard a colonist saying: "He was a convict, a few year ago, and is an ignorant common fellow now, for he's lucky" 317. So He became a benefactor of the little child who helped him on the marshes of Kent and decided to make him a gentleman as a symbol of gratitude towards Pip. When he returned England to see the boy he helped, he was sentenced to death, without pardon. As Leavis and Lewis claim, "Charles Dickens was very sensitive to the physical and psychological effects that punishment had on the individuals" . The psychological effect that transportation left in Magwitch is the fact that he sleeps with a pistol on the pillow 320. Another theme in this novel regarding Magwitch is the idea of fatherhood. He was not allowed to take care of his daughter, Estella, and he was said that she was dead. So the protection for his daughter and his feelings of parenthood are shown in his relationship towards Pip considering himself as Pip's second father. However, Pip, being a respectable gentleman, feels repugnance towards the convict. His snobbish attitude cannot support the idea of being a gentleman because of the gratitude of a convict. Compeyson is the other criminal portrayed by Dickens who represents meanness, greed and disloyalty. He was a gentleman as he was educated in a boarding school. He forged the banknotes so that his associate Magwitch could put them into circulation. He used Magwitch, like he used Miss. Havisham to get her money, to get profit of him in case they were caught. In the trial he got a lesser sentence due to his education and rich appearance, which Magwitch had not. Here Dickens demonstrates that laws were unfair for those on the bottom of the ladder, but not for the gentlemen. The theme of prisons as punishment is also treated in the novel. As I mentioned before, the first time Pip meets Newgate prison, he goes out of the tour round the prison with horror. This feeling is widened when Magwitch is sentenced to death and sent to this prison. Despite being ill, he is jailed in the common prison with sane and insane prisoners. There, some sick prisoners acted as nurses for the prisoners who were worse 453. It is said that Dickens Newgate prison not only is part of the history of England, but also a part of Dickens life. The experience Dickens obtained in his childhood and the visits he made to Newgate may have given him such information to write the novel with a realist tone. By means of the narration of Pip taking care of Magwitch in Newgate, Dickens express his attitude towards the conditions of the British prisons and his totally rejection of capital punishment when the condemned are waiting for the sentence of execution: "Penned in the dock "¦ were the two-and-thirty men and women; some defiant some stricken with terror, some sobbing and weeping, some covering their faces, some staring gloomily about "¦. They were all formally doomed, and some of them were supported out, and some of them sauntered out with a haggard look of bravery, and a few nodded to the gallery and others went out chewing the fragments of herb they had taken from the sweet herbs lying about" 451-452. It is when Pip learns to feel beyond the mask of respectability that he sees the unfair justice that condemns people with good-hearts: "For now, my repugnance to him had all melted away, and in the hunted wounded shackled creature who held my hand in his, I only saw a man who meant to be my benefactor, and who had left affectionately, gratefully, and generously, towards me with great constancy through a series of years" 441. As a conclusion, Charles Dickens criticises both sorts of punishment, the prison system and transportation as well as the unfairness carried for the judicial systems when creating laws little favourable for the poor. At the same time, he points out the Victorian hypocrisy of the rich and the lack of culture of the poor regarding the world of criminality.
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The World of Laws, Crime and Punishment in Great Expectations Great Expectations criticises the Victorian judicial and penal system. Through the novel, Charles Dickens displays his point of view of criminality and punishment. This is shown in his portraits of all pieces of such system: the lawyer, the clerk, the judge, the prison authorities and the convicts. In treating the theme of the Victorian system of punishment, Dickens shows his position against prisons, transportation and death penalty. The main character, a little child who has expectations of becoming a gentleman to be of the same social position of the...
hunted wounded shackled creature who held my hand in his, I only saw a man who meant to be my benefactor, and who had left affectionately, gratefully, and generously, towards me with great constancy through a series of years" 441.

As a conclusion, Charles Dickens criticises both sorts of punishment, the prison system and transportation as well as the unfairness carried for the judicial systems when creating laws little favourable for the poor. At the same time, he points out the Victorian hypocrisy of the rich and the lack of culture of the poor regarding the world of criminality.

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Question: "The Lord of the... Question: "The Lord of the Flies" by William Golding might be described as a novel that explores 'The darkness of man's heart'. Discuss. The question I have chosen to do this essay on is to discuss the way the novel is described; it is described as exploring 'the darkness of man's heart'. The novel is set in the not too distant future where war is waging between nuclear powers in the world. Because of these circumstances a large number children have been evacuated from their homes but before they reach their destination their plane is shot down and the survivors land on a tropical almost paradise like island, unspoiled by man. This island is a microcosm representing the world. On the island the survivors all meet together and create a chief Ralph. Things soon go wrong due to members of the original group creating trouble and they decide to form their own tribe with a new chief Jack. I am going to look at how the events on the island have created an idea that the novel is exploring 'the darkness of mans heart'. There are many areas within the novel which give evidence to support the view that the main theme is about "the darkness of mans heart.". The first part of the novel is a very important part as it sets the scene of how these boys have such beautiful surrounding's and how they are keen to think of ways to be rescued and just the pleasures of day to day life they enjoy. During the opening stages you can sense that the boys still have a strong memory of law and order and how to conduct themselves. One thing that shows this is when Roger an almost non existent character with little dialogue throws stones at a small child, not to hit him as he is circled with 'the taboo of old life' Another time when we are shown the way the children have been restricted in their basic instincts due to the fact that they have been subjected to society's rigid rules, is when they go on their first hunting expedition. Jack could not bring himself to kill the pig because of "the enormity of the knife descending and cutting into living flesh; because of the unbearable blood". All these games are all right to begin with but "the darkness of mans heart" ie the evil which many are capable of but lies hidden, needs to be controlled or else it will flourish. This shows us how we need to have rules in society or else anarchy and savagery will reign. The way in which the children remember the rules and power of the old life is through the conch. The conch is just a shell to you and me but through it they see power and authority as whoever holds the conch has the right to speak. The conch represents in our own world today the mace in the House of Commons; this mace has the greatest of importance, as without its presence the House of Commons cannot begin. The conch I think holds them all together for a while, but it's when they try to bend its rules by suggesting to remove its power in different area's of the island and eventually destroy it along with Piggy. Then I believe the darkness of mans heart becomes clearer as the conch symbolises law/order and authority. Another important part of the novel is when the beast takes on a physical persona. The beast we learn at the start is non-existent and only an empty shell that the younger children and some of the elders talk about. But it is when Ralph appeals to the adult world for help, "if only they could send us something grown-up "¦a sign or something," then from the sky a dead airmen falls from the sky. The sign the adult world gives them is one of death and destruction and we soon realise that it is not a "beastie" they are afraid of it is themselves, its mans own nature. This is confirmed by Simon later "what I mean is "¦maybe its only us," he is the only one to make the connection and he pays dearly for trying to communicate it to others. In a particular part of the novel which really begins to display how the children have lost their sense of morals because of the already inner existing evil which is beginning to come to the surface of even the strong willed like Ralph. In this section there is a hunt re-enactment and the boys are dancing and singing and stabbing with their spears into an imaginary pig. Then one of the smaller children gets caught in the middle of this and he becomes the pig. "... The desire to squeeze and hurt was over-mastering." Here is the first time we see Ralph having trouble suppressing the Beast. This is warning of what the darkness of man's heart is capable of and will perpetrate. The character of Simon is one surrounded with mystery, I believe he is representing the peace and harmony on the island almost a Christ like figure. I think this because of the things he does, he keeps hope of being rescued even when Ralph's hope wavers, he gives fruit to the younger ones and he goes away into the jungle to be by himself to think. He is unlike any other of the boys as he is a thinker also like Piggy but he is different, as he seems to be more like Philosopher. Simon in the novel takes time to go to a place that is secluded from the rest of the boys and there he takes time to puzzle out some of the events on the island. It is here where he falls into some kind of fit and dreams of the stick that the pigs head is placed on he seems to come face to face with the lord of flies. He tells him that "you know perfectly well you'll only meet me down there so don't try to escape". This shows us that the novel is indeed about the evil and the devil in everyone that can become them. Simon tries to get to the group and explain about the dead airmen and how the beast does not exist but has the unfortunate luck to stumble into the middle of a hunting re-enactment where the tribe of savages and Piggy and Ralph are dancing and mimicking the hunt. Simon stumbles into the ring of dancers and the savages, Ralph and Piggy are involved in his brutal murder. This key moment of the novel is extremely important as it is now glaringly obvious that the angelic school boys and choir boys are now evil creatures who knew what they were doing but have forgotten the manner in which to behave due to the absence of society's rigid rules. The novel does not have just one major theme, there is other themes which are working in the background that I believe it's Golding's intention to show use . One theme, which is shown to us through Jack, is that people will abuse power when it is not earned and Golding I believe is trying to show us what happens when someone has power. This fact is important as during the writing of the novel the world was recovering after a massive war and discovering the truth about Hitler's ethnic cleansing program, and was also preparing for another hard time with Stalin's abusive rule. I believe Golding may have been trying to put Jack forward as some kind of Fascist or communist ruler. There is other less important themes as well like singling out another to degrade them to improve their own security. The deterioration in the boy's sense of morality's through the novel are ever so clear. And when we reach towards the end of the novel we see how that has happened, through the lack of authority and law. The boys have now become savages, they have gone through a massive transformation because of their surroundings and their ability to destroy and kill, and this is shown through the "scar" made in the island. It does this by showing mans destructive powers he is capable of. There are many things each of the characters symbolise at the end of the novel, Roger is evil a Satan like creature who has no conscious, Jack is savagery and anarchy, the beast is the inner evil in everyone darkness of mans heart. The whole novel is symbolic in nature except the rescue in the end where adult life appears, dignified and capable, but in reality enmeshed in the same evil as the symbolic life of the children on the island. The officer having interrupted a manhunt, prepares to take the children off the island in a cruiser, which will presently hunting its enemy in the same way. And I believe the cruiser is very important as it makes you think who will rescue the adult and his cruiser. This novel message about the darkness of mans heart means that society holds everyone together, and without these conditions, our ideals, values and basic choices of rights or wrong are lost. Without society's rigid rules anarchy and savagery can and will come to light. This novel is valuable not that it tells us of the darkness of mans heart, its valuable as it shows it by allowing us to enter into the island.   

Question: "The Lord of the Flies" by William Golding might be described as a novel that explores 'The darkness of man's heart'. Discuss. The question I have chosen to do this essay on is to discuss the way the novel is described; it is described as exploring 'the darkness...

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The evidence of masculinity in scene...The evidence of masculinity in scene three is shown through dialogue, stage direction and description of the surroundings. The introduction to the dramatic purpose of the poker party demonstrates Stanley's domination over his friends through the way in which he makes all the decisions about the game. He also shows domination over his wife by hitting her during an argument. Scene three opens with a description of surroundings during a poker night. The description of the poker night immediately introduces it as an all guys night. Stanley, Steve, Mitch and Pablo, all men are described as wearing shirts that have colours that are "powerful as the primary colours". Primary colours are childish colours showing how childish and immature their personality is going to be through out the poker night. This is a contrast to how they are described physically as "strong". These solid colours suggest they are strong, powerful men who are "coarse" and "direct". Even though they are at their "prime" of physical manhood, alternatively the primary colour description can be seen as them not being in their prime mentally, suggesting immaturity and simple thinking. The hard, strong alcohol of whisky on the table implies masculinity. It is also a whisky bottle and not wine. If it was wine it would be too elegant for the occasion and wine is generally seen in romantic situations with women. As we hear the men have a poker talk conversation about a "wild deal," we not only hear that the vocabulary is simple but also common which is in contrast with Stella and Blanche's flowery, finer vocabulary. We also see Stanley "toss" some watermelon rind to the floor. The word "toss" is a very rough way of disposing a watermelon rind. He doesn't throw it in a rubbish bin showing he doesn't seem to care. He also does this when he throws the meat to Stella in scene one. I think he also expects Stella to clean up after him, reinforcing the idea that females take care of the house and clean up after their husband. Later Mitch starts to worry about his sick mother who he left at home. He says she wouldn't be able to sleep until he, "comes in at night". This implies she needs him to be there all the time and that she, as a female, is dependent on him, the breadwinner of the house. Stanley patronizes Mitch by saying he'll fix him a "sugar tit". Stanley is cutting down Mitch's masculinity by saying he needs to go home to be with his mother. Stanley's mockery of Mitch shows his dominance and masculinity over Mitch because it is almost like the pecking order amongst wild animals; competition amongst males and their dominance. Also the word "sugar tit" is quite vulgar which men would generally say. I think women wouldn't be this crude and direct because they would think it is too explicit and women generally don't make fun of their friends because they are sensitive. Steve's joke about the "young hen" being chased by the rooster reflects how men 'chase' after women for their looks and treat them like objects just to look at. It also shows the male dominance over the hen. Masculinity is present in everything they do. As the girls arrive home, Blanche won't go in until she has powdered her face and asks if she looks "done in". She is concerned about her looks perhaps to impress the guys. Her attitude towards her looks reflects how men want women to look all the time. Women are treated like sexual objects in this play and it is evident through the actions of Blanche and Stella. When the sisters come home Stella asks if the "boys" are still playing poker. By calling them "boys", as if they were little and young, she might be trying to show a little dominance over them. Stanley shows verbal dominance towards Blanche when he tells her that "nobody's going to get up," for her a way of showing courtesy in a firm and strong tone. Stanley shows he is man of the house by saying to Stella that they will only finish playing poker until they are ready to quit. Stanley doesn't want Stella and Blanche to stay in the house during the poker game so he asks the "women" to go up and sit with Eunice. Stanley doesn't initially ask them but actually orders them. He also addresses them as "women" and not as ladies or by their name, this is very impersonal, considering that Stella is his wife. He is also treating them as if they were just anybody. The impression Stanley gives the audience on his relationship towards Stella is that it seems he only likes her around him when he feels like it. Stanley and Stella have mostly a sexual relationship together. It's a relationship based on his wants and what she is willing to give. I think Stanley is selfish because he always gets his way with his male dominance. Later, Stanley gives a loud "whack" on Stella's thigh. Here, he shows his dominance in a macho, masculine way by treating her like an object. Alternatively, it brings out the contrast of male and female behavior on how women are generally passive and men are more aggressive. Stella doesn't argue with Stanley when he slaps her, she just continues and accepts it. I think Stella does this because she is used to Stanley's dominance over her even though she doesn't like it. Later, Blanche is introduced to Mitch who is attracted to her. Blanche thinks he seems "superior" to the rest of the men. Mitch could be more mature and older compared to Stanley and the men. His masculinity is demonstrated through his superior ness. Mitch is not married and automatically Blanche asks is he a "wolf". Her immediate reaction to an unmarried man is that he is a wild and undomesticated 'dog', who is rough and perhaps aggressive and not a gentleman. The discussion leads onto Stanley and how his "drive" will help him get somewhere at the plant. Stanley has a strong character that is driven by his dominant side; this "drive" reinforces the masculine side of him. Stella undresses into a "light blue, satin" kimono while Blanche undresses into a "pink silk" brassiere and "white" skirt. The colours used on the clothes are soft pastel colours, which are generally colours worn by women. These light colours are a contrast to the bright, bold colours that were used to describe the clothes on the men. The colours on the men's clothes infer masculinity and aggressiveness while the clothes on Stella and Blanche are feminine, passive/neutral and calm colours, reflecting their personality. The white skirt that Blanche wears denotes purity and fragility, which contradicts her character but can be seen as another contrast with the sinuous and strong characters of the men. These are the complete opposite of the colours in the introduction. The fabrics that are used such as "satin" and "silk" are soft fabrics we associate to femininity and women too. As Stella and Blanche laugh in a "girlish" laughter, Stanley gets annoyed and tells the "hens" to cut it out with an exclamation mark. The "girlish" laughter presents the feminine part of the room while the vulgar jokes present the masculine side of the other part of the room. The word "hen" is a derogatory term used to describe women who talk a lot and go around mindlessly. The exclamation mark after Stanley's sentence shows he must be saying it in a forceful tone. He is telling them what to do again and taking advantage of them by using his dominance. He tells them to "hush-up" too but Stella defends herself by saying, "This is my house and I'll talk as much as I want to!" Stella responds to Stanley in a more aggressive way because she wants to inform him that he cannot tell her what to do in her own house. I would like to stress the "my" in her dialogue because this reinforces the idea that she does possess some form of dominance and by using this it shows that she can stand her ground. The relationship between Stanley and Mitch gets quite tense because Stanley becomes jealous of Mitch's interest in Blanche. This is made clear when he calls him to the poker game and when he watches him through the drapes. The jealousy between the two males reflects the jealousy and actions of animals when they are after the same female that is in season. The coy euphemism Blanche uses to call the lavatory is the "little boys room". "Little boys" are two words that are associated with cheeky six-year-old school children. Does she intentionally use this euphemism to suggest the immature attitude of the men? Another alcoholic drink the men had was beer. We generally see men enjoy drinking beer at bars or while they are watching a sports game. It's a drink associated with men and explicit bars and after a few pints, it exhibits male chauvinism. Blanche informs Mitch how she cannot stand a "rude remark" or a "vulgar action". Her statement reinforces her feminine, refined personality, which is the complete opposite of Stanley's personality who is often referred to as an "animal". As the conversation continues Stanley shouts for Mitch to return to the game. Blanche gets a shock when she hears his loud voice and remarks what "lung power" Stanley has. His lungpower shows the strength he is capable of producing. "Power" is a word that reflects his strength physically too. We really see Stanley's brutality when he gets angry with Blanche for putting the radio back on as he walks "fiercely" towards her. Stanley's brutality and rough character is the negative side of his masculinity. Blanche starts to waltz to the music and Mitch imitates her with "bear" like actions. The description of Mitch as a bear implies clumsiness and shows the animal side in him too. Even though Williams' doesn't represent Mitch as the strong, fierce side of the bear, it can still be implied. Stella gets really upset when Stanley throws the radio out the window. She even calls him an "animal thing". She obviously knows this side of him and knows how violent he can get. The word "animal" is another derogatory term but this time it is used against Stanley to describe how wild and aggressive he is. The animal like imagery reveals more evidence of his dominant character but through abuse. Another animal like imagery to describe Stanley's action is when he "charges" for Stella and actually hits her. This movement reflects the movement of a bull. Bulls are seen as strong, muscular and aggressive animals. All this animal imagery of the men is all descriptions reinforcing their masculine and domineering character. The physical abuse of Stella is another piece of evidence of the strength Stanley is able to produce. The abuse of Stella is caused by his brutality that presents his masculinity and dominance over her. Mitch argues that poker shouldn't be played in house with women. I think he knows how Stanley acts when he is drunk and he knows that every time they play poker Stanley and Stella or even the guys have fights. Mitch's argument shows that his masculine side is not as aggressive as Stanley's because he shows concern and feeling for the way Stella and Blanche are treated. After some grappling and cursing, Mitch reinforces his argument that women should not be around men during poker. The second time he says it, he makes "not" more clear and firm. The only part in the scene that doesn't present Stanley as a strong, masculine man is when he breaks into "sobs". Men aren't usually seen as the crying 'type'. Williams does show Stanley's sensitive side when he cries for Stella to come home. However, there is a contrast when Williams returns to describing Stanley as an animal when he throws his head back like a "baying hound" and "bellows" and "howls" his wife's name. Immediately, he portrays Stanley's masculine side as a dog, this time he is domesticated unlike the previous description as an undomesticated dog "“ wolf. I think there is great amount of masculinity presented in scene three but without the feminine contrast I don't think it would have been so obvious. Is Stanley's brutality just a type of masculinity or was it aggravated by jealousy and the usage of alcohol?   

The evidence of masculinity in scene three is shown through dialogue, stage direction and description of the surroundings. The introduction to the dramatic purpose of the poker party demonstrates Stanley's domination over his friends through the way in which he makes all the decisions about the game. He also shows...

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