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The World of Laws, Crime and Punishment in Great Expectations Great Expectations criticises the Victorian judicial and penal system. Through the novel, Charles Dickens displays his point of view of criminality and punishment. This is shown in his portraits of all pieces of such system: the lawyer, the clerk, the judge, the prison authorities and the convicts. In treating the theme of the Victorian system of punishment, Dickens shows his position against prisons, transportation and death penalty. The main character, a little child who has expectations of becoming a gentleman to be of the same social position of the girls he loves, passes from having no interest on criminality and its penalties to be very concerned on the issue. By means of other characters, for instance Mrs. Joe Gargery, Dickens tries to define the people's common view about convicts, transportation and capital punishment. In portraying the character of the convict, Dickens sets out the case in hand of two people sentenced to transportation for forgery of banknotes and analyses their psychology. By reading the novel, the reader becomes aware of the Victorian unfair justice regarding poor and illiterate people, but advantageous towards the rich and educated middle-class. The prison system in England may have had a significant effect on the life and writing of Charles Dickens due to his father's imprisonment in Marshalsea Debtors' Prison as a consequence of his debts. These kinds of prisons came to be workhouses for people who had lost all their belongings. In case debtors had family, it must accompany them in prison. This painful experience may have kept way in his mind for the rest of his life. His involvement with the legal world came when he was employed as a clerk at a lawyer's office. His later interest in penology made him read many works related to this subject. For this reason, he incorporated both the treatment of convicts and capital punishment in many novels. Great Expectations is a harsh criticism on the British legal and penal System as well as on Victorian society, achieved after exploring his characters' behaviour, since the laws were only unfair for those on the bottom rung of the social ladder. London was one of the greatest cities in the world in the 19th C. At this time huge amounts of money were invested in industry and buildings as trade with other countries increased. On the other side of the business world, made rich by the cheap labour of the exploited working class, there was a world of poverty, theft and criminality, increased by the Industrial Revolution. In this acquisitive society, the only important thing was to make fortune, so people were much terrified of losing it. Because of this, any sort of theft was regarded as a serious crime and laws were made to show people that this offence was harshly punished. At the time when Great Expectations is set, the 1810-20s, there were a great number of offenders, most of whom were convicted of theft. Theft was considered a felony like homicide and was punishable with death. Jails were dark, overcrowded and filthy. All kinds of prisoners were kept together with no separation of men and women, the young and the old, or the sane and the insane. The poor conditions of the Victorian prisons are described in detail by Dickens in Great Expectations. In the 2nd volume of the novel, Pip comes across "a grim stone building" 163: Newgate Prison. Looking with horror, Pip offers us a portrait of the inside of the prison and criticism on capital punishment: "As I declined the proposal on the plea of an appointment, he was so good as to take me into a yard and show me where the gallows was kept, and also where people were publicly whipped, and then he showed me the Debtors' door, out of which culprits came to be hanged: heightening the interest of that dreadful portal by giving me to understand that ''four on 'em'' would come out at the door the day after tomorrow at eight in the morning to be killed in a row. This was horrible, and gave me a sickening idea of London" 164 At this time the reformation of the British Prison System took place and a new alternative for punishment was found in transportation. Regarding the colonialist question, the Victorians believed that the easiest and cheapest way of eliminating the criminal element from the British society was sending them as far as they could and never allowing them to return under threat of having them executed. Many prisoners were convicted because of little thefts such as stealing pocket-handkerchiefs, watches, and jewellery, and the forgery of banknotes. All these little offences, considered as serious crimes, represented a threat to the Victorian commerce. Dickens writes about transportation in the 1860s, when it ceased to be a system of punishment. Probably, Dickens wanted to show how unfair it was to eliminate criminality of the Victorian society by sentencing convicts to transportation as it were not a social problem. The hulks, the name that received the ships that transported convicts to the penal colony Australia, were used as floating prisons. In the novel, Dickens offers the reader a portrait of the convicts when being transported to the hulks: "At that time it was customary to carry Convicts down to the dockyards by stage-coach ... The two convicts were handcuffed together, and had irons on their legs-irons of a pattern that I knew well. They wore the dress that I likewise knew well. Their keeper had a brace of pistols, and carried a thick-knobbed bludgeon under his arm; but he was on terms of good understanding with them, and stood, with them beside him, looking on at the putting-to of horses, rather with an air as if the convicts were an interesting Exhibition not formally open at the moment"¦" 224 Before reaching Australia, convicts spent about eight months on the hulks doing a hard labour for ten hours a day. It was very difficult to survive the horrors of the hulks because not only they were overcrowded, but also there were contagious diseases and malnutrition. As 'Convicts to Australia' reports, "Convicts were housed below decks on the prison deck and often further confined behind bars. In many cases they were restrained in chains and were only allowed on deck for fresh air and exercise. Conditions were cramped and they slept on hammocks". Also the treatment of convicts on trips was inhuman: "Cruel masters, harsh discipline and scurvy, dysentery and typhoid resulted in a huge loss of life". Governed by rules based on survival instead of mutual aid among convicts, the life on the hulks was quite difficult. The cause was that the legal system mixed thieves with criminals. That is, people who committed little thefts because of their poor condition and people with mental diseases capable of committing crimes. For all these reasons, many convicts attempted to escape from the hulks, which makes an appearance in the opening chapters of Great Expectations as the Hulks are part of Pip's habitat. Pip and his family were eating when the guns were fired, which warned people about convicts' escape from the hulks. Once the convicts entered Australia, they were assigned their labours: to work for the government or to work for a landowner. The common view of Victorian society was that convicts were brutal and senseless criminals as, at the beginning of the novel, Mrs. Joe Gargery explains Pip "People are put in the Hulks because they murder, and because they rob, and forge, and do all sorts of bad" 14. Common people showed their solidarity with the forces of law when helping the soldiers to find the escaped convicts as happens in the first chapters. As showed in the last part of the novel, people liked witnessing trials and executions and enjoyed themselves seeing the condemned suffering. This was like a show, which reminds us of the Roman spectacle in the theatre with gladiators and Christians and lions. Charles Dickens not only analyses the criminal psychology, but also that of the little pieces that compound both legal and penal system. In the novel, Mr. Jaggers is the representative figure of the lawyer of the time. His office is located in Little Britain, the street where lawyers had their offices, near the Old Bailey criminal courts and Newgate prison. That is, the Old Town of London: the world of criminality. Dickens describes the interior of the lawyers' offices through Pip the first moment he enters Mr. Jaggers' office: "To Pip's eyes the rooms seem filled with shabby people "¦.These are sinister misfits whose appearances suggest death and degradation and dirt rather than the predictability and neatness we associate with lawyers today. There is an atmosphere of corruption or at least the possibility of it" Barnes. This sinister office also contains in its walls the busts of two clients who died in gallows. This description has contact with reality, as there was a room in Newgate prison where there were many busts of executed prisoners, in which stuck out the mark that the rope had made in their necks. "There were not so many papers about, as I should have expected to see; and there were some odd objects about, that I should not have expected to see-such as an old rusty pistol, a sword in a scabbard, several strange-looking boxes and packages, and two dreadful casts on a shelf, of faces peculiarly swollen, and twitchy about the nose" 162. The lawyer's office is also near Smithfield market, a cattle market where animals were slaughtered publicly. The comparison between Smithfield and Newgate is established when Pip is conducted inside the prison and imagines that convicts are going to be executed in the same way as animals are in Smithfield. Mr. Jaggers, the sinister lawyer, has a strong character in the exercise of power. He provokes horror on Pip as Pip notices his unpleasant tone when arguing with his clerk, Mr. Wemmick, and the way he threats his clients. "The description of his office suggests that a large part of his work as a solicitor consists of manipulating evidence and he is always seen followed by a troop of supplicants whom he brushes off disdainfully, much as someone might try to get rid of a tiresome puppy "¦. He bullies them and gleefully profits from their problems" Barnes. The treatment of his housekeeper, Molly, is also another example of his character. Molly was time ago one of his clients, accused of murder. After having defended her and won the trial, she became his submissive housekeeper. Being exhibited as an animal, she was forced to show her disfigured and scarred wrists to the guests Pip, Dummle and Startop in a meal 212. Another example of Mr. Jaggers' power is the fact that his clients have never dared steal in his house despite never locking the door and having objects of great value because they fear him. Furthermore, there is also another passage in which Pip accompanies Mr. Jaggers to the Police Court to examine a client. Here readers can see the fear the clients have of Mr. Jaggers when saying something that he didn't approve 200. Regarding Mr. Jaggers' private life, the world of law is his only life because he has not disconnected the private life from the work. Thus his life is only focused on the office, which is contrasted with his clerk's life. Mr. Wemmick separates radically his personal life in the castle and his office life. The separation of the two lives almost makes him like two people who behave differently in the two spaces. As Anne Barnes observes, "Wemmick and other office clerks were more likely to move just south of the river to places like Walworth, from where it was easy to commute daily into the City". "Wemmick himself, who in Walworth seems a model of upright living, sees nothing sinister about wearing pieces of jewellery which have been given to him as bribes by people who have now been executed for their crimes. The acquiring of portable property by dubious means is regarded as a normal part of legal life" Barnes. Contrary to him, Mr. Jaggers lived in a gloomy apartment, near to Little Britain, filled with books related to his profession. The Lord Chief of Justice the judge and the prison authorities are also treated in the novel. Not only are they presented as people who made business by charging the entry for the judicial spectacle, but also stealing clothes after executing prisoners: ""¦ the more so as the Lord Chief Justice's proprietor wore from his hat down to his boots and up again to his pocket-handkerchief inclusive mildewed clothes, which had evidently not belonged to him originally, and which, I took it into my head, he had bought cheap of the executioner" 164. Moreover, there was a law whereby the money of an emancipated convict who dared to return Great Britain was confiscated by the government. Dickens exemplifies this in the novel when Magwitch is caught in the river and all the money given to Pip is seized by the government. Apart from this, prison authorities made business just inviting people to enter there by some money, which is shown through Pip's eyes: "While I looked about me here, an exceedingly dirty and partially drunk minister of justice asked me if I would like to step in and hear the trial or so: informing me that he could give me a front place for half-a-crown, whence I should command a full view of the Lord Chief Justice in his wig and robes-mentioning that awful personage like waxwork, and presently offering him at the reduced price of eighteenpence" 164. Through the novel, Dickens tries to demonstrate that convicts were victims of the cruel laws that sentenced people to death or transportation, just only for being poor. By doing this, he explores the criminal psychology to difference the good-hearted criminal punished for his/her social status and that greedy criminal who uses people to get profit. As Leavis and Lewis point out, "Dickens is always asking questions such as 'Why do people in similar circumstances and under the same pressure behave differently?' ". Abel Magwitch is one of the two criminals portrayed in the novel who represents the honest man punished for his social status. He was a vagrant who survived due to little theft. He spent all his youth "in jail and out of jail" 342 and all his adulthood in Australia. He was imprisoned for putting forged banknotes into circulation, a common activity that increased during the first half of the 19th C. He received a harder sentence because of his harsh manners when defending himself and his wretch appearance, but mostly for his antecedents 346. Then, he was punished with transportation and was sent to New South Wales, Australia. There, he was assigned to a private landowner and worked as a shepherd until his master's death also an emancipated convict, when he was left all his money and emancipated himself. As an honest man he earned the money by working several years instead of stealing it. Australia meant a new life for the convicted poor because it was rich in primary resources and there were lots of opportunities to get rich. Magwitch understands that despite being wealthy, he will never ascend the social ladder in a heartless society that rejects convicted and ex-convicted people. Magwitch once heard a colonist saying: "He was a convict, a few year ago, and is an ignorant common fellow now, for he's lucky" 317. So He became a benefactor of the little child who helped him on the marshes of Kent and decided to make him a gentleman as a symbol of gratitude towards Pip. When he returned England to see the boy he helped, he was sentenced to death, without pardon. As Leavis and Lewis claim, "Charles Dickens was very sensitive to the physical and psychological effects that punishment had on the individuals" . The psychological effect that transportation left in Magwitch is the fact that he sleeps with a pistol on the pillow 320. Another theme in this novel regarding Magwitch is the idea of fatherhood. He was not allowed to take care of his daughter, Estella, and he was said that she was dead. So the protection for his daughter and his feelings of parenthood are shown in his relationship towards Pip considering himself as Pip's second father. However, Pip, being a respectable gentleman, feels repugnance towards the convict. His snobbish attitude cannot support the idea of being a gentleman because of the gratitude of a convict. Compeyson is the other criminal portrayed by Dickens who represents meanness, greed and disloyalty. He was a gentleman as he was educated in a boarding school. He forged the banknotes so that his associate Magwitch could put them into circulation. He used Magwitch, like he used Miss. Havisham to get her money, to get profit of him in case they were caught. In the trial he got a lesser sentence due to his education and rich appearance, which Magwitch had not. Here Dickens demonstrates that laws were unfair for those on the bottom of the ladder, but not for the gentlemen. The theme of prisons as punishment is also treated in the novel. As I mentioned before, the first time Pip meets Newgate prison, he goes out of the tour round the prison with horror. This feeling is widened when Magwitch is sentenced to death and sent to this prison. Despite being ill, he is jailed in the common prison with sane and insane prisoners. There, some sick prisoners acted as nurses for the prisoners who were worse 453. It is said that Dickens Newgate prison not only is part of the history of England, but also a part of Dickens life. The experience Dickens obtained in his childhood and the visits he made to Newgate may have given him such information to write the novel with a realist tone. By means of the narration of Pip taking care of Magwitch in Newgate, Dickens express his attitude towards the conditions of the British prisons and his totally rejection of capital punishment when the condemned are waiting for the sentence of execution: "Penned in the dock "¦ were the two-and-thirty men and women; some defiant some stricken with terror, some sobbing and weeping, some covering their faces, some staring gloomily about "¦. They were all formally doomed, and some of them were supported out, and some of them sauntered out with a haggard look of bravery, and a few nodded to the gallery and others went out chewing the fragments of herb they had taken from the sweet herbs lying about" 451-452. It is when Pip learns to feel beyond the mask of respectability that he sees the unfair justice that condemns people with good-hearts: "For now, my repugnance to him had all melted away, and in the hunted wounded shackled creature who held my hand in his, I only saw a man who meant to be my benefactor, and who had left affectionately, gratefully, and generously, towards me with great constancy through a series of years" 441. As a conclusion, Charles Dickens criticises both sorts of punishment, the prison system and transportation as well as the unfairness carried for the judicial systems when creating laws little favourable for the poor. At the same time, he points out the Victorian hypocrisy of the rich and the lack of culture of the poor regarding the world of criminality.
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The World of Laws, Crime and Punishment in Great Expectations Great Expectations criticises the Victorian judicial and penal system. Through the novel, Charles Dickens displays his point of view of criminality and punishment. This is shown in his portraits of all pieces of such system: the lawyer, the clerk, the judge, the prison authorities and the convicts. In treating the theme of the Victorian system of punishment, Dickens shows his position against prisons, transportation and death penalty. The main character, a little child who has expectations of becoming a gentleman to be of the same social position of the...
hunted wounded shackled creature who held my hand in his, I only saw a man who meant to be my benefactor, and who had left affectionately, gratefully, and generously, towards me with great constancy through a series of years" 441.

As a conclusion, Charles Dickens criticises both sorts of punishment, the prison system and transportation as well as the unfairness carried for the judicial systems when creating laws little favourable for the poor. At the same time, he points out the Victorian hypocrisy of the rich and the lack of culture of the poor regarding the world of criminality.

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The autobiography Angela's Ashes by Frank...The autobiography Angela's Ashes by Frank McCourt tells the life of the McCourt family while living in poverty in Limmerick, Ireland during the 30's and 40's. Frank McCourt relates his difficult childhood to the reader up to the time he leaves for America at age nineteen. The book has many prevailing themes, but one of the most notable is the settings relationship to the family. The setting of the book ultimately influences the choices and lifestyle of the McCourt family in many ways. Living in poverty and not being able to meet basic needs leads the characters to result to desperate measures such as stopping Frank McCourt's education and taking a job to support the family. Frank is forced to take the job mostly because his father is an alcoholic and uses all the dole money and his wages to buy beer instead of feeding his family. Frank describes this pattern of drinking away the money by saying " When Dad comes home with the drink smell there is no money and Mam screams at him till the Twins cry."42 This situation lasts until Mr.McCourt leaves to work in England and is never heard from again which forces Frank to take a job at fourteen years old. Frank takes on the role of the head of the family proudly and comments " Its hard to sleep when you know you know the next day you're fourteen and starting your first job as a man." p.309 Frank's ability to provide financial stability leads to greater comfort and living conditions for the family. The members of the McCourt family are also forced to beg and steal in order to help the family's well being. Mrs.McCourt begs charities especially the St. Vincent de Paul Society for help with basic necessities for the family such as food, clothing, and furniture. Mrs.McCourt is even forced to beg for the family's Christmas dinner. The butcher who she begs to tells her " What you can have now missus, Is black pudding and tripe or a sheep's head or a pig's head."97 Mrs.McCourt reluctantly accept the pig's head and is ridiculed walking home it. Also, the children are forced to pick up scraps of coal for the fire from a road on Christmas Day. Frank describes the children's humiliation by saying, " Even the poorest of the poor don't go out Christmas Day picking coal off the road." 99 Unlike their mother the McCourt children would rather steal than beg for what they need. The children are subjected to constant humiliation for begging and receiving goods from charity. Frank and his brothers steal food and money when situations become desperate and their parents provide no support. Frank steals bananas from a store for his hungry baby brothers and describes the situation by saying " I make sure no one is looking, grab a bunch of bananas "¦and we feast on them in a dark corner" p.32. Also, Frank and his brothers steal lemonade for their sick mother who begs them for lemonade after a miscarriage. Frank is motivated by his mother's desperation for the lemonade, " I try to find the music in my own head but all I hear is my mother moaning for lemonade."236 Stealing for Frank and his brothers was not their first choice of providing necessities but a last resort. Living in poor housing also influences the thoughts and actions of the McCourt family in various ways. Most of the houses the family lives in throughout the book are shabby and unsanitary and promote the family's unhealthiness. One of the houses the McCourt family lives in is characterized by the comment " dad tells them the lavatory could kill us with every class of disease, that the kitchen floods in the winter and we have to stay upstairs to keep dry" p.104 . Because the lavatory smells so bad and the first floor floods in the winter, the McCourt family moves up to the second floor which they refer to as Italy because it is warm and clean. The charity societies visit the Mc.Courts and realize how desperate the situation is for the family. One charity worker exclaims, " That's not Italy upstairs, that's Calcutta." This realization allows for more charity and personal humiliation to be received by the McCourts. Houses the McCourts live in are also cold, damp and lice infected which leads to sickness and discomfort for the family. Lice bothers the children as described by Frank McCourt telling about his brother's reaction when he first was bitten. " Eugene went on crying and when Dad leaped from the bed we saw the fleas, leaping, jumping, fastened to our flesh."59 The children are constantly cold and uncomfortable because of drafty houses and using coats to keep warm because they had no real blankets. At one point in the story, the McCourts are forced to take wood from the wall to keep a fire going. Mrs.McCourt tells the children " One more board from that wall, one more and not another one. She says that for two weeks till there's nothing left but the beam frame."276 Eventually the landlord discovers the damage to the house and the McCourts are forced to move in with Mrs.McCourt's cousin. The McCourts find little hospitality in their extended family or the people of Limmerick, Ireland during the depression. Mrs.McCourt's cousin resentfully allows the children and mother to live with him after being kicked out of their home, but insists that Angela do all his chores and wait on him at any time. The only time Mrs.McCourt's family extends help is during times of great desperation and the assistance given is meager. An example of this is the children's Aunt Aggie, who takes care of them for a short period of time when Mrs.McCourt develops pneumonia. She tells the children that she " can't stand the sight of them anymore"242 and allows them to briefly stay with her until the mother gets better. Aunt Aggie allows them a little food and is constantly degrading the children by saying thing such as "Jesus above, can't you do anything right?"245when the children ask questions. Although Aunt Aggie's assistance is given grudgingly, it is more than help given by Mr.McCourt's side of the family. When the McCourt family arrives in Ireland and needs a place to get settled and live Grandpa McCourt tells the family " God knows, we don't have room for six more people"50 and that they should move to Dublin. The Grandparents offer to " loan the family the bus fare to Dublin" 50 but, never communicates with the McCourt family after they leave the house. The People of Limmerick, Ireland, where the family mainly resides, have many strong prejudices against the poor. The family is constantly tormented because of shabby clothes or poor housing and having to ask charities for help. The store managers try to cheat the poor out of the full amount of food they are to be given. A friend tells Mrs.McCourt "When you go to McGrath's, keep an eye on her for she'll cheat you on the weight. She'll put stuff on a paper on the scale with the paper hanging down on her side behind the counter where she thinks you can't see it." 66 Also, the religious of Limmerick discriminate against poor children as in the case when Frank McCourt tries to become an alter boy but is denied. Mrs.McCourt explains why he is denied by saying " They don't want boys from lanes on the alter. Oh, no they want the nice boys with hair oil and new shoes that have fathers with suits and ties and steady jobs"149. The Mc.Court family is constantly aware of the discrimination it faces because of the poverty they live in. The various settings of " Angela's Ashes" effect the characters' actions and lifestyle in various ways. Living in poverty challenges the family to meet basic needs through begging and stealing as well as children getting jobs to help the situation. Also, the poor housing causes the family to be subjected to disease and coldness. The society the McCourts were part of causes the family to be aware of social prejudice and learn actions to take in order to protect their rights. The setting of the book influences the McCourt family's actions and style of living.   

The autobiography Angela's Ashes by Frank McCourt tells the life of the McCourt family while living in poverty in Limmerick, Ireland during the 30's and 40's. Frank McCourt relates his difficult childhood to the reader up to the time he leaves for America at age nineteen. The book has many...

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In the play "Macbeth", there are...In the play "Macbeth", there are many interesting sections that concentrate on the suspense and the involvement of the supernatural. The use of the supernatural in the witches, Lady Macbeth, nature, the vision, the ghost and the apparitions are all key elements in making "Macbeth" as a tragedy play. With the sense of the supernatural and interference of the spirits, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are led to dangerous tempting things. Macbeth's character becomes completely different from the brave soldier to the evil king and to his tragic death where he discovers humility again when it is too late. Lady Macbeth's character also changes from being a loving wife and masculine woman to madness woman. The use of supernatural also makes the play interesting to the audience. Examining certain scenes of the play, it is noticed that the supernatural is definitely a major factor on the play's style. The use of supernatural occurs at the beginning of the play, with three witches predicting the fate of Macbeth. "When the battles lost and won", it says Macbeth's fate is that he will win the battle, but will lose his time of victory for the battle of his soul. The prophecies that revealed by the witches bring a broad temptation to Macbeth that had been in his secret all along for being a king, "My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical". This shows that Macbeth ambition is present before the prophecies. He would never have thought seriously about killing Duncan without the witches. His temptation makes him doing whatever he can to gain power of the throne as prophesied by witches because he thinks the only way to gain the power of the throne is by killing Duncan, which is an easier plan and the ways he makes to the throne show evilness that gradually increased in his actions by murder Duncan, Banquo and Macduff's family. The presence of the witches also gives a huge impact in making the play more interesting. These witches have very strange features; old people in a group of three with dirty and broken cloths, bearded, and no eyes. These features keep the audience hooked to the play and the suspense increases with every scary sound that produced by witches. The supernatural element also taking place in Lady Macbeth's soliloquy of calling upon evil spirits to give her power to plot the murder of Duncan without any remorse or conscience. "Come, you spirits"¦unsex me here and fill me"¦of direst cruelty"¦come to my woman's breasts for gall", her soliloquy shows that she relied on the supernatural by asking for the spirit to get rid of her natural feelings of compassion by making her cruel. The interference with the supernatural might cause her be possessed by ghost when she goes mad and sees blood on her hands. On the night Macbeth and Lady Macbeth plan to kill Duncan, the nature acting very strangely, "the moon is down"¦their candles are all out". It says that there is no moon and no stars in the sky. "The obscure bird clamored the livelong night", this shows that the owl keep crying out the whole night. This nature of darkness together with the crying owl evokes of evilness in the night when Duncan is killed. The strange behaviour in nature shows the existence of supernatural and it creates a perfect scene for the accursed murder. The darkness and the sound of the owl make the play becomes more real and interesting for the audience. As Macbeth awaits for the signal to make his way up to the stairs, he sees floating dagger and said "Thou marshal'st me the way that I was going; and such an instrument I was to use"¦there's no such thing. It is the bloody business which informs". Here, Macbeth begins to question whether his mind playing tricks on him or there is presence of evil that put the dagger which being covered with blood. This shows that there is interference of supernatural that leads Macbeth towards the Duncan's chamber to do the murder. The dagger symbolizes the point of no return for Macbeth. If he chooses the path in which the dagger leads, there will be no turning back. After Macbeth did the murder, he becomes a king. Although he has already achieve his goal to be a king, he begins to be greedier to not let the Banquo's prophecy of being father of kings come true because he thinks he has put a great effort to reach the throne. Therefore, because of his fears due to Banquo's prophecy, Macbeth proceeds to plot the murder of his friend, which caused him to fall into a deeper hole. Once the murderer notified Macbeth that the deed was done, he observed Banquo's ghost in the place reserved for him. "What man dare, I dare. Approach thou like rugged Russian bear"¦ take any shape but that, and my firm nerves shall never tremble." Macbeth feels frightened at the sight of the bloody ghost haunting him and proclaim that he could take any wild animals, but not Banquo's ghost. This shows the interference of spirit in Macbeth's mind and this caused Macbeth to act in a wild manner, making people suspicious of his actions. The word "I will, to the weird sisters: more shall the speak, for now I am bent to know by the worst means the worst." This tells us that the existence of the ghost also tempting Macbeth to return to the three witches, desiring more information regarding his fortune. As the witches are preparing a magic portion in a cauldron, Macbeth enters and roughly demands them to answer his questions. Therefore, the witches show him three apparitions. The first apparition is a head wearing a helmet. It says "Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! Beware Macduff! Beware Thane of Fife." This apparition warns Macbeth to beware of Macduff before disappearing. This drives Macbeth to hate Macduff more and on learning that Macduff has escaped before he can have him murdered, Macbeth immediately decides to murder his whole family. This shows Macbeth as an evil king, he decides the murder because he can do it, it is the irrational act of tyrant. The second apparition is a child covered with blood who tells him that "for none of woman born shall harm Macbeth." This apparition assures Macbeth to will not be harmed by man who born by woman. This convinced Macbeth of the power he has by thinking how could Macduff, a man of woman born, hurt him. "Then live, Macduff: What need I fear of thee? But yet I'll make assurance double sure, and take a bond of fate." It says that although Macbeth has learned that Macduff will not hurt him, as Macbeth thinks that Macduff is a woman born, he still not completely feel assured that he will not be harm by anyone. The third apparition is a child crowned with a tree in his hand tells Macbeth that "Macbeth shall never vanquished be until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him." It says that Macbeth will never be defeated until 'Great Birnam Wood' moves against the castle at Dunsinane. "That will never be, who can impress the forest"¦sweet bodements, good!" It shows that Macbeth feels completely certain that no man can kill him and he will not be defeated until a forest uproots itself and moves. All of these apparitions show the interference of the spirit who tells Macbeth about his fortune. These apparitions are good news for Macbeth. The witches encouraged him to believe he is invulnerable and indestructible. He has found protection in the strength of spirit's words. Having possession of all the confidence in the world, he fears no one. The prophecies at the beginning of the play led him to his success, and those apparitions at the end just led to his tragic death. It is a tragic death because without known that Macbeth will become a king, he would still be a brave soldier, honest and humble man. From all above, the use of the supernatural and spirits provide suspenseful play in Macbeth. The first prophecies have led Macbeth to murder Duncan and Banquo in order to gain the power of the throne. Lady Macbeth also relied on supernatural by her soliloquy to change her into a creature without human compassion, which at the end shows that she might be possessed by spirits. The hallucination of the dagger also shows the interference of spirit that leads Macbeth's way to Duncan's chamber. After his encounter with the ghost of Banquo, Macbeth proceeds to visit the witches one last time to insure his security. After this last visit, Macbeth becomes over confident which cause his tragic death. Without the witches, Lady Macbeth, strange nature, vision of dagger, ghost, and the apparitions, the play "Macbeth" would have been a dull and tiresome play.   

In the play "Macbeth", there are many interesting sections that concentrate on the suspense and the involvement of the supernatural. The use of the supernatural in the witches, Lady Macbeth, nature, the vision, the ghost and the apparitions are all key elements in making "Macbeth" as a tragedy play. With...

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