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The play 'Macbeth' is a very tragic one. It is about the downfall of a hero who is led by temptation to mass murder and cruelty. Shakespeare uses various styles and techniques to display very evidently how Macbeth's character develops as the story progresses, and thus we see how Macbeth turns from good to evil, from a "valiant cousin" and "worthy gentleman" to a "bloody butcher." The first we hear of Macbeth is with praises to his name. He is called 'brave Macbeth', 'valiant cousin' and 'worthy gentleman,' fighting a war for God, king and county. We hear of further acts of bravery in the same episode as Macbeth and Banquo repelled another assault 'as sparrows eagles' and 'the hare the lion.' These two phrases are significant because they represent bravery and to remind us of the patterned order of the universe, nature and society in which every creature has it's appointed place. For all his gallantry, Macbeth is rewarded with the title 'thane of Cawdor' and well he deserves this decoration. The scene is very important as we get to see opinions of Macbeth from the other characters, and all the good words leave a deep impression of respect and admiration from the reader. It can be noted that already Shakespeare has an effect on the reader, and this is an important aspect in the tragedy. In the next scene we see the three witches upon a heath. They speak of their experiences, in particular how one wreaked havoc and devastation upon a boat in vengeance. This leaves the audience feeling quite horrified and gives one a sense of wariness as doom seems imminent. Now Macbeth and Banquo enter, and quite appropriately the former quotes 'so foul and fair a day I have not seen', although he has just won the battle he can sense a surrounding evil. They see the witches and are greeted by them: 'All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor!' 'All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!' Naturally Macbeth is startled by these prophecies, as he has no knowledge that he is going to be made Thane of Cawdor, much less that he will be king. Banquo sees this and questions it ' why do you start and seem to fear things that do sound so fair' he gets no answer but perhaps the prophecy scares Macbeth because deep down he does desire to become king. The next prediction is for Banquo: 'lesser than Macbeth, and greater' 'Not so happy, yet much happier.' 'Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none.' At this the witches disappear, and Macbeth is greeted by Angus and Ross who bestow him with his title. So one prophecy has come true, and Banquo tells Macbeth about the dangers of 'this supernatural soliciting' 'often to win us to our harm the instruments of darkness tell us truths, win us with honest trifles, to betray's in deepest consequence.' Some say that this is the beginning of Macbeth's downfall, as in his first soliloquy he has already thought of the idea of murdering his king. This small seed planted in his mind will soon sprout and he will indeed commit treason. Already the audience are losing their adoration for Macbeth as we see his mental frailty and evil intention. In the next scene we learn of the execution of the former Thane of Cawdor, who from being a person devoured by greed and corruption has died a true gentleman. Perhaps this is a parallel to Macbeth. We also learn of Malcolm being named Prince of Cumberland, heir to the throne. Here one can see an obvious conflict between Macbeth's ambitions and Malcolm. 'The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step which I must fall down, or else o'erleap, For my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires, Let not light see my deep and dark desires; The wink at the hand; yet let that be which the eye fears, when it is done, to see. The question at hand is what Macbeth should do, is he determined on evil intent or is divine intervention the answer? He contemplates this, and decides that it is not worthwhile to throw everything away for one guilty conscience, instead the solution is murder. The next paragraph is a direct contrast of Banquo and Macbeth; Shakespeare now reinforces the difference in character. Duncan says:' True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant, and in his commendations I am fed: It is a banquet to me. Let's after him, Whose care is gone to bid us welcome. It is a peerless kinsman. To Lady Macbeth, her husband is brave, loving, ambitious yet weak. After reading the letter, she already has a plan brewing. However, she fears Macbeth's nature. 'yet I do fear thy nature, it is too full o'th'milk of human kindness', 'Thou wouldst be great, Art not without ambition, but without the illness should attend it', 'What thou wouldst highly, that wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play false, And yet wouldst wrongly win.' Macbeth enters the scene tells her that Duncan is coming. She then tells him that his face 'is a book where men may read strange matters', and advises him to 'look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under't.' The planning of the murder of Duncan is one of the most important sections of this tragedy. Here we see a conflict in Macbeth's character, one side wants him to commit the murder, while the other wants to let fate take its course. In a way it is due to his wife that Macbeth is finally persuaded into committing treason. This shows one of the flaws in his character, which Shakespeare exposes. Although the reader is now at the point of hating Macbeth, one feels a certain sympathy for him. A while after Macbeth has certain misgivings about the affair. In his mind he argues out the advantages and disadvantages. The good side of him says that 'he's here in double trust' 'I am his kinsman and subject', 'as his host who should against his murderers shut the door, not bear the knife myself.' The more cunning party says that ' his virtues will plead like angels trumpet-tongued against the deep-damnation of his taking off', 'but only vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself and falls on the other','twere well it were done quickly', could trammel up the consequence and catch', 'but this blow might be and the end all here', 'bloody instructions, which being taught, return to plague th' inventor.' All these things are very typical of his character, not very sure of himself, and cowardly. However, we see at least some rationality in him as he tells his wife 'we will proceed no further in this business, he hath honoured me of late, and I have bought golden opinions from all sorts of people, which would be worn now in their newest gloss, not cast aside so soon.' Yet he cannot maintain this spark of morality as, under the influence of his wife he commits treachery. After the murder Macbeth experienced remorse, guilt and regret", I am afraid to think what I have done.". He is troubled by his conscience, he realizes that he is cut off from heaven. He is in fact so hampered in his actions by the conflict between his knowledge that he has committed the crime and his abhorrence of it, that he becomes immobile. After the murder, when the two realize that Macbeth has brought the daggers from the murder chamber, Macbeth cannot return, even though returning means the difference between discovery and success. When Lady Macbeth has returned from placing the daggers near Duncan"s attendants and hears the knocking at the gate, she almost has to push Macbeth into their bedroom so that they will look as though they have just been awakened. He also hears voices telling him that he has murdered sleep 'Glamis has murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor shall sleep no more." This is ironic because it may mean that he has killed his own ability to be in peace. Macbeth's evil is so great that he cannot even say amen to his prayer ",I could not say amen." By now he realizes he is too deep into his acts of violence to turn back. Although the efforts of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to attain the crown are successful Macbeth"s awareness that he has given up his eternal soul makes his especially sensitive to his desire to make his kingship secure. Also contributing to his sensitivity is the fear that his crime may be discovered. Nothing must stop him from living securely: "But let the frame of things disjoint,both the worlds suffer, / Ere we will eat our meal in fear, and sleep / In the affliction of these terrible dreams, / That shake us nightly." The two motives make him first turn on Banquo and Fleance, Banquo"s son, as the cause of his anxiety. Another important factor was the witches prophecies at which Banquo was present. That fact may make him especially able to discover Macbeth"s crime. Also the Witches had predicted that Banquo"s children rather than Macbeth"s children would be kings. Perhaps Macbeth projects onto Banquo his own turn of thought and presumes that Banquo will attempt to attain the crown just as Macbeth himself had done so. Macbeth says, " . . . to that dauntless temper of his mind, / He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valor / To act in safety." At any rate, even if Banquo himself does not make an attempt, Macbeth"s children will not succeed Macbeth and Banquo"s will. In that case Macbeth will have lost not only his soul but the fruit of his labor in this world as well. For a man does not work only for his immediate profit in this world but also for the benefit of his children, who will make his name live on in honor. Macbeth therefore decides to have Banquo and Fleance killed. The scene before we see the murder of Banquo, there is an important part where one sees both Lady Macbeth and Macbeth feeling depressed and insecure. Macbeth is tormented, he cannot sleep and in a way wants to be like Duncan, dead and in peace. "Better be dead"¦to gain out peace." Surprisingly even Lady Macbeth is repentant "nought's had, all's spent" Here she is reflecting to herself that they have gained nothing and lost everything. At the end of that scene we see a reversal of roles. Macbeth now is the malicious and cunning planner, while Lady Macbeth is a mere onlooker. Indeed she asks '" what's to be done?" It even reaches to the extent where Macbeth doesn't even tell his wife of his planned murder of Banquo, he has now taken charge and will have complete control from now on. Ironically Macbeth makes a statement similar to that of his wife a few scenes earlier "Make our faces vizards to our hearts," and also calls upon the spirits of evil "come seeling night"¦tear to pieces that great bond." finally completing the reversal of roles. By this time one see a clear, acute contrast between Banquo and Macbeth. Skillfully Shakespeare uses them carefully as a contrast against each other. In general terms Banquo represents the good while Macbeth the evil. Banquo is shown to be honorable, loyal, honest and true, whereas Macbeth is treacherous, ruthless, scheming and cruel. One can also see a deterioration in the relationship of Macbeth and his wife. For a start he does not have enough confidence to tell her his planned murder of Banquo. We see that they start playing different roles from that of the beginning as they slowly drift apart. The banquet scene is possibly one of the most important scene in the entire play.. It is here that Macbeth meets Banquo's ghost. Although the host makes repeated attempts to be a cheerful host, he fails as each time he sees the ghost. There is a lot of irony present here, for example in the beginning he says "were the graced person of our Banquo present" knowing full well that Banquo is dead, the irony in this is that Banquo does indeed attend the banquet but in the form of a ghost. The banquet is a state occasion, and it should have been a triumph for Macbeth- a display of his power and position as king. It should also have been a sign of order, unfortunately this was not to be. When confronted by Banquo he replies "I am in blood / Stepped so far," he says, "that, should I wade no more, / Returning were as tedious as go o"er." Macbeth says that he finds it too tiresome to repent. But to someone who understands the worth of repentance, the process of repentance, hard as it may be, is hardly too tiresome. What has happened is that in making his first decision for evil instead of good and in accustoming himself to the thoughts necessary to maintain the results of that decision, Macbeth has confused the values of good and evil. That is, he has confused fair and foul, which confusion has all along been the devil"s aim. Lady Macbeth once again tries her tactics of shame to intimidate her husband to remain calm ",are u a man?" But the ghost is a far more important element to Macbeth, and he ignores his wife. Seeing that she has had no effect she asks all the guests to leave at once to forestall questioning. When they leave the ghost seems to leave with them and Macbeth returns to his normal self. With it returns his cunning and he immediately remarks why Macduff didn't attend the banquet ",Macduff denies his person at our great bidding?" One also sees another of his ruthless characteristics. He has a spy in each house "in each house"¦I keep a servant fee'd" He will now return to "the weird sisters," the Witches, whom he now recognizes as evil, so that he may "know / By the worst means, the worst," He repeats his determination that nothing shall stop him in his quest for security. "For mine own good / All causes shall give way . . . ." And all "Strange things" that he thinks of will immediately be acted out. Macbeth has completely committed himself to evil. At the beginning of the play Macbeth had a good deal of stature. But his attempts at self-aggrandizement have reduced Macbeth to the size of a small man ineffectively flailing at a large world completely beyond his control. Really knowing this, Macbeth finds it "tedious" not only to repent but also to "go o"er," that is, to go on in his life. However, he is not yet ready to admit the implication of this remark, which tells us that Macbeth despairs of this life as well as of the next. And in fact he never does completely despair. No matter how much he comes to hate himself and life, his egotism also prevents him from ever simply surrendering his life. He therefore works harder and harder to maintain his security. Banquo, his first object of fear, is now dead. But Macbeth is now frightened of Macduff and attempts to kill him. When Macduff escapes, Macbeth capriciously murders Macduff"s family. Soon we hear that all of Scotland is frightened of Macbeth. The only way in which Macbeth can cause people to obey him is through fear, for that is the only motive for obedience that Macbeth can understand. Macbeth has therefore turned Scotland into a reflection of his own mind; he has turned Scotland into hell. By this point, Macbeth is hated by all his subjects. Indeed he is called a "tyrant," in addition people only follow him because they have to ",those he command move only in command"¦nothing in love." However he has some sympathizers who call him a "valiant fury," they know that he is feeling guilty and say so "his secret murders sticking on his hands." Macbeth is also isolated from the one person outside himself whom he has loved and for whom he has acted, his wife. She, too, had begun suffering the torments of a guilty conscience. Mainly because he loved her, he stopped telling her about his dire deeds so that she would not have them on her conscience. But she has felt responsibility for them as well as for those she actively helped to commit, and her conscience has increasingly paralyzed her mind. Macbeth, partially because he loved his wife and acting therefore more and more on his own, partially because her own conscience caused a mental breakdown, and finally because his wife dies, finds himself toward the end of the play in total isolation. Thus isolated at the end of the play, Macbeth"s final hope is the second set of prophecies of the Witches. They had told him that he would be harmed by no man born of woman and that he would not be defeated until Birnam Wood came to Dunsinane. Macbeth, thoroughly committed to evil and careless in his desperate search for assurance, believed them, although he should have realized from past experience that their promises of hope look good only on the surface. Now that he is isolated, the impossibility of his defeat, which the Witches" prophecies seemed to indicate, seems incredible. Yet Macbeth hopes on. But he only hopes; he barely believes. He is in a fever of anxious activity. He commands his servant to dress him in his armor; then he commands his servant to take it off. But one decision seems firm. He will stay in the castle of Dunsinane, which is easily defended against a siege, and starve his enemies into defeat. But this resolution holds only until he sees Birnam Wood. It seems, he says, as though the Witches were only fooling with him. His desperation grows, and feeling the imminence of defeat, he orders what remains of his army out into the field, for he wishes to die at least actively fighting. But he also says that he is beginning to wish himself dead. Such a wish is not surprising. For when Macbeth wished earlier to see the destruction of the world if he should not be secure, when he found life too tedious to continue, when he felt anxious with guilt and fear, implied always was a hatred for himself and for life. And now in his final, desperate straits he expresses the hatred overtly. And so Macbeth goes out into the field. Like a bear tied to a stake, he "must fight the course." He has one last hope, that his life "must not yield / To one of woman born." But finally he meets Macduff, who was "from his mother"s womb / Untimely ripped." On hearing this bit of information Macbeth does not wish to fight with Macduff. But when Macduff threatens to make him a public show, Macbeth fights. He would rather die than bend to Malcolm or "be baited with the rabble"s curse." Macbeth dies, then, not wholly to be scorned. His terrific egotism prevents him from bowing, as he should bow, before the rightful king, Malcolm. But it also prevents him from submitting to the indignity of being "baited with the rabble"s curse." Although that indignity would present him as the monster he has become, Macbeth still thinks of himself as a man, and as such would rather die than suffer the indignity. This feeling in him reminds us of the worthy Macbeth at the beginning of the play. We also see that he still has the courage to act on his convictions, desperate though that courage may be. And it is not merely an animal courage. For he knows now that he must die. He fights as a man. In conclusion, from the very start we have progressively come to abhor Macbeth, however, we cannot help but feel a certain admiration for him. But much more we have a sense of irony and waste: irony because some sterling qualities have been put to such evil use, waste because Macbeth was a potentially great man who was lost.
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The play 'Macbeth' is a very tragic one. It is about the downfall of a hero who is led by temptation to mass murder and cruelty. Shakespeare uses various styles and techniques to display very evidently how Macbeth's character develops as the story progresses, and thus we see how Macbeth turns from good to evil, from a "valiant cousin" and "worthy gentleman" to a "bloody butcher." The first we hear of Macbeth is with praises to his name. He is called 'brave Macbeth', 'valiant cousin' and 'worthy gentleman,' fighting a war for God, king and county. We hear of further...
We also see that he still has the courage to act on his convictions, desperate though that courage may be. And it is not merely an animal courage. For he knows now that he must die. He fights as a man.

In conclusion, from the very start we have progressively come to abhor Macbeth, however, we cannot help but feel a certain admiration for him. But much more we have a sense of irony and waste: irony because some sterling qualities have been put to such evil use, waste because Macbeth was a potentially great man who was lost.

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Everywhere you look there is prejudice,...Everywhere you look there is prejudice, you may be the wrong colour, worship the wrong God or wear the wrong thing. No-one fits into our idealistic world perfectly. This prejudice has been around for thousands of years because it is just human nature not to accept people for who they are. In Of Mice And Men there are several different levels of prejudice shown, all contributing to the failure of the American dream. The main types of prejudice shown in this novel are racial, sexual and social prejudice. This essay is firstly going to look at racial prejudice. There is much racial prejudice shown in Of Mice And Men towards Crooks the black crippled stable buck. Crooks is more permanent than the other ranch hands and has his own room off the stables with many more possessions than them. This room is made out to be a privilege and also because it means he is nearer to the horses but in fact it is really because the other ranch hands do not want him in the bunk house with them. As a result of this prejudice Crooks has become bitter and very lonely. When Lennie comes to pet the puppies, not even realising that Crooks' room is 'out of bounds', Crooks instantly becomes defensive and uncivil "I ain't wanted in the bunk room and you ain't wanted in my room" but Lennie in his childish innocence is completely without prejudice " Why aint you wanted" he asks. Crooks retaliates to this with: "Cause I'm black, they play cards in there but I can't play because I'm black. They say I stink. Well I tell you, all of you stink to me" This line showing that Crooks desperately wants to join in, be accepted, but because of his colour he can't and so he feels the only way he can make himself feel better is to cut himself off further, it is a vicious circle. When Crooks realises that Lennie means no harm he invites him to " Come on in and set a while" Lennie begins to talk about George and his dream, it makes Crooks reminisce to his childhood which he looks on as a kind of paradise. "The white kids come to play at our place, an' sometimes I went to play with them and some of them were pretty nice. My ol' man didn't like that. I never knew till long later why he didn't like that. But I know now". Crooks' didn't experience racism directly in his childhood, making his current situation even worse. Crooks is fascinated by the strength of the friendship of Lennie and George, especially how close they are. Crooks said, "Well, s"pose, jus" s"pose he don"t come back. What"ll you do then?" Crooks asks these questions because he does not have any friends, and wouldn't know how losing them unexpectedly would feel. He was curious and envious, about the friendship of Lennie and George, noticing that Lennie is retarded, he takes advantage of this situation to "torture" him mentally, to make him feel better and ease the pain of having other reject him "Crooks' face lighted with pleasure at his torture" he also does this to ease his jealousy towards the friendship Lennie has, but that he, Crooks, will probably never have. He wants the people to feel the way that he does, completely alone. Crooks goes on to talk about his loneliness " 'A guy needs somebody-to be near him' He whined:' A guy goes nuts if he ain't got nobody. Don't make no difference who the guy is, long's he's with you' he cried 'I tell ya a guy gets too lonely an' he gets sick'" Crooks is looking for sympathy, he is so incredibly lonely even to the point to saying that loneliness can make you ill. George continues to talk about his dream. Crooks, having been on the ranch for quite a while, has witnessed a lot of people with the same dream, he ridicules it "Nobody ever gets to heaven, and nobody never gets no land" but when Candy comes in and backs up what George has been saying he begins to believe in the dream "If you"¦guys want a hand to work for nothing-just his keep, why I'd come and lend a hand" Crooks sees the dream as his escape from what he is living in, somewhere like his childhood where his colour wouldn't be an issue. There are different levels of racial prejudice exhibited throughout the book. Most of the ranch hands don't like or socialise with Crooks but would not go out of their way to insult him. Curley's wife on the other hand is rude without excuse. " 'Listen, Nigger' , she said. 'You know what I can do to you if you open you trap'" She abuses her position and has no respect for him at all, she doesn't even refer to him by his name, looking down on him with utter contempt and disdain. It is attitudes like hers that have turned him into the bitter man he has become "Crooks had reduced himself to nothing. There was no personality, no ego-nothing to arouse either like or dislike" This essay is going to next look at sexual prejudice. Curley's wife is shown a lot of sexual prejudice over the course of the novel. Living on a ranch where the large majority of the inhabitants are male she is very lonely. George says "Ranch with a bunch of guys on it ain't no place for a girl" Perhaps to signify the fact she is insignificant, she is always referred to as 'Curley's wife', never given a name. She experiences sexual prejudice in that none of the ranch hands will talk to her. This is partly because she can make up things about those she dislikes who will subsequently get 'the can' and also because she is a 'looloo' with a very flirtatious nature. "She got the eye goin' all the time on everybody. I bet she even gives the stable buck they eye. I don't know what the hell she wants" says Whit. The ranch hands don't trust her or understand her. George says "Ranch with a bunch of guys on it ain't no place for a girl, specially like her" An old lover told her that she "coulda went with the shows, not jus one neither" He promised her that he would write "Soon's he got back to Hollywood" but he never did and so she married Curley. Because of this she's dissatisfied and feels she's been deprived by life. In fact she doesn't even like Curley "He ain't a nice fella". Because she has nothing to do but sit at home she goes out on the ranch under the pretence of looking for Curley. Some of the sexual prejudice she experiences is her fault, she scares the ranch hands with her femininity but she isn't really a tart, she just craves attention which she doesn't get from Curley. Ignored by both the ranch hands and Curley she has ended up very lonely, the one thing she most wanted to escape. This essay is next going to look at social prejudice. Most of the characters experience social prejudice at different levels throughout the course of the book. Candy, the old swamper is prejudiced against because of his age and his disability. Because of his hand he is unable to do a lot of the jobs that the other ranch hands do making him instantly an outsider. Also because he thinks that he is old he puts himself in a state of mind which handicaps him far more than his missing hand ever will. His life echoes that of his dog, he was once "the best damn sheep-dog I ever seen" but now is next to useless, Candy's life has gone somewhat the same way. Curley experiences social prejudice because he is the bosses son. The other workers are scared of him because of the position of power he holds over them. Because they can't accept him he has become horrible "This guy Curley sounds like a son-of-a-bitch to me, I don't like mean little guys". Curley is also very short, and therefore hates big men like Lennie. He is a very insecure man but hides these insecurities by acting as if he isn't scared by anything or anyone. He has cut himself off from people as much as they have cut themselves off from him. Lennie is a victim of social prejudice in the fact that, being retarded, he can't socially interact with the natural ease of George. He is left behind when the ranch hands go into town and he is left out of card games purely because he can't play. Because he like others experiences prejudice, and also because he is very easy to talk to in that they know he "won't go blabbing'", Crooks and Curley's wife feel they can talk to him. George and Lennie experience social prejudice in a sense that people can't accept the unusual relationship they have with each other. The novel is a microcosm, a cross-section of society at the time reflecting the kind of prejudice around at the time. At the time of the novel blacks in America had no rights, they were seen as nobodies. Because of this prejudice many of them, like Crooks "retired into the terrible protective dignity of the negro". Women also had very few rights. There are many different levels of prejudice exhibited in Of Mice And Men. Through these prejudices the characters such as Crooks and Curley's wife have become intensely lonely but they are in hopeless position which they can do nothing about. These prejudices can still be seen in the world today.   

Everywhere you look there is prejudice, you may be the wrong colour, worship the wrong God or wear the wrong thing. No-one fits into our idealistic world perfectly. This prejudice has been around for thousands of years because it is just human nature not to accept people for who they...

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At the start of the novel,...At the start of the novel, there has been an atomic explosion, and the children have been evacuated in an aircraft with a detachable passenger tube. The aircraft has been attacked and released the tube while flying over tropical seas. The tube has crash landed in the jungle of a tropical island, and the plane has flown off in flames. This is the point when the novel starts. There are four main characters in the book "“ Ralph, Piggy, Jack and Simon. Simon is part of the choir, which is led by Jack, but Ralph and Piggy are not members of the choir, and are in no way related. There are no adults "“ "There aren't any grown ups" P.43 Ralph has found a "conch" P.21, and has used it to call all the boys on the island together. This is where Jack is introduced into "Lord of the Flies" "Something dark was fumbling along" P.26. This refers to the choir walking along the beach in the distance. This use of language shows us that the choir is dark, evil, and sinister, and immediately Golding tells us that this group will not be a "good" force on the island. The choir are a militaristic group "“ "marching approximately"¦with a hambone frill" P.26. This shows us that their leader is in total control of the group. This leader is Jack "“ "The boy who controlled them"¦his cap badge was golden" P.26 This shows the authority and status that Jack has over the choir. When the choir reach the platform, Jack shows off "“ "swaying in the fierce light"¦his cloak flying" P.27. This is an attempt to impress the group, create a good impression, enough so he commands their respect as well as the choirs', enough so that he can eventually control them as well as the choir. Jack does not introduce himself to everyone; he first words to the group are "Where's the man with the trumpet?" P.27. He just gives out demands, and expects the group to answer him. This is what he is used to. Jack is a direct contrast with Ralph "“ "peered down at Ralph"¦the conch did not seem to satisfy him" P.27 This shows us that he believes no-one is as good a leader as him, and that the conch, which called the group together, is below him. This is "simple arrogance" P.29 on the part of Jack. He uses his cloak as a prop "“ "Inside the floating cloak he was tall, thin, and bony" P.27. He uses the cloak a sign of power to make him into something he's not, he uses it to gain authority. "His hair was red beneath the black cap" P.27. The colour of his hair shows signs of a fiery temper, and the colour of his cap reinforces his sinister side. Jacks main aim of the assemblies in the novel are to first become chief, and then control the group. He says on page twenty-nine with "simple arrogance", "I ought to be chief." Jack believes that no-one else has the right to control him, and he should be in control of everyone. During the assemblies, he rejects Piggy "“ "Shut up, Fatty" P.28. He has no respect for Piggy due to his appearance, even though Piggy could be a very useful asset to the group. He takes control of the assembly "“ "We've got to"¦" P.29. Jack does this because he wants to decide and be in control of what the group does. When the boys on the island say they want to vote on a chief, Jack "started to protest" P.30. This is because Jack knows that he is not in control of the boys on the island who are not in the choir, which is the majority, and therefore they will not vote for him. He also believes that he should be proclaimed the leader of the group without voting, because in his opinion, no-one has the right to be in control of him. This is because he is a natural leader, and has never been in a position without control. This is born out when Ralph is voted chief "“ "and the freckles"¦a blush of mortification" P.30. Jack is very embarrassed when he is, for the first time in his life, not in total control. Jack's personality makes him use violence to command respect "“ "Jack snatched from behind him a sizeable sheath-knife and clouted it into a trunk" P.32, "Jack slammed his knife into a trunk and looked round challengingly" P.43. At this stage, his violent side doesn't extend beyond this type of violence, but later in the novel, he can ruthlessly hunt to murder a human. Again on page fourty-three, Jack "broke in" when Ralph was talking, in an attempt to take control of the assembly. He wants the assembly to be focused on hunting, not rescue and shelters "“ "All the same you need an army "“ for hunting" P.43. When the rules are created by Ralph, Jack does not see that Ralph created them for keeping order. He sees the rules as an opportunity to carry out punishment. He is not a sadist, but by physically punishing people, he gains authority, and people fear him. This is what Jack wants from the assembly. Later in the book, as in chapter five, he has changed his identity to the extent that he is no longer governed by the rules set by Jack "“ "Bollocks to the rules!" P.114. This phrase can be cross-referenced to "We've got to have rules and obey them" P.55. In "Lord of the Flies," Jack and his "hunters" take on many roles on the island, mostly the physical, violent ones. On page fifty-one, he decides that his choir shall be hunters "“ Ralph: "What do you want them the choir to be?" "“ Jack: "Hunters." By making this change, Jack takes on the responsibility of finding food, and also a sort of protection from any wild animals. Jack also refers to himself, Ralph and Simon as being "explorers'" P.33. This shows Jacks adventurous side, and how he wants to be seen in the eyes of the group as a brave, fearless adventurer. When the matter of the beast arises, Jack says that he doesn't think there is a beast, "but if there is, we'd hunt it and kill it" P.48. Jacks takes on the responsibility of protecting the group from the beast here, and it also shows the bloodthirsty nature of Jack. Again, by taking on this role, Jack commands respect from the group. He also does this by saying "We'll be responsible for keeping the fire going" P.55. He does this to improve his status amongst the group, and also the get on the good side of Ralph, who sees the signal fire as the most important thing on the island. He wants to be seen as a responsible person as well as a brave person. There are many major comparisons which need to be made concerning Jack and most of the time Ralph. Most of the differences are about Rescue against Hunting. Jack sees the use of the fire as one of cooking meat "“ "the pig roasted" P.92, while Ralph sees the fire as a signal fire for rescue "“ "We must make smoke" P.49. Throughout the novel, Ralph sticks to the rules in hope of rescue "“ "We'll have rules" P.43, while on page 114, Jacks gives up on the rules "“ "Bollocks to the rules!" Ralph sees the rules as a form of law and order, while Jack sees the rules as an opportunity to carry out punishment "“ "Then when anyone breaks 'em---" P.44. Ralph wants to dismiss the rumour of the beast "“ "There isn't a beastie" P.47, while Jack wants to kill the beast "“ "we'd hunt it and kill it" P.48. Jack paints his face to help him hunt and make people fear him "“ "He smeared on the clay" P.79, while no-one else does until a later stage in the book. On page sixty-eight, Jack shouts "Got it!" Ralph immediately presumes that he is referring to a ship "“ "What? Where? Is it a ship?" P.68, but Jack is talking about a pig "“ "They'll lie up there the pigs" P.68. This clearly shows the difference in priorities between Jack and Ralph. Jacks wants to live naturally, under the guidance of natural time. This shows us he is quite happy to forget civilization and rescue. As an opposite, Piggy wants to make a sundial "“ "We could make a sundial" P.81. This shows Piggy wants to remain living under clock time, to show that he is still living in a civilized world, and that he wants to be rescued. The differences between Jack and the others are summed up on page seventy "“ "They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate." When Jack first hears about the beast, he sees it as a way to gain authority and status. He dismisses the existence of the "beastie," but "If there was a snake, we'd hunt it and kill it" P.48. This shows the determined and fearless image Jack has created for himself. After the fear of the beast has started to dismantle the civilized force inside the group, Jack looks for someone to blame "“ the littluns "“ "You littluns started all this"¦" P.103. He again repeats that there is no beast, but maybe at this stage of the novel, he is a little less sure than on page fourty-eight. Jack uses the fear in the group to make himself look good. After he repeats "I've been all over this island"¦there is no beast in the forest" P.104, the "whole assembly applauded him" P.104. Jack had used the beast to his advantage, to gain status. He still remains defiant, even after it has been claimed that the beast comes from the sea, that if there is a beast, "we'll hunt it down" P.114. As I have already pointed out, Jack is obsessed with hunting, and his preoccupation with it has increased ever since he was introduced into the novel. Everything he sees on the island he links with hunting. He sees the fire as a way to cook meat P.92, hunted by himself. When he hears about the beast, he says he will hunt it and kill P.48. The major changes in his identity occur, however, in chapters three and four. He has become animalistic, like a dog "“ "his nose only a few inches from the humid earth"¦dog-like...bolting...he became a furtive thing, ape-like." P.61-2. His physical characteristics have changed "“ "His hair, longer"¦peeling sunburn"¦he was naked" P.61. He has changed his image from a choirboy to a furtive hunter. He has become "primitive" P.62. His eyes give away his inner-self, a mad animal "“ "eyes that in this frustration seemed bolting and nearly mad." P.62. He is on the edge "“ "The madness came into his eyes"¦rage"¦compulsion" P.65. He has become a physical hunter - "swung"¦hurled"¦strength"¦hard"¦castanet"¦ seductive"¦maddening"¦rushed"¦snatched" P.63. Jack is totally taken with hunting, for when he tries to describe hunting o page sixty-seven, he is unable to describe the excitement he feels for it "“ "That's how you can feel," "He flushed suddenly" P.67. Jack has become so obsessed with hunting, that he has forgotten about being rescued "“ "Jack had to think for a moment before he could remember what rescue was." P.67. As he becomes more and more primitive, his grasp on civilization weakens, and eventually dies. By smearing his face "“ "He smeared on the clay" P.79, he covers up the old Jack, and replaces him with an "awesome stranger" P.80. The mask covers up Jacks face, and gives something for Jack to hide behind "“ "the mask"¦behind which Jack hid" P.80. This shows that Jack wants to give himself this awesome new identity in order to gain more control and power, and to start the formation of a tribe, which can hunt. When Jack eventually kills a pig on page eighty-six, he is terribly excited "“ "There were lashings of blood." P.86. He is happy to recite the horrific details, he is proud of the kill. This is a syntax, and we can cross reference it to page fourty-one, where Jack lets a pig escape because of the thought of "cutting into living flesh"¦the unbearable blood." P.41. When Jack is introduced into the novel, we recognize him as an organised natural leader with evil potential. Over the first five chapters of the book, this is born out in his transformation from a choirboy to a fearless, furtive hunter. His priority has changed from being rescued to hunting and killing pigs. He has become less and less civilized, until his appearance becomes one of a tribal nature.   

At the start of the novel, there has been an atomic explosion, and the children have been evacuated in an aircraft with a detachable passenger tube. The aircraft has been attacked and released the tube while flying over tropical seas. The tube has crash landed in the jungle of a...

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Robert Lee Frost born in San...Robert Lee Frost born in San Francisco, March 26, 1874 and died in Boston, January 29, 1963 was one of America"s leading 20th-century poets and a four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. Although his verse forms are traditional, he was a pioneer in the interplay of rhythm and meter and in the poetic use of the vocabulary and inflections of everyday speech. His poetry is thus both traditional and experimental. After Frost's father died in 1885, the family left California and settled in Massachusetts. From 1897 to 1899 he attended Harvard College as a special student, but left without a degree. Over the next ten years he wrote but rarely published poems, operated a farm in Derry, New Hampshire purchased for him by his grandfather, and supplemented his income by teaching. In 1912 he sold the farm and used the proceeds to take his family to England, where he could devote himself entirely to writing. His efforts to establish himself and his work were almost immediately successful. A Boy"s Will was accepted by a London publisher and brought out in 1913, followed a year later by North of Boston. In 1924 he received a Pulitzer Prize in poetry for New Hampshire 1923. He received it again for Collected Poems 1930, A Further Range 1936, and A Witness Tree 1942. Over the years he received an unprecedented number and range of literary, academic, and public honors. 1 The Road Not Taken Although I must admit that I am not a poetry fan, many of the poems of Robert Frost appeal to me, and this would have to be the one that appeals the most, in other words, it is my favorite poem. When I first read this poem, I liked it because of its free verse style which I like and its apparent simplicity, but, after much study, its true meaning became apparent. The obvious basic meaning is that the poem is about a person's choices in life. The narrator describes coming to a problem with the fork in the road. He must go down one but feels he will not be able to take back his decision. He looks to see the pros and cons of each choice, and then takes the one that he says the least had traveled. He leaves the outcome up to the reader and the sigh at the end can be taken as good or bad. This leaves the reader the choice of deciding whether it is better to conform with society or rebel like Frost did and take up a less stable trade. However, there are many places to which this main interpretation can branch out. First of all, it is likely that the narrator in the poem was actually Frost. This can be inferred because the narrator took the road "less traveled by". This can also be said of Frost using different diction. Frost had an opportunity to graduate from Harvard twice, but each time turned it down until he was granted an honorary degree after excelling as a poet. The "average" person would probably have just stuck through Harvard the first time around and graduate and then chosen a more stable career. Thus the similarities between Frost and the narrator of the poem can be seen. The fork symbolizes a hard choice in Frost"s life and he can take either the easy way out, or the hard way. Each path to him is the same and he is sad that he can only choose one path, but in the end he takes the one less traveled by or the harder one. Perhaps this poem is meant to be inspirational to young writers. Another viewpoint actually goes towards a more basic meaning. This would be that Frost actually chose one path and took it, whereas many people simply ponder for a long time and still are not quite sure. Frost exhibits the common human nature of wanting to take both paths at first ln13: "Oh I marked the first for another day", but later admits he "doubted if [he] should ever come back" ln15. Thus, the poem's significance is Frost made his decision and picked a road and continued on with his life. The act of taking the road may signify his uniqueness and show his difference; he is constantly moving forward with his life, hardly stopping. But even after all of this, there is one more hidden addition to this poem. Once, while traveling, a person Frost came to a fork in the road and could not decide which path to take. Finally he chose one of them due to the fact it seemed as though fewer people had walked the trail, although we can tell from the poem that there was no such difference ln9-10: the passing there had worn them really about the same. The reason for the deceptive appearance is likely due to the perception of various artisans painters, writers, poets, etc. that existed during that time Frost's grandfather first tried to convince him to stop writing and later worried about him all his life and ended up buying him a farm, which Robert Frost sold1. At that time many people had tried to go into that sector of the workforce, but they ended up being worse off than people who had traveled the better-known road and less influential "“ those who followed the other part left a better trail to follow. Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening If The Road Not Taken is my favorite poem, this would definitely be a close runner up. Frost uses good diction in giving it a very smooth transition from line to line due to its assonance and end rhyme. Although this poem has no direct metaphors or similes, the poem's format and very vivid detail still keeps the reader interested. There are also very few technical features inserted in the poem, the only special addition, other than the alliteration "dark and deep" like with most of his other poems is the heavy use of symbolism. Like the previous one, it appears to be very simple, but it has a hidden meaning. Someone who has not read much of Frost's work might think that there is no deep meaning, just that people should stop once in a while and spend time with nature, away from the hustle and bustle of cities, but this, although it is one of the minor points Frost is trying to get across to the reader, is not the main one. This could be considered a flaw, or just a marketing tool to get people to read his other poems. The topic of death in many of Frost's poems is fast becoming a major literary topic found in many books and all over the Internet. In this poem, it could be considered that the narrator is wishing for his own death. This is likely the reason the last line is repeated twice. It gives the effect of sighing. The narrator wants to rest but he cannot, and the horse and cart are symbolic of this. They are the ones who bring him back to reality: the horse is reminding him to come back "to ask if there is some mistake" "“ is telling the narrator to get back to reality and the cart is what he sill must do we know he has a cart because of the "harness bells". Also when he is near the woods, he is far away from the city, and the city is like a synonym for life "“ and one of the opposites of life is death. Another closely related example of symbolism is "Between the woods and the frozen lake". The woods are now a symbol of life "“ a change from the previous example "“ and the frozen lake, devoid of life, is a symbol of death. The final example of symbolism is an obvious one in which death is compared to sleep. Frost's "difference" The Road not Taken ln20 was always in him. This can be seen long before he starts his actual writing career. While he learned to read at a very late age of 14, he had already sold a poem at the age of 15. The road that Frost took was not only the "different" road and the right road for him, but also the only road that he could possibly have taken. The Road Not Taken and the often-studied Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening "exemplify Frost"s ability to join the pastoral and philosophical modes in lyrics of unforgettable beauty"1. Frost"s poetic and political conservatism caused him to lose favor with some literary critics, but his reputation as a major poet is secure. He unquestionably succeeded in realizing his life"s ambition: to write.   

Robert Lee Frost born in San Francisco, March 26, 1874 and died in Boston, January 29, 1963 was one of America"s leading 20th-century poets and a four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. Although his verse forms are traditional, he was a pioneer in the interplay of rhythm and meter and...

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