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Herman Melville: Similarities in Claggart and Captain Ahab
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Herman Melville was a struggling writer in the mid-1800s, who spent a few years of his life as a sailor and crew member of whaling ships in the south seas. These experiences greatly influenced his writing, causing there to be many similarities among his novels. In two of his works, Moby-Dick, and Billy Budd, Melville seems to have created two characters, Captain Ahab from Moby-Dick, and John Claggart from Billy Budd, who both share some very comparable qualities and experiences. The most prevalent characteristic that links them together is that in their stories, they both possess an unrelenting and somewhat...
feel toward that individual. Their envy is rather complex, but can be simplified in that the reason for Ahab hating the whale Moby-Dick, and Claggart hating the sailor Billy Budd, is that Moby-Dick and Billy both exhibit qualities of magnificence and strength, that Ahab and Claggart do not. Then, in the end, the strength of the whale and Billy of which they both abhor, is ironically the cause of both of their deaths. It is with these connections of spirit, personality, and experience in Captain Ahab and John Claggart, that best display the similarities between these Herman Melville characters.
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Jane Eyre, a novel about an...Jane Eyre, a novel about an English woman's struggles told through the writing of Charlotte Brontë, has filled its audience with thoughts of hope, love, and deception for many years. These thoughts surround people, not just women, everyday, as if an endless cycle from birth to death. As men and women fall further into this spiral of life they begin to find their true beings along with the qualities of others. This spiral then turns into a web of conflicts as the passenger of life proceeds and often these conflicts are caused by those sought out to be guides through the journey of life but merely are spiders building a magnificent web to catch its prey. In Jane Eyre, Brontë uses the literary elements of plot and character to convey the theme that a person often falls in love with a manipulator because she has little experiences of other forms of love and as a result she has to establish her own integrity. Brontë uses the character element of opinions to show how some people often form conclusions about others and express them in their thoughts as either cruel or friendly. Since Brontë bases Jane Eyre as story told through a young lady the reader is allowed to experience her thoughts and reactions to those around her who make her very personality. As Jane is in her youth she develops these notions about her own family yelling at her cousin John saying, "You are like a murderer--you are like a slave-driver"”you are like the Roman Emperors." p. 8 Not only showing that Jane has the intellectual maturity much greater than that of a normal ten-year-old but also that she finds John cruel and sees him becoming a bad man when he grows up. Due to Mrs. Reed's lack of discipline John did grow as his cousin perceived causing his own demise and the relief of Jane for her cousin no longer could torment those lesser than himself. "Mr. Rochester continued blind for the first two years of our union: perhaps it was that circumstance that drew us so very near "“ that knit us so very close: for I was then his vision, as I am still his right hand. Literally, I was the apple of his eye." p.578 Jane expresses her grief over Rochester's injuries but emphasizes her constant love as everything that he has lost. Rochester appears completely opposite from the first time they met; he's helpless just as Jane was when they first met and it is her influence which provokes him to her. All of Jane's, along with the other characters, opinions cause changes in positions from being blind to walking for the blind, or from being led to doing the leading. Brontë uses the character element of appearance to show that corrupting people often influence others by their mere charismatic look. This is shown through the description of Edward Rochester as he first meets Jane and begins his moral capture of Jane. "He had a dark face, with stern features and a heavy brow; his eyes and gathered eyebrows looked ireful and thwarted, just now; he was past youth' but had not reached middle age; perhaps he might be thirty-five. I felt no fear of him and but little shyness." p.142 These words spoken by Jane clearly show that by a slight glance, without even knowing a person, a conclusion is made; Jane's decision here is that Rochester is her protection, her scapegoat out of her life of solitude. She also mentions how she doesn't fear him, allowing the audience to sense his commanding aura as if it were a protective wall giving this young shy lady the ability to comfort herself in this strange new acquaintance. Jane continues by saying, "Had he been a handsome, heroic-looking young gentleman, I should not have dared to stand thus questioning him against his will and offering my services unwillingly." p.142 This is an example of the theory that women choose to be with men that they feel will ensure them with protection and strong healthy children. Every woman has her vision of that prince charming that will ride in on his steed and woe her off her feet and give her that magical kiss to free her from all previous burdens that she may have had. Jane seems to take notice to Rochester's age but in change is intrigued by his masculinity, which she experienced in short at Lowood School with Mr. Brocklehurst. All it took was an accidental meeting between Jane and her employer to begin the cycle of love that would eventually overtake then empower a meek woman inexperienced in the art for which she has been a pawn of. Brontë uses the stylistic character element of speech to induce a thought that the words of some admirable people often influence others and sometimes can even be heard from them. Through the mentoring of Rochester and St. John does the reader see two different men, both in some way bringing them closer to Jane turning her into what they have both become. "Brontë's authorial strategy is to balance one kind of temptation with its obverse: if Rochester is all romantic passion, urging her to succumb to emotional excess, St. John Rivers is all Christian ambition, urging her to attempt a spiritual asceticism of which she knows herself incapable." Joyce Carol Oates Oates relates these men to their backgrounds and how they both tempt Jane with their own strategies of moral tactics. Because Jane was raised in a strict boarding school it becomes apparent why she can be attracted to St. John and his Christian-like ways, but her inexperience with love due to Lowood always causes her to be attracted to Rochester. Rochester ask Jane, "am I cruel in my love" p.365 This question provokes Jane to decide whether she truly knows love or not. A young woman from a boarding school having to resolve her love for this man causes a type of confusion in Jane and she is left with the mere thought that she must love this man. Rochester furthermore entangles Jane when he tells her, "Be not far from me, for trouble is near: there is none to help."p.377 Rochester gives her assurance that he is her protection and that she has somewhere to go when trouble rises. This is better for Rochester because he knows that this is the first and only secure place that she has known of and if trouble arises she will come to him for help as her guide and mentor. Men realize that they can input their vibes into young woman and often do this in order to either please their own lustful wants or fulfill their needs. Brontë uses the plot element of general events to show that as corrupters advance with those easily manipulated they change, not only themselves, but also those they try to manipulate. Jane initially meets Mr. Rochester as a governess to Adèle, but their conversations lead to mysterious times of revealing each others past so Rochester decided to dress as a fortune-teller. Fortune-tellers are seen as mysterious and able to unlock truths, which apparently Rochester attempts to do; find the truths about Jane's emotions, especially anything about him. When Rochester reveals his identity Jane realizes the traps she's fallen in and the entrapment that Rochester causes for his own wants to know about Jane. As Rochester remain handicapped before their marriage he ask Jane if she would marry a, "crippled man, twenty years older than [her], whom [she] will have to wait on." p.570 This particular event is Jane's deciding moment where she picks to stay with the man that she supposedly loves or to go out and adventure like the one she somewhat had love for in St. John. Jane chooses to stay with Rochester and start a beautiful life together as she had always planned to do. As she is married to Rochester Jane sends Adèle off to school in order to get rid of her French heritage. This is exactly what Jane didn't want to happen when Blanche Ingram was supposedly going to marry Rochester. The reader can find this her ultimate change from an innocent woman to the one manipulating others in place of her crippled husband. When Jane finally ends as a manipulator the reader sees that corruption can be passed and characters undergo changes due the actions of those around them. Brontë uses the plot element of a specific event to reveal that some people have dark past which cause them to seem mysterious and sometimes very intriguing, this is seen in the discussion between Jane and Rochester for the fir time in the house. Rochester begins his insightful conversation by telling Mrs. Fairfax that Jane is the reason for his sprained ankle. The reader immediately catches this as distaste for Jane and sees Rochester as a resentful man full of hatred. The men Jane had known in her life were all full of hate; from little John Reed to the schoolmaster, Mr. Brocklehurst. Rochester then brought up her former schoolmaster, asking about conditions at Lowood and what all she had the privilege to learn while attending. Rochester becomes more involved asking these type questions and allows Jane to find her security in him for he is her employer and must know her background if she wishes to teach his Adèle. The thought of Lowood has significance because of the low, which symbolizes her lowest point of existence and if she is able to just talk about it he will know where it is that haunts her most. They end with comments on Jane's artwork and how imaginative it is. This partially is due to her over-imaginative youth with books and troubling family. Rochester hit every point of the childhood Jane wanted to forget so that he would know a little about the new lady sleeping in his home. In order for someone to come accustomed to their surroundings they must make peace with their past; Rochester guides Jane into accepting her past. Brontë uses the plot element of digression to express that individual questioning and talking between two people can provoke one, such as Jane when she gets her fortune told, to express all their feelings and find themselves in the process. Rochester, imposing as a gypsy, begins by asking Jane about now she is feeling and why she's not nervous. This type of introduction gives Jane a sense of self-determination knowing that she feels fine and controls her own destiny no matter what the fortune-teller may say. This type of confidence is found through self-examination and allows its seekers the will to continue no matter what the outcome may be. Though Jane replied to the fortune-teller as being fine the fortune-teller told her "You are cold, because you are alone; no contact strikes the fire from you that is in you. You are sick, because the best of feelings, the highest and the sweetest given to man, keeps far away from you. You are silly, because, suffer as you may, you will not beckon it to approach, nor will you stir one step to meet it where it waits for you." p.248 Rochester notices her fault and clearly points them out to her. Allowing a person to hear their own faults causes them to examine whether or not these accusations are true or not. In Jane's case Rochester pinned out Jane's faults and he's doing his part to help her become more like him instead of being a shy, little, shrewd Quaker. The fortune-teller finally mentions Jane's love for Rochester, but unknown to Jane the fortune-teller is Edward Fairfax Rochester. Jane hints toward this love but has clearly been manipulated by Rochester into his entanglement of love, which Blanche was thought to be in the center of. The main point of Rochester's deception is to encourage Jane to except her love and express is to someone other than Rochester and to feel love for the first time if at all possible. As Brontë's novel is read over through the generations, the theme that a person can be manipulated into love and often times has to find her own integrity is passed on. By using many different elements of plot and characters she creates a novel forever found to be part of American Literature and English History.   

Jane Eyre, a novel about an English woman's struggles told through the writing of Charlotte Brontë, has filled its audience with thoughts of hope, love, and deception for many years. These thoughts surround people, not just women, everyday, as if an endless cycle from birth to death. As men and...

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Junger mentions in the foreword that...Junger mentions in the foreword that he wanted to write a fictional account of the last moments of the six crew members aboard the Andrea Gail and the events leading up to it. He uses secondary sources because very few primary sources exist, as the crew of the Andrea Gail are not alive. The purpose of using the secondary source information is to effectively make the last moments of the Andrea Gail crew seem more real to the reader who is reading it. Second source information is reliant on someone else's information or account on something. The sources of information that he has included are weather charts, radio contact/conversation, interviews, research, historical precedents, factual information, statistics, shipping logs, anecdotes and survival stories. Weather charts are a secondary source used by Junger to effectively show the highs and lows of pressure in the atmosphere. This allows the reader to follow on with the weather pattern progress throughout the text. On page 123 and 132 Junger has used weather charts to note the movement of Hurricane Grace, how strong the winds are and how much sea it is pulling. By using weather charts it makes the last moments of the Andrea Gail seem more real as it explain how powerful the winds are so the reader can imagine what it was like and compare what the Andrea Gail may have had to deal with. Junger also uses radio contact/conversation as a secondary source in this text. It is used for various reasons such as distress calls or check up's between ships. For example on page 119 there is a radio conversation between Linda Greenlaw and Billy Tyne. They check up on each other, talk about the storm and decide to talk later about supplies. Junger has effectively used radio contact/conversation as communication between boats and also so the reader can understand the events that lead the last days of the Andrea Gail. This makes the last moments of the crew members on the Andrea Gail seem real as it portrays how carefree they were and their normal routine on board since when Billy got off the phone to Linda he appointed Murphy with his position and he had dinner downstairs. On page 134 it shows the last communication Billy Tyne had, which was with Tommy Barrie. Tommy wanted to know how much fishing gear he should bring and what the conditions were. At that point Billy Tyne was 130 miles east of Sable Island, the wind was 'blowing between fifty to eighty and the seas are thirty feet'. Once again Junger has effectively used this radio contact/conversation for communication between boats and as understanding of events leading up to the last days of the Andrea Gail. This portrays the Andrea Gail's last moments, as it was their last communication they had and it is also evident that weather conditions were starting to get bad. Junger relies heavily on interviews as a main secondary source. He has used interviews from the crewmembers that did not go aboard the Andrea Gail, other fishermen, friends and family of Andrea Gail's crew, coast guards and people who were in similar situations that he discusses. Interviews are very helpful because it gives accounts and point of views of actual event, ideas and particular people from individuals who know a lot about a certain things or certain people. Junger uses interviews from friends and family of the Andrea Gail's crewmembers to reveal the crewmembers personalities and the lives they had in Gloucester. On page 15, Charlie Reed who is the former captain of the Andrea Gail explains how the fishermen spend their last night on land, "most of them are single kids with no better thing to do than spend a lot of dough". This reveals the relationship between the fishermen and money. The fishermen receive exceeded amount of money on the sword ship and when they get back on land they spend it all at once, usually drinking alcohol, so that when they go back, they end up still being poor. Charlie Reeds also explains the type of routines and positions they had on board, which reveals what life was like for them on aboard the ship. For example, they have to check if there was anything that has to be repaired and 'then the engine has to be overhauled"¦there's the endless task of maintaining the deck gear"¦blocks have to be greased, ropes have to be spliced [and] chains and cables have to be replaced"¦' page 15. On page 9, Christina Cotter recalls her first moments at the Crow's Nest and the first time she met Bobby Shatford. On page 12-13, Christina Cotter explains a day when she had not seen Bobby Shatford for at least thirty days and she sees the Andrea Gail boarding in. She says 'I flew across the street and the door opens and it was Bobby "¦ he picked me up in the air and I had my legs wrapped around his waist and we must've been there twenty minutes like that"¦'page 13. This reveals how shy Bobby and Christina were at the bar the night they saw each other and how much they like drinking alcohol. It also reveals the love Christina and Bobby had for each other. This effectively gives the reader some insight into their lives before Bobby headed on to the Andrea Gail for the last time. This does not really create the last moments of the Andrea Gail but it gives the reader an understanding of what the crew's lives were like and who their loved ones were. Junger also uses interviews from people who have been in similar situations that he discusses to compare it to the Andrea Gail's experiences. For example, on page 97, Junger writes about a man from Gloucester called Chris and his experience when a wave took over his boat, Junger also explains what may have happened to the boat at that moment such as 'a tool could have gotten loose and knock out the machinery' page 98 or 'the wheelhouse window could have exploded' page 98. The effect this has is an understanding of the dangers and power the sea has, and also the impacts it could have on the ship. By using this kind of information Junger can speculate what may have happened on board the Andrea Gail, therefore creating its last moments. Junger has also used research on historical information, weather and scientific and technical information as secondary sources. On page 144-145 Junger explains what could happen to the Andrea Gail when it loses her antennas. If the Andrea Gail lost her antennas 'it would mean they'd lost their GPS, radio, weather fax and loran' page 145, it could also mean the lost of their radar, lights, and floodlights if a wave had ruined the antenna. This would mean that Billy Tyne would not be able to communicate. This gives the reader an understanding of what is on the boat and the functions of the antenna and some of its consequences if they lose it. This makes the last moments of the Andrea Gail crew seem more real as it obvious that without the antenna they are clearly alone and battling the harsh sea by themselves. Junger uses historical precedents as secondary sources to give the readers background information or uses it as examples of ideas that he had developed. On pages 25-30 he gives the reader background information on the history of fishing in Gloucester to give the reader an idea of how the technology has changed and what it was like throughout the years. Another example is on page 129 when Junger talks about how powerful hurricanes are and gives examples of events in history such as 'the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 [when] winds surpassed 200 miles an hour and people caught outside were sandblasted to death' and also 'in 1970, a hurricane drowned half a million people in what is now Bangladesh'. The effect of this is the acknowledgement of how powerful a hurricane really is. This does not necessarily create the last moments of the Andrea Gail but we know that we cannot underestimate a hurricane's power. Junger uses factual information and statistics as secondary sources to effectively give the reader knowledge about people, events or particular things. For example 'the crew is still suppose to show up at the dock every morning for work' page 15. Another example is 'Bugsy, Murphy and Billy have spent the most time at sea' page 138. Another example is on page 4, 'on the corner of Haskell Street is an elegant brick house built by the famous Boston architect, Charles Bulfinch' page 4. Examples of statistics is on page 14 when he writes about how much each crew member gets paid according to their positions, these were '"¦$20,000 to Captain Billy Tyne, $6,453 to Pierre and Murphy, $5,495 to Moran, and $4,537 each to Statford and Kosco'. Also on page 30 he says 'there were 1,800 hooks to a dory, ten dories to a schooner, and several hundred ships in the fleet'. Though factual and statistical information this does not create the last moments of the Andrea Gail, it does effectively add to the reader's knowledge and gives understanding about people, events and things. Junger includes shipping logs as a secondary source of information for the reader to follow a ships progress with the weather conditions. For example on page 145, Junger uses a shipping log of the Contship Holland that got hit by the hurricane and suffered a lot of damage. This does not necessary make the last moments of the Andrea Gail seem more real but the reader can compare Contship Holland's experience as being less severe than the Andrea Gail's experience because the Contship Holland was stronger and twice the size of the Andrea Gail and suffered an exceeded amount of damage, so the reader can assume the Andrea Gail's experience would have been worst. Junger has also used anecdotes as a secondary source by using interviews of certain people about particular events that are relevant to the events leading up to the last moments of the Andrea Gail. For example on page 273, Debra who is Murph's ex-wife explains that she had a dream about Murph apologising that he would not be able to make it for her birthday and when she wakes up the next morning she hears about the news that the Andrea Gail has not been heard from for a few days. She tells Murph's parents and they are shocked. She also explains how Murph's absences has affected their son Dale Jnr as he has a hard time acknowledging the fact that his father is gone as at one time he wakes up from a dream screaming that he saw his father and that he told him what had happened on the ship the night it went down. He also has days when he feels very depressed and thinks of his father. This is relevant as it gives the reader the aftershock and the affect the friends and family of the Andrea Gail crew felt when they had to accept that they were gone. The last moments of the Andrea Gail are not really portrayed but they represent the impact of their deaths on the family and friends of the Andrea Gail's crew. Though this anecdote may give hints of what happened to them for example in Dale Jnr's dream we do not know for sure what exactly happened to them that night. Junger also uses survival stories as a type of anecdote in the text of those who were in similar situations and survived. This gives the reader an understanding of what it would be like in certain circumstance. For example, Junger uses a drowning account on pages 182-184. This accounts talks about a doctor called James Lowson who survived when a typhoon hit their steamship. James Lowson explains about his thoughts and feelings as he was nearly close to drowning and being unconscious. He believes that larynogospasm is what 'prevented water from entering his lungs when he was unconscious' page 184. This effectively gives the reader is an idea of what it may be like to drown and what you may think or how you may react. This account can be compared to the last moments of the Andrea Gail because it is presumed the ship sunk and that they drowned because they are not present in the living world anymore. Junger's last secondary source of information is references from literary books such as Moby Dick and the Bible. For example, on page 68 he describes the dawn at sea by using the book of Genesis: 'the earth was without form and darkness was upon the face of the deep'. This effectively gives the reader an image of what it would be like for a fisherman with the sea surrounding him as he watches the sunrise. This would create the last moments of the crew on the Andrea Gail as fishermen work from the early hours of the morning to late at night, so they would have the opportunity to see the dawn. In conclusion Junger's use of secondary sources have helped enhanced the closest account of what may happened to the Andrea Gail when it was hit by the three weather systems. By including the secondary sources, Junger has effectively made the last moments seem more real   

Junger mentions in the foreword that he wanted to write a fictional account of the last moments of the six crew members aboard the Andrea Gail and the events leading up to it. He uses secondary sources because very few primary sources exist, as the crew of the Andrea Gail...

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The World of Laws, Crime... The World of Laws, Crime and Punishment in Great Expectations Great Expectations criticises the Victorian judicial and penal system. Through the novel, Charles Dickens displays his point of view of criminality and punishment. This is shown in his portraits of all pieces of such system: the lawyer, the clerk, the judge, the prison authorities and the convicts. In treating the theme of the Victorian system of punishment, Dickens shows his position against prisons, transportation and death penalty. The main character, a little child who has expectations of becoming a gentleman to be of the same social position of the girls he loves, passes from having no interest on criminality and its penalties to be very concerned on the issue. By means of other characters, for instance Mrs. Joe Gargery, Dickens tries to define the people's common view about convicts, transportation and capital punishment. In portraying the character of the convict, Dickens sets out the case in hand of two people sentenced to transportation for forgery of banknotes and analyses their psychology. By reading the novel, the reader becomes aware of the Victorian unfair justice regarding poor and illiterate people, but advantageous towards the rich and educated middle-class. The prison system in England may have had a significant effect on the life and writing of Charles Dickens due to his father's imprisonment in Marshalsea Debtors' Prison as a consequence of his debts. These kinds of prisons came to be workhouses for people who had lost all their belongings. In case debtors had family, it must accompany them in prison. This painful experience may have kept way in his mind for the rest of his life. His involvement with the legal world came when he was employed as a clerk at a lawyer's office. His later interest in penology made him read many works related to this subject. For this reason, he incorporated both the treatment of convicts and capital punishment in many novels. Great Expectations is a harsh criticism on the British legal and penal System as well as on Victorian society, achieved after exploring his characters' behaviour, since the laws were only unfair for those on the bottom rung of the social ladder. London was one of the greatest cities in the world in the 19th C. At this time huge amounts of money were invested in industry and buildings as trade with other countries increased. On the other side of the business world, made rich by the cheap labour of the exploited working class, there was a world of poverty, theft and criminality, increased by the Industrial Revolution. In this acquisitive society, the only important thing was to make fortune, so people were much terrified of losing it. Because of this, any sort of theft was regarded as a serious crime and laws were made to show people that this offence was harshly punished. At the time when Great Expectations is set, the 1810-20s, there were a great number of offenders, most of whom were convicted of theft. Theft was considered a felony like homicide and was punishable with death. Jails were dark, overcrowded and filthy. All kinds of prisoners were kept together with no separation of men and women, the young and the old, or the sane and the insane. The poor conditions of the Victorian prisons are described in detail by Dickens in Great Expectations. In the 2nd volume of the novel, Pip comes across "a grim stone building" 163: Newgate Prison. Looking with horror, Pip offers us a portrait of the inside of the prison and criticism on capital punishment: "As I declined the proposal on the plea of an appointment, he was so good as to take me into a yard and show me where the gallows was kept, and also where people were publicly whipped, and then he showed me the Debtors' door, out of which culprits came to be hanged: heightening the interest of that dreadful portal by giving me to understand that ''four on 'em'' would come out at the door the day after tomorrow at eight in the morning to be killed in a row. This was horrible, and gave me a sickening idea of London" 164 At this time the reformation of the British Prison System took place and a new alternative for punishment was found in transportation. Regarding the colonialist question, the Victorians believed that the easiest and cheapest way of eliminating the criminal element from the British society was sending them as far as they could and never allowing them to return under threat of having them executed. Many prisoners were convicted because of little thefts such as stealing pocket-handkerchiefs, watches, and jewellery, and the forgery of banknotes. All these little offences, considered as serious crimes, represented a threat to the Victorian commerce. Dickens writes about transportation in the 1860s, when it ceased to be a system of punishment. Probably, Dickens wanted to show how unfair it was to eliminate criminality of the Victorian society by sentencing convicts to transportation as it were not a social problem. The hulks, the name that received the ships that transported convicts to the penal colony Australia, were used as floating prisons. In the novel, Dickens offers the reader a portrait of the convicts when being transported to the hulks: "At that time it was customary to carry Convicts down to the dockyards by stage-coach ... The two convicts were handcuffed together, and had irons on their legs-irons of a pattern that I knew well. They wore the dress that I likewise knew well. Their keeper had a brace of pistols, and carried a thick-knobbed bludgeon under his arm; but he was on terms of good understanding with them, and stood, with them beside him, looking on at the putting-to of horses, rather with an air as if the convicts were an interesting Exhibition not formally open at the moment"¦" 224 Before reaching Australia, convicts spent about eight months on the hulks doing a hard labour for ten hours a day. It was very difficult to survive the horrors of the hulks because not only they were overcrowded, but also there were contagious diseases and malnutrition. As 'Convicts to Australia' reports, "Convicts were housed below decks on the prison deck and often further confined behind bars. In many cases they were restrained in chains and were only allowed on deck for fresh air and exercise. Conditions were cramped and they slept on hammocks". Also the treatment of convicts on trips was inhuman: "Cruel masters, harsh discipline and scurvy, dysentery and typhoid resulted in a huge loss of life". Governed by rules based on survival instead of mutual aid among convicts, the life on the hulks was quite difficult. The cause was that the legal system mixed thieves with criminals. That is, people who committed little thefts because of their poor condition and people with mental diseases capable of committing crimes. For all these reasons, many convicts attempted to escape from the hulks, which makes an appearance in the opening chapters of Great Expectations as the Hulks are part of Pip's habitat. Pip and his family were eating when the guns were fired, which warned people about convicts' escape from the hulks. Once the convicts entered Australia, they were assigned their labours: to work for the government or to work for a landowner. The common view of Victorian society was that convicts were brutal and senseless criminals as, at the beginning of the novel, Mrs. Joe Gargery explains Pip "People are put in the Hulks because they murder, and because they rob, and forge, and do all sorts of bad" 14. Common people showed their solidarity with the forces of law when helping the soldiers to find the escaped convicts as happens in the first chapters. As showed in the last part of the novel, people liked witnessing trials and executions and enjoyed themselves seeing the condemned suffering. This was like a show, which reminds us of the Roman spectacle in the theatre with gladiators and Christians and lions. Charles Dickens not only analyses the criminal psychology, but also that of the little pieces that compound both legal and penal system. In the novel, Mr. Jaggers is the representative figure of the lawyer of the time. His office is located in Little Britain, the street where lawyers had their offices, near the Old Bailey criminal courts and Newgate prison. That is, the Old Town of London: the world of criminality. Dickens describes the interior of the lawyers' offices through Pip the first moment he enters Mr. Jaggers' office: "To Pip's eyes the rooms seem filled with shabby people "¦.These are sinister misfits whose appearances suggest death and degradation and dirt rather than the predictability and neatness we associate with lawyers today. There is an atmosphere of corruption or at least the possibility of it" Barnes. This sinister office also contains in its walls the busts of two clients who died in gallows. This description has contact with reality, as there was a room in Newgate prison where there were many busts of executed prisoners, in which stuck out the mark that the rope had made in their necks. "There were not so many papers about, as I should have expected to see; and there were some odd objects about, that I should not have expected to see-such as an old rusty pistol, a sword in a scabbard, several strange-looking boxes and packages, and two dreadful casts on a shelf, of faces peculiarly swollen, and twitchy about the nose" 162. The lawyer's office is also near Smithfield market, a cattle market where animals were slaughtered publicly. The comparison between Smithfield and Newgate is established when Pip is conducted inside the prison and imagines that convicts are going to be executed in the same way as animals are in Smithfield. Mr. Jaggers, the sinister lawyer, has a strong character in the exercise of power. He provokes horror on Pip as Pip notices his unpleasant tone when arguing with his clerk, Mr. Wemmick, and the way he threats his clients. "The description of his office suggests that a large part of his work as a solicitor consists of manipulating evidence and he is always seen followed by a troop of supplicants whom he brushes off disdainfully, much as someone might try to get rid of a tiresome puppy "¦. He bullies them and gleefully profits from their problems" Barnes. The treatment of his housekeeper, Molly, is also another example of his character. Molly was time ago one of his clients, accused of murder. After having defended her and won the trial, she became his submissive housekeeper. Being exhibited as an animal, she was forced to show her disfigured and scarred wrists to the guests Pip, Dummle and Startop in a meal 212. Another example of Mr. Jaggers' power is the fact that his clients have never dared steal in his house despite never locking the door and having objects of great value because they fear him. Furthermore, there is also another passage in which Pip accompanies Mr. Jaggers to the Police Court to examine a client. Here readers can see the fear the clients have of Mr. Jaggers when saying something that he didn't approve 200. Regarding Mr. Jaggers' private life, the world of law is his only life because he has not disconnected the private life from the work. Thus his life is only focused on the office, which is contrasted with his clerk's life. Mr. Wemmick separates radically his personal life in the castle and his office life. The separation of the two lives almost makes him like two people who behave differently in the two spaces. As Anne Barnes observes, "Wemmick and other office clerks were more likely to move just south of the river to places like Walworth, from where it was easy to commute daily into the City". "Wemmick himself, who in Walworth seems a model of upright living, sees nothing sinister about wearing pieces of jewellery which have been given to him as bribes by people who have now been executed for their crimes. The acquiring of portable property by dubious means is regarded as a normal part of legal life" Barnes. Contrary to him, Mr. Jaggers lived in a gloomy apartment, near to Little Britain, filled with books related to his profession. The Lord Chief of Justice the judge and the prison authorities are also treated in the novel. Not only are they presented as people who made business by charging the entry for the judicial spectacle, but also stealing clothes after executing prisoners: ""¦ the more so as the Lord Chief Justice's proprietor wore from his hat down to his boots and up again to his pocket-handkerchief inclusive mildewed clothes, which had evidently not belonged to him originally, and which, I took it into my head, he had bought cheap of the executioner" 164. Moreover, there was a law whereby the money of an emancipated convict who dared to return Great Britain was confiscated by the government. Dickens exemplifies this in the novel when Magwitch is caught in the river and all the money given to Pip is seized by the government. Apart from this, prison authorities made business just inviting people to enter there by some money, which is shown through Pip's eyes: "While I looked about me here, an exceedingly dirty and partially drunk minister of justice asked me if I would like to step in and hear the trial or so: informing me that he could give me a front place for half-a-crown, whence I should command a full view of the Lord Chief Justice in his wig and robes-mentioning that awful personage like waxwork, and presently offering him at the reduced price of eighteenpence" 164. Through the novel, Dickens tries to demonstrate that convicts were victims of the cruel laws that sentenced people to death or transportation, just only for being poor. By doing this, he explores the criminal psychology to difference the good-hearted criminal punished for his/her social status and that greedy criminal who uses people to get profit. As Leavis and Lewis point out, "Dickens is always asking questions such as 'Why do people in similar circumstances and under the same pressure behave differently?' ". Abel Magwitch is one of the two criminals portrayed in the novel who represents the honest man punished for his social status. He was a vagrant who survived due to little theft. He spent all his youth "in jail and out of jail" 342 and all his adulthood in Australia. He was imprisoned for putting forged banknotes into circulation, a common activity that increased during the first half of the 19th C. He received a harder sentence because of his harsh manners when defending himself and his wretch appearance, but mostly for his antecedents 346. Then, he was punished with transportation and was sent to New South Wales, Australia. There, he was assigned to a private landowner and worked as a shepherd until his master's death also an emancipated convict, when he was left all his money and emancipated himself. As an honest man he earned the money by working several years instead of stealing it. Australia meant a new life for the convicted poor because it was rich in primary resources and there were lots of opportunities to get rich. Magwitch understands that despite being wealthy, he will never ascend the social ladder in a heartless society that rejects convicted and ex-convicted people. Magwitch once heard a colonist saying: "He was a convict, a few year ago, and is an ignorant common fellow now, for he's lucky" 317. So He became a benefactor of the little child who helped him on the marshes of Kent and decided to make him a gentleman as a symbol of gratitude towards Pip. When he returned England to see the boy he helped, he was sentenced to death, without pardon. As Leavis and Lewis claim, "Charles Dickens was very sensitive to the physical and psychological effects that punishment had on the individuals" . The psychological effect that transportation left in Magwitch is the fact that he sleeps with a pistol on the pillow 320. Another theme in this novel regarding Magwitch is the idea of fatherhood. He was not allowed to take care of his daughter, Estella, and he was said that she was dead. So the protection for his daughter and his feelings of parenthood are shown in his relationship towards Pip considering himself as Pip's second father. However, Pip, being a respectable gentleman, feels repugnance towards the convict. His snobbish attitude cannot support the idea of being a gentleman because of the gratitude of a convict. Compeyson is the other criminal portrayed by Dickens who represents meanness, greed and disloyalty. He was a gentleman as he was educated in a boarding school. He forged the banknotes so that his associate Magwitch could put them into circulation. He used Magwitch, like he used Miss. Havisham to get her money, to get profit of him in case they were caught. In the trial he got a lesser sentence due to his education and rich appearance, which Magwitch had not. Here Dickens demonstrates that laws were unfair for those on the bottom of the ladder, but not for the gentlemen. The theme of prisons as punishment is also treated in the novel. As I mentioned before, the first time Pip meets Newgate prison, he goes out of the tour round the prison with horror. This feeling is widened when Magwitch is sentenced to death and sent to this prison. Despite being ill, he is jailed in the common prison with sane and insane prisoners. There, some sick prisoners acted as nurses for the prisoners who were worse 453. It is said that Dickens Newgate prison not only is part of the history of England, but also a part of Dickens life. The experience Dickens obtained in his childhood and the visits he made to Newgate may have given him such information to write the novel with a realist tone. By means of the narration of Pip taking care of Magwitch in Newgate, Dickens express his attitude towards the conditions of the British prisons and his totally rejection of capital punishment when the condemned are waiting for the sentence of execution: "Penned in the dock "¦ were the two-and-thirty men and women; some defiant some stricken with terror, some sobbing and weeping, some covering their faces, some staring gloomily about "¦. They were all formally doomed, and some of them were supported out, and some of them sauntered out with a haggard look of bravery, and a few nodded to the gallery and others went out chewing the fragments of herb they had taken from the sweet herbs lying about" 451-452. It is when Pip learns to feel beyond the mask of respectability that he sees the unfair justice that condemns people with good-hearts: "For now, my repugnance to him had all melted away, and in the hunted wounded shackled creature who held my hand in his, I only saw a man who meant to be my benefactor, and who had left affectionately, gratefully, and generously, towards me with great constancy through a series of years" 441. As a conclusion, Charles Dickens criticises both sorts of punishment, the prison system and transportation as well as the unfairness carried for the judicial systems when creating laws little favourable for the poor. At the same time, he points out the Victorian hypocrisy of the rich and the lack of culture of the poor regarding the world of criminality.   

The World of Laws, Crime and Punishment in Great Expectations Great Expectations criticises the Victorian judicial and penal system. Through the novel, Charles Dickens displays his point of view of criminality and punishment. This is shown in his portraits of all pieces of such system: the lawyer, the clerk,...

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