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The play 'Macbeth' is a very tragic one. It is about the downfall of a hero who is led by temptation to mass murder and cruelty. Shakespeare uses various styles and techniques to display very evidently how Macbeth's character develops as the story progresses, and thus we see how Macbeth turns from good to evil, from a "valiant cousin" and "worthy gentleman" to a "bloody butcher." The first we hear of Macbeth is with praises to his name. He is called 'brave Macbeth', 'valiant cousin' and 'worthy gentleman,' fighting a war for God, king and county. We hear of further acts of bravery in the same episode as Macbeth and Banquo repelled another assault 'as sparrows eagles' and 'the hare the lion.' These two phrases are significant because they represent bravery and to remind us of the patterned order of the universe, nature and society in which every creature has it's appointed place. For all his gallantry, Macbeth is rewarded with the title 'thane of Cawdor' and well he deserves this decoration. The scene is very important as we get to see opinions of Macbeth from the other characters, and all the good words leave a deep impression of respect and admiration from the reader. It can be noted that already Shakespeare has an effect on the reader, and this is an important aspect in the tragedy. In the next scene we see the three witches upon a heath. They speak of their experiences, in particular how one wreaked havoc and devastation upon a boat in vengeance. This leaves the audience feeling quite horrified and gives one a sense of wariness as doom seems imminent. Now Macbeth and Banquo enter, and quite appropriately the former quotes 'so foul and fair a day I have not seen', although he has just won the battle he can sense a surrounding evil. They see the witches and are greeted by them: 'All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor!' 'All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!' Naturally Macbeth is startled by these prophecies, as he has no knowledge that he is going to be made Thane of Cawdor, much less that he will be king. Banquo sees this and questions it ' why do you start and seem to fear things that do sound so fair' he gets no answer but perhaps the prophecy scares Macbeth because deep down he does desire to become king. The next prediction is for Banquo: 'lesser than Macbeth, and greater' 'Not so happy, yet much happier.' 'Thou shalt get kings, though thou be none.' At this the witches disappear, and Macbeth is greeted by Angus and Ross who bestow him with his title. So one prophecy has come true, and Banquo tells Macbeth about the dangers of 'this supernatural soliciting' 'often to win us to our harm the instruments of darkness tell us truths, win us with honest trifles, to betray's in deepest consequence.' Some say that this is the beginning of Macbeth's downfall, as in his first soliloquy he has already thought of the idea of murdering his king. This small seed planted in his mind will soon sprout and he will indeed commit treason. Already the audience are losing their adoration for Macbeth as we see his mental frailty and evil intention. In the next scene we learn of the execution of the former Thane of Cawdor, who from being a person devoured by greed and corruption has died a true gentleman. Perhaps this is a parallel to Macbeth. We also learn of Malcolm being named Prince of Cumberland, heir to the throne. Here one can see an obvious conflict between Macbeth's ambitions and Malcolm. 'The Prince of Cumberland! That is a step which I must fall down, or else o'erleap, For my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires, Let not light see my deep and dark desires; The wink at the hand; yet let that be which the eye fears, when it is done, to see. The question at hand is what Macbeth should do, is he determined on evil intent or is divine intervention the answer? He contemplates this, and decides that it is not worthwhile to throw everything away for one guilty conscience, instead the solution is murder. The next paragraph is a direct contrast of Banquo and Macbeth; Shakespeare now reinforces the difference in character. Duncan says:' True, worthy Banquo; he is full so valiant, and in his commendations I am fed: It is a banquet to me. Let's after him, Whose care is gone to bid us welcome. It is a peerless kinsman. To Lady Macbeth, her husband is brave, loving, ambitious yet weak. After reading the letter, she already has a plan brewing. However, she fears Macbeth's nature. 'yet I do fear thy nature, it is too full o'th'milk of human kindness', 'Thou wouldst be great, Art not without ambition, but without the illness should attend it', 'What thou wouldst highly, that wouldst thou holily; wouldst not play false, And yet wouldst wrongly win.' Macbeth enters the scene tells her that Duncan is coming. She then tells him that his face 'is a book where men may read strange matters', and advises him to 'look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent under't.' The planning of the murder of Duncan is one of the most important sections of this tragedy. Here we see a conflict in Macbeth's character, one side wants him to commit the murder, while the other wants to let fate take its course. In a way it is due to his wife that Macbeth is finally persuaded into committing treason. This shows one of the flaws in his character, which Shakespeare exposes. Although the reader is now at the point of hating Macbeth, one feels a certain sympathy for him. A while after Macbeth has certain misgivings about the affair. In his mind he argues out the advantages and disadvantages. The good side of him says that 'he's here in double trust' 'I am his kinsman and subject', 'as his host who should against his murderers shut the door, not bear the knife myself.' The more cunning party says that ' his virtues will plead like angels trumpet-tongued against the deep-damnation of his taking off', 'but only vaulting ambition, which o'erleaps itself and falls on the other','twere well it were done quickly', could trammel up the consequence and catch', 'but this blow might be and the end all here', 'bloody instructions, which being taught, return to plague th' inventor.' All these things are very typical of his character, not very sure of himself, and cowardly. However, we see at least some rationality in him as he tells his wife 'we will proceed no further in this business, he hath honoured me of late, and I have bought golden opinions from all sorts of people, which would be worn now in their newest gloss, not cast aside so soon.' Yet he cannot maintain this spark of morality as, under the influence of his wife he commits treachery. After the murder Macbeth experienced remorse, guilt and regret", I am afraid to think what I have done.". He is troubled by his conscience, he realizes that he is cut off from heaven. He is in fact so hampered in his actions by the conflict between his knowledge that he has committed the crime and his abhorrence of it, that he becomes immobile. After the murder, when the two realize that Macbeth has brought the daggers from the murder chamber, Macbeth cannot return, even though returning means the difference between discovery and success. When Lady Macbeth has returned from placing the daggers near Duncan"s attendants and hears the knocking at the gate, she almost has to push Macbeth into their bedroom so that they will look as though they have just been awakened. He also hears voices telling him that he has murdered sleep 'Glamis has murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor shall sleep no more." This is ironic because it may mean that he has killed his own ability to be in peace. Macbeth's evil is so great that he cannot even say amen to his prayer ",I could not say amen." By now he realizes he is too deep into his acts of violence to turn back. Although the efforts of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to attain the crown are successful Macbeth"s awareness that he has given up his eternal soul makes his especially sensitive to his desire to make his kingship secure. Also contributing to his sensitivity is the fear that his crime may be discovered. Nothing must stop him from living securely: "But let the frame of things disjoint,both the worlds suffer, / Ere we will eat our meal in fear, and sleep / In the affliction of these terrible dreams, / That shake us nightly." The two motives make him first turn on Banquo and Fleance, Banquo"s son, as the cause of his anxiety. Another important factor was the witches prophecies at which Banquo was present. That fact may make him especially able to discover Macbeth"s crime. Also the Witches had predicted that Banquo"s children rather than Macbeth"s children would be kings. Perhaps Macbeth projects onto Banquo his own turn of thought and presumes that Banquo will attempt to attain the crown just as Macbeth himself had done so. Macbeth says, " . . . to that dauntless temper of his mind, / He hath a wisdom that doth guide his valor / To act in safety." At any rate, even if Banquo himself does not make an attempt, Macbeth"s children will not succeed Macbeth and Banquo"s will. In that case Macbeth will have lost not only his soul but the fruit of his labor in this world as well. For a man does not work only for his immediate profit in this world but also for the benefit of his children, who will make his name live on in honor. Macbeth therefore decides to have Banquo and Fleance killed. The scene before we see the murder of Banquo, there is an important part where one sees both Lady Macbeth and Macbeth feeling depressed and insecure. Macbeth is tormented, he cannot sleep and in a way wants to be like Duncan, dead and in peace. "Better be dead"¦to gain out peace." Surprisingly even Lady Macbeth is repentant "nought's had, all's spent" Here she is reflecting to herself that they have gained nothing and lost everything. At the end of that scene we see a reversal of roles. Macbeth now is the malicious and cunning planner, while Lady Macbeth is a mere onlooker. Indeed she asks '" what's to be done?" It even reaches to the extent where Macbeth doesn't even tell his wife of his planned murder of Banquo, he has now taken charge and will have complete control from now on. Ironically Macbeth makes a statement similar to that of his wife a few scenes earlier "Make our faces vizards to our hearts," and also calls upon the spirits of evil "come seeling night"¦tear to pieces that great bond." finally completing the reversal of roles. By this time one see a clear, acute contrast between Banquo and Macbeth. Skillfully Shakespeare uses them carefully as a contrast against each other. In general terms Banquo represents the good while Macbeth the evil. Banquo is shown to be honorable, loyal, honest and true, whereas Macbeth is treacherous, ruthless, scheming and cruel. One can also see a deterioration in the relationship of Macbeth and his wife. For a start he does not have enough confidence to tell her his planned murder of Banquo. We see that they start playing different roles from that of the beginning as they slowly drift apart. The banquet scene is possibly one of the most important scene in the entire play.. It is here that Macbeth meets Banquo's ghost. Although the host makes repeated attempts to be a cheerful host, he fails as each time he sees the ghost. There is a lot of irony present here, for example in the beginning he says "were the graced person of our Banquo present" knowing full well that Banquo is dead, the irony in this is that Banquo does indeed attend the banquet but in the form of a ghost. The banquet is a state occasion, and it should have been a triumph for Macbeth- a display of his power and position as king. It should also have been a sign of order, unfortunately this was not to be. When confronted by Banquo he replies "I am in blood / Stepped so far," he says, "that, should I wade no more, / Returning were as tedious as go o"er." Macbeth says that he finds it too tiresome to repent. But to someone who understands the worth of repentance, the process of repentance, hard as it may be, is hardly too tiresome. What has happened is that in making his first decision for evil instead of good and in accustoming himself to the thoughts necessary to maintain the results of that decision, Macbeth has confused the values of good and evil. That is, he has confused fair and foul, which confusion has all along been the devil"s aim. Lady Macbeth once again tries her tactics of shame to intimidate her husband to remain calm ",are u a man?" But the ghost is a far more important element to Macbeth, and he ignores his wife. Seeing that she has had no effect she asks all the guests to leave at once to forestall questioning. When they leave the ghost seems to leave with them and Macbeth returns to his normal self. With it returns his cunning and he immediately remarks why Macduff didn't attend the banquet ",Macduff denies his person at our great bidding?" One also sees another of his ruthless characteristics. He has a spy in each house "in each house"¦I keep a servant fee'd" He will now return to "the weird sisters," the Witches, whom he now recognizes as evil, so that he may "know / By the worst means, the worst," He repeats his determination that nothing shall stop him in his quest for security. "For mine own good / All causes shall give way . . . ." And all "Strange things" that he thinks of will immediately be acted out. Macbeth has completely committed himself to evil. At the beginning of the play Macbeth had a good deal of stature. But his attempts at self-aggrandizement have reduced Macbeth to the size of a small man ineffectively flailing at a large world completely beyond his control. Really knowing this, Macbeth finds it "tedious" not only to repent but also to "go o"er," that is, to go on in his life. However, he is not yet ready to admit the implication of this remark, which tells us that Macbeth despairs of this life as well as of the next. And in fact he never does completely despair. No matter how much he comes to hate himself and life, his egotism also prevents him from ever simply surrendering his life. He therefore works harder and harder to maintain his security. Banquo, his first object of fear, is now dead. But Macbeth is now frightened of Macduff and attempts to kill him. When Macduff escapes, Macbeth capriciously murders Macduff"s family. Soon we hear that all of Scotland is frightened of Macbeth. The only way in which Macbeth can cause people to obey him is through fear, for that is the only motive for obedience that Macbeth can understand. Macbeth has therefore turned Scotland into a reflection of his own mind; he has turned Scotland into hell. By this point, Macbeth is hated by all his subjects. Indeed he is called a "tyrant," in addition people only follow him because they have to ",those he command move only in command"¦nothing in love." However he has some sympathizers who call him a "valiant fury," they know that he is feeling guilty and say so "his secret murders sticking on his hands." Macbeth is also isolated from the one person outside himself whom he has loved and for whom he has acted, his wife. She, too, had begun suffering the torments of a guilty conscience. Mainly because he loved her, he stopped telling her about his dire deeds so that she would not have them on her conscience. But she has felt responsibility for them as well as for those she actively helped to commit, and her conscience has increasingly paralyzed her mind. Macbeth, partially because he loved his wife and acting therefore more and more on his own, partially because her own conscience caused a mental breakdown, and finally because his wife dies, finds himself toward the end of the play in total isolation. Thus isolated at the end of the play, Macbeth"s final hope is the second set of prophecies of the Witches. They had told him that he would be harmed by no man born of woman and that he would not be defeated until Birnam Wood came to Dunsinane. Macbeth, thoroughly committed to evil and careless in his desperate search for assurance, believed them, although he should have realized from past experience that their promises of hope look good only on the surface. Now that he is isolated, the impossibility of his defeat, which the Witches" prophecies seemed to indicate, seems incredible. Yet Macbeth hopes on. But he only hopes; he barely believes. He is in a fever of anxious activity. He commands his servant to dress him in his armor; then he commands his servant to take it off. But one decision seems firm. He will stay in the castle of Dunsinane, which is easily defended against a siege, and starve his enemies into defeat. But this resolution holds only until he sees Birnam Wood. It seems, he says, as though the Witches were only fooling with him. His desperation grows, and feeling the imminence of defeat, he orders what remains of his army out into the field, for he wishes to die at least actively fighting. But he also says that he is beginning to wish himself dead. Such a wish is not surprising. For when Macbeth wished earlier to see the destruction of the world if he should not be secure, when he found life too tedious to continue, when he felt anxious with guilt and fear, implied always was a hatred for himself and for life. And now in his final, desperate straits he expresses the hatred overtly. And so Macbeth goes out into the field. Like a bear tied to a stake, he "must fight the course." He has one last hope, that his life "must not yield / To one of woman born." But finally he meets Macduff, who was "from his mother"s womb / Untimely ripped." On hearing this bit of information Macbeth does not wish to fight with Macduff. But when Macduff threatens to make him a public show, Macbeth fights. He would rather die than bend to Malcolm or "be baited with the rabble"s curse." Macbeth dies, then, not wholly to be scorned. His terrific egotism prevents him from bowing, as he should bow, before the rightful king, Malcolm. But it also prevents him from submitting to the indignity of being "baited with the rabble"s curse." Although that indignity would present him as the monster he has become, Macbeth still thinks of himself as a man, and as such would rather die than suffer the indignity. This feeling in him reminds us of the worthy Macbeth at the beginning of the play. We also see that he still has the courage to act on his convictions, desperate though that courage may be. And it is not merely an animal courage. For he knows now that he must die. He fights as a man. In conclusion, from the very start we have progressively come to abhor Macbeth, however, we cannot help but feel a certain admiration for him. But much more we have a sense of irony and waste: irony because some sterling qualities have been put to such evil use, waste because Macbeth was a potentially great man who was lost.
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The play 'Macbeth' is a very tragic one. It is about the downfall of a hero who is led by temptation to mass murder and cruelty. Shakespeare uses various styles and techniques to display very evidently how Macbeth's character develops as the story progresses, and thus we see how Macbeth turns from good to evil, from a "valiant cousin" and "worthy gentleman" to a "bloody butcher." The first we hear of Macbeth is with praises to his name. He is called 'brave Macbeth', 'valiant cousin' and 'worthy gentleman,' fighting a war for God, king and county. We hear of further...
We also see that he still has the courage to act on his convictions, desperate though that courage may be. And it is not merely an animal courage. For he knows now that he must die. He fights as a man.

In conclusion, from the very start we have progressively come to abhor Macbeth, however, we cannot help but feel a certain admiration for him. But much more we have a sense of irony and waste: irony because some sterling qualities have been put to such evil use, waste because Macbeth was a potentially great man who was lost.

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William Shakespeare's play Macbeth, written in...William Shakespeare's play Macbeth, written in the 1600's is a perfect example of Shakespeare's ability to manipulate his audience through creating a tragic hero. A tragic hero who, because of a flaw, tumbles from a well-respected hero to a cowardless murderer. It is through Shakespeare's manipulation of figurative language, dramatic conventions and social expectations of the seventeenth century, do the audience witness the demise of this mixed up man. Macbeth's persona of the tragic hero is enhanced even more when the characters around him influence his decisions, creating mayhem inside his mind and disorder throughout Scotland. Shakespeare positions his audience to respond to the central theme: the struggle between good and evil, by illustrating to the audience his weaknesses, which through the guidance of the supernatural, leads to murder and mayhem and eventually madness. It is this influence of the supernatural that leads to Macbeth's tragic persona and in turn his physical and mental destruction. Shakespeare utilises these techniques to embody in Macbeth characteristics indicative of that of a seventeenth century tragic hero. Aristotle described the Greek image of the tragic hero as one who takes: part in a fictional account of a set of events that is serious, complete and of a certain magnitude." The Poetics Macbeth conforms to the image of the tragic hero by possessing a flaw and dying because if it. His flaw of being led too easily is evident through the actions of characters who influence Macbeth. Macbeth is involved in a story intertwined with evil, disorder, conflict and failure; all resulting finally in his death. Part of being a tragic hero is possessing a flaw. A flaw which will inevitably lead to self-destruction; the fall of the tragic hero. In the play, the central protagonist Macbeth, is confronted with the supernatural and the prophesy of becoming king. He cannot help but want this position, as this flaw also includes his weakness through over ambition. It is generally said that those possessing a flaw will die. The first Thane of Cawdor was a traitor, Duncan was too trusting, Banquo did not act on the knowledge he had about Macbeth's murders, Lady Macbeth helped plot the murder of Duncan, and Macbeth destroyed the natural order and harmony of the time. All of these deaths are a result of Macbeth's over ambition to become king, fuelled by the prophecies of the evil witches. Like Macbeth, a tragic hero has choices, a conscience of right from wrong and in the end must die, because to live would create mayhem and a feeling that his actions were justified. Macbeth conforms to all of these traits and is aware from the beginning that his success is inspired by his own damnation. However, he does not care and it is this pride and over ambition caused by his interaction with evil, which creates his inevitable breakdown in the end. The real tragedy of the play is that the impending events never would have taken place if it were not for Macbeth's tragic flaw and the supernatural foretelling and disorder which came about when the societal norms of the seventeenth century were broken. Life in the seventeenth century influenced Shakespeare's writings as well as the audience response, due to societal myths. Values and attitudes were naturalised through the Elizabethan view of society: a hierarchal structure that demanded order and loyalty. Superstitions were prevalent throughout Elizabethan society and Shakespeare draws on the evil associated with this aspect, to play the essentially evil part of Macbeth; pushing him towards destruction. The fact that Macbeth possessed tragic hero qualities meant he had to die. This is due to his flaw, which urged him into sending innocent people to their deaths, creating chaos and deception in a society which could not handle it and which were not accustomed to such mortality. By sending Macbeth to his death, moral order was re-instated within society, making fully aware Shakespeare's stance on those who were not willing to conform. Part of creating a tragic hero is to generate a particular response in the audience. This response is known as catharsis "“ a feeling of emptiness followed directly by wholeness, as normality is placed back in society once more. This response is created when a tragic hero like Macbeth, sins due to his flaw, only realising too late of his wrongdoings. The audience feels for Macbeth because of this, already knowing his destined fate, although not being able to do anything about it. Those surrounding his decisions enhance the degree of reaction the audience has towards the tragic hero. The play Macbeth is about a tragic hero who, through not only supernatural encounters but also those around him, is driven to commit murders. One such influential character is that of Lady Macbeth; his manipulating, deceiving wife. It is because of Macbeth's flaw, does Lady Macbeth find controlling and manipulating Macbeth so easy. Her character has been created to oppose what is accepted in society. She wishes to lose her feminine qualities: "unsex me here" I.V.40 to obtain more power and in turn use her acquired strength and intelligence for evil gains. This gives her the power to control a lot of Macbeth's "deeds" II.II.33 and force him to continue when he begins to doubt himself and his actions. Lady Macbeth is portrayed as manipulative, and this is evident to the audience when she tells him to look and act pure, but be evil on the inside: Look like the innocent flower, but be the serpent underneath I.V.64-65. Macbeth draws comments like that one from those around him who he respects and admires, which can be extremely persuading because of his flaw. Through Lady Macbeth's death, the audience is encouraged to experience the psychological emptiness involved in committing murder and how she manipulated Macbeth to achieve his deadly desires. It was due to her, that Macbeth was driven to perform all those murders, however his realisation of his doings was encouraged by Banquo; his best friend whom he murdered for knowing too much. Shakespeare allows Banquo's death in Macbeth, because he is endorsing a value of truth and honesty. Banquo knew of Macbeth's murder of Duncan, but kept it quiet, possibly because he was Macbeth's best friend, or he was simply waiting for the right time to tell all. For his hesitation, he payed with his life. Banquo's manifestation in front of Macbeth's eyes in the banquet scene initiates the downfall of the tragic hero. The audience is aware that the illusion of Banquo's ghost is symbolic of Macbeth's instability and disorder within his mind and character and they absorb his need for stability. Due to Banquo's ghost - a vision of evil, we see Macbeth enter a downwards spiral of self-destruction and madness: can such things be?"¦you make me strange even to the disposition that I owe III.IV.111-114 which inevitably leads to his tragic death, due to his non-conformity to society's accepted values and attitudes. Banquo's ghost is seen as a manifestation of Macbeth's guilt for murdering his best friend, merely for knowing too much. The audience realises this and sympathy towards is Macbeth is formed. This is part of the tragic plot Shakespeare utilises to create a dramatic convention. Macbeth is a play created by Shakespeare, evolving around a tragic plot. The tragic plot of a once worthy and loyal soldier to the king, who encounters a supernatural evil and because of a flaw, is led slowly to his death. The form of evil prophesises Macbeth's kingly position and because of his over ambition, seeks to carry this prediction out before its due time. This brings upon him murders, deceit, and eventually his wife's and his own death; along with that of many innocent others. That is what makes Macbeth such a tragic story and is why Shakespeare has utilised this tragic plot. It acts as a foundation in which Macbeth starts his rise to a temporary power and then inevitably is his downfall. Shakespeare uses the theme of good versus evil to demonstrate to the audience that evil will never prevail; it can only create chaos. Macbeth does not accept this as true and 'sells his soul' to the unknown, thinking he will live a prosperous life as king of Scotland. However because he delved into the supernatural, the unknown, the dark side of human creation, he cannot live. This is the basis of his tragic hero persona. Shakespeare enhances it even more through his use of figurative language. The success of a tragic play relies on whether or not the playwright can produce a believable story through the use of figurative language. He enhances the attitude of the audience towards supernatural elements being evil. Shakespeare does this by drawing on metaphors and symbolism to represent feelings, or foreshadow an event. He first creates an atmosphere through which the tragic hero can develop in and it is through this atmosphere, that the audience relates the tragic hero to the evil doings. In Macbeth, the atmosphere is one of gloom and death. This is supported through the numerous mentionings of "blood" II.III.105 "“ a word associated with life and death. This creates and uncertain atmosphere and the audience become aware of it. Macbeth is forced to carry on through his indecisive period, which will result in bloodshed that he will have little control over. Perhaps the most significant metaphor of the play and Macbeth's tragic demise, is that of the manifestation of a dagger pointing towards Duncan's sleeping chamber. It foreshadows the looming murder, but also indicates the crazed state of mind Macbeth is currently in due to the supernatural soliciting: Is this a dagger which I see before me"¦a dagger of the mind, a false creation. II.I.33-38 The audience realises this and empathy towards Macbeth is imminent, however is soon ended when he ruthlessly murders Duncan. This is what makes Macbeth such a tragic hero; the feeling of sympathy one moment and hatred towards him the next. This can again be reinforced through the use of soliloquies and asides Macbeth exhibits. Asides and soliloquies are perhaps the most powerful form of expression and Shakespeare employs these techniques so the audience is able to grasp a better understanding of the state and mind of Macbeth. Through his indecisive times when he was faced with the choice between good and evil, all can be revealed in a single soliloquy; from his regretful feelings to foreshadowing events that are only apparent to the audience: for them the gracious Duncan have I murdered, put rancours in the in vessel of my peace only for them, mine eternal jewel given to the common enemy of man. III.I.65-68 This shows Macbeth's guilt for murdering the "gracious" Duncan and the rancour bitterness, which has invaded his conscience. He also indicates he has sold his "eternal jewel" soul to the "common enemy of man" which is none other than the devil. The audience is aware of his regrets, however cannot fully forgive him for his murder. In that way he conforms to the paradigm of a tragic hero, and through the fact that he had a choice concerning his actions. Seventeenth century society was one built on order and morality. Shakespeare's tragic play Macbeth enforces this cultural need and through dramatic conventions, is able to create the appropriate atmosphere for a tragic hero to thrive in. In this masterpiece, Shakespeare has created a character which embodies everything someone should not be. Through the struggle between good and evil, values and attitudes were developed. However it is through the tragic hero, that the real meaning of the play is derived. From a once noble and well-respected man, Macbeth delves into the evil side of human creation and through his over ambition is forced to commit sinful deeds. Those who delved into the supernatural, the 'evil', the darkness, did not conform to what was expected and accepted in society, so had no choice, but to meet their demise. However in the Christian society Macbeth lived in, he had a choice; a characteristic of a tragic hero. He chose to delve into the forbidded supernatural. He chose to mix with the unknown, while his fate was foreshadowed from the beginning. From his extensive verse to the acknowledgement of his wrongful acts, the audience was able to admire and stand in awe of that tragic hero. From conflict, chaos and death, came the reign of a new king. A king devoted to his people and all that is finally important in the restoration of the right order. After the death of Macbeth, a feeling that evil had been destroyed and goodness reinstated, was all that society needed to correct itself from the awe founding tragic demise of that tragic hero; Macbeth.   

William Shakespeare's play Macbeth, written in the 1600's is a perfect example of Shakespeare's ability to manipulate his audience through creating a tragic hero. A tragic hero who, because of a flaw, tumbles from a well-respected hero to a cowardless murderer. It is through Shakespeare's manipulation of figurative language, dramatic...

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Discuss the portrayal of love and...Discuss the portrayal of love and relationships in any three poems. The poems that I have selected to portray the idea of love and relationships all incorporate contrasting thoughts to show the many different aspects of love and relationships. The poet achieves this in the use of language, structure and the form, which is chosen to present the ideas. Elizabeth Barrett Browings' "Sonnets from the Portuguese" presents the idea of pure, unconditional and eternal love, whereas "Remember" by Christina Rossetti, conveys an alternate idea of bitterness that love and relationships can lead to. "My Last Duchess" by Robert Browning displays again a different side of love and relationships. The demonstration of obsession, possessiveness and materialistic views within the poem convey the different aspects of love and relationships. "Sonnets from the Portuguese" uses the traditional form of the Italian petrachan sonnet to present the theme of love and relationships discussed within the poem. The poet, to develop the argument of the different stages of love, uses this traditional form of sonnet. This allows for a change in tone or mood as the sonnet is broken down into two sections, the octave and the sestet, containing eight and six lines respectively. This was a traditional way to present the expression of love in the Victorian era. From the opening line, the poetic voice portrays the joy and delight felt by this kind of love and relationship. This is presented to the reader in the form of the rhetoric question, "How do I love thee?" The tone conveyed is one containing happiness showing this love to be as such. This sets the tone of the poem to portray love to be joyful. In the portrayal of love, the poetic voice conveys how it to be boundless as: I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight The language of this abstract image portrays love to be inconfinable. This is emphasized by "when feeling out of sight" as the image of the love is portrayed as being further that can actually be seen which accentuates the boundless image of love. The poetic voices' "soul" adds to the this image as a soul is not an object which can be contained within the body as it knows no bounds, and so the portrayal of love can be viewed as eternal. This image also depicts the magnitude of love as the language of "depth and breadth and height" shows how vast the love the poetic voice feels. The structure is a vital tool to the poet when portraying love and relationships in the poem. The poem itself is written in iambic pentameter and it is this structural point that enforces "depth" and "breadth" and "height" to be verbally stressed. This enforces the idea of the endless boundaries and the magnitude of love and relationships have within this poem. The accentuation of these words highlights them within the line making them key words and stand apart from it. This enforces the portrayal of love and relationships within the poem. Another structural point is the use enjambment; this can highlight many aspects of love and relationships, which are trying to be conveyed. The enjambments of: I love thee to the depth and breadth and height My soul can reach, when feeling out of sight For the ends of Being and ideal Grace. Adds to the portrayal of love knowing no limits at both enjambments. The lack of punctuation also serves a structural purpose. The lack of punctuation of " I love thee to the depth and breadth and height" reiterates the boundless image of love, as the punctuation cannot disrupt the line and so is elongated. Enjambment is also used to portray a different aspect of love being described within the poem. The enjambment of: I love thee to the level of every day's Most quiet need, by sun and candlelight. This works as an anti-climax. The enjambment builds the reader up to the anticipation of love being compared in great magnitude again, however the language contrasts this pre-conception as the love is now presented to the reader at a realistic level. This is can be seen, as love is shown to be also the "Most quiet need, by sun and candle-light." The portrayal of love is shown to be adaptable and how it can just contain the companions "Most quiet need." The poetic voice demonstrates the importance of companionship of the relationship here as well and how the love of the relationship is adaptable to each other's need "by sun and candle-light." The contrast between the boundless love described previously, to this image of day and night, "by sun and candle-light" also highlights the realistic level that the poem has been brought down to and so conveys a real image of love and relationships. The portrayal of the purity of love and relationships discussed is emphasized when the poetic voice describes how " I love thee purely, as they turn from Praise." This shows the purity, as men who have praised God are pure. By comparing love and relationships to this, the poetic voice presents the purity being portrayed in the love and relationships. The traditional Italian petrachan form is split into one octave and sestet. The following sestet shows a change in the tone of the portrayal of love and relationships. This type of sonnet is dependant on the rhyme scheme to highlight the structural point of a change in argument. The rhyme scheme of the octave shows a pattern of ABBCDDA, whereas the sestet follows a rhyme scheme of ABABAB. The octave described the present but this sonnet form allows the poet to show a different argument and so the sestet contains reference to the past and to the future. By including the past, present and future, the tone of love and the relationship can appear to the reader as everlasting and it is this, which can echo the magnitude of love. The portrayal of love and relationships in the sestet presents to the reader a comparison to poetic voices' past. The portrayal of how "I love thee with"¦ my childhood's faith" show how the innocence and purity of the relationship and love, but also the child like quality of unconditional trust that is evident. This trust is also accentuated by the religious themes, which have been woven into the poem such as " I love thee freely, as men turn from Praise" as religion is upheld, by trust and belief. The religious comparisons also convey love to be a religious experience, this is shown in the octave, as the poetic voice compares the relationship and love to "ideal Grace" which, conveys the idea to the reader of ultimate beauty or an ideal state of being. The love and relationship is conveyed by the hope and faith that the past has brought to the poet, which, has now been recapitulated. This can be shown by the comparison to how " I love thee"¦With my lost saints," This can illustrate the aspect of hope and faith in the relationship and love, as a Saint is a symbol of a restorer of hope. This may show that the poetic voice has had past relationships, learnt, and experienced from them in hope and faith and it is this quality, which the poetic voice can bring to the love and relationship The sestet also demonstrates how love and relationship portrays to be realistic. This is conveyed in the range of emotions that are used as the poetic voice states " I love thee with the breath, Smiles, tears, of all my life!" The punctuation elongates the line verbally as the commas cause a brief pause, this has the affect of slowing the pace of the line, which, accentuates the range emotions and may also portray how the poetic voice wishes to continue to feel these emotions throughout life. The exclamation mark shows how bold this statement really is and enforces how serious the love and the relationship is, however it may also illustrate the excitement and joy felt and reiterated by the poetic voice. The line also centers the relationship and love to be the pivotal point of the poetic voices' life in which, everything evolves around it. This presents to the audience the idea of love and the companion in the relationship to be eternal. This strong relationship, which has become evident throughout the poem is finally imposed as "if God choose, I shall but love thee better after death." This communicates how the strength of the love and relationship will allow it to be eternal and everlasting. "Sonnets from the Portuguese" demonstrates how love and relationships can be pure, eternal and unconditional. However, this is only one characteristic that love and relationship can have and show. " Remember" by Christina Rossetti contrasts the aspects of love and relationships portrayed in " Sonnets from the Portuguese". "Remember" demonstrates the bitterness of love and of the relationship in the Italian petrachan sonnet form. This sonnet form contains a range of intense emotion and, in selecting this sonnet form; these emotions are carefully contained, adding to the intensity. The irony within the poem can be presented to the reader, as this sonnet form is a traditional way of expressing love. However, the sonnet is expressing love to be bitter and so adds to the irony. This subtlety adds to the idea that often what is on the outside is not the same as reality. The portrayal of love and relationship in the first reading of this poem appears to be content. It is, however, only on the second reading of this poem that the illustration of this love and relationship to be bitter. This bitterness is conveyed to the reader in a number of ways. The idea of possessiveness in the relationship is presented to the reader on many occasions, "When you can no more hold me by the hand". This image depicts the love and relationship to be one-sided and it is this image, which is further compounded by the use of language such as "You tell me"¦. that you planned". The love and relationship is also depicted by the poetic voice in negative terms, which, can add to the idea of the bitterness. The use of strong negatives such as " Remember me when no more day by day" emphasizes the feeling of unpleasantness in the relationship. The repetition of "day by day" emphasizes the fact that this feeling was not just in once in while, but was always there within the love and the relationship. The enjambment of: Remember me when no more day by day You tell me of our future that you planned: Also can reiterate to the audience the length of the unhappiness and bitterness of the relationship. The repetition of the strong negative "no more" through out the poem can highlight how the companion in the relationship cannot behave towards the poetic voice in the way that was evident within the relationship. By describing the love and the relationship in negative terms, the portrayal of these themes to the reader can illustrate the aspect of the negativity and the unlikable side of love and relationship. The structure of the poem can also draw attention to the possessiveness and bitterness portrayed in the love and relationship. The poem is written in iambic pentameter and it is this, which shows the main ideas of the themes of this poem. In the monosyllabic line "You tell me of our future that you planned", due to iambic pentameter, when spoken verbally, "You" is stressed above the "our". This depicts and compounds how the love and relationship was one sided as the singular is stressed. Throughout the octave, there are several warnings, which are clear from the poetic voice. These warnings can demonstrate the bitterness felt by the speaker in the portrayal of the love and the relationship. The veiled warning of: Only remember me: you understand It will be late to counsel then or pray. This direct warning shows the unsatisfactory nature of the relationship felt by the poetic voice and again, the structure can play a vital role in portraying the themes, which the poetic voice wishes to convey. The enjambment of this line emphasizes the tone of unhappiness in the relationship as the poetic voice allows for no interruption and so is directing the control. This shows the unhappiness in the relationship as the struggle for control is present as opposed to the equality and joy in love and relationship portrayed in "Sonnets from the Portuguese". The poet can use structure to highlight themes from the poem in order to portray the love and relationships discussed within the poem. The rhyme scheme of the octave of ABBAABBA echoes the control that the poetic voice now has. The change in the rhyme scheme in the sestet shows the change in argument that the sonnet form allows. This sestet urges the companion to forget the relationship as: Yet if you forget me for a while And afterwards remember, do not grieve: The poetic voice here presents to the reader that the relationship had reached such an unhappy level that it was actually better to forget than to remember. However, it also serves as a subtle reminder to the companion about the pain in the relationship caused and, therefore, it causes too much pain to have any desire to remember. The poetic voice portrays to the audience what the relationship was actually like. The love and the relationship are described to be based around "darkness and corruption" and this bitterness is further enforced, as even if "a vestige of the thoughts" were left, then it would be: Better by far that you should forget and smile Than that you should remember and be sad. This presents to the audience how awful the love and relationship aspects were, that even if a trace of it were left, to forget everything would be better than to remember. These last two lines that end the poem add to the irony. The poet echoes how on the surface these two lines to be of a forgiving tone but by studying closer, it is evident that the poetic voice may actually be subtlety presenting to the audience and to the companion how the relationship and the love was so corrupt, unpleasant and unhappy that to forget is the only possible option. The portrayal of love and relationships within "Remember" demonstrates the differing aspects and tones, which can accompany such themes. The different expression of love and relationships portrayed shows how bitter love can be. It also highlights how different love and relationships can actually be in reality as opposed to fist view on the surface. "My Last Duchess" portrays another contrasting aspect of love and relationships using language, structure and form. This poem depicts the possession, obsession, jealousy, control and materialistic ideas that can occur within these themes. The form differs from the previous two poems as it is written in dramatic monologue; this is where one person is speaking aloud. The speaker of the monologue inadvertently reveals two sides to the story, which are depicted through the deformation of his own character. The first theme of love and relationship, which is portrayed in the poem, is the possession that can emerge. This is presented to the reader mainly through language and is highlighted on a number of occasions throughout the poem. The possessive noun used in "That's my last Duchess painted on the wall," not only shows how the relationship and love was possessed by the speaker but also how the Duchess is referred to as an object. This is highlighted as the "Duchess" has been "painted on the wall" demonstrating how the speaker now has total possession. The "Duchess" has also been placed at the same level as the speaker other object as "Notice Neptune, tho' Taming a sea-horse"¦cast in bronze for me." The further accentuates the fact that the speaker has total possession over his objects and also shows his lack of respect. This conveys o the reader the idea of possession within love and relationship as the Duchess is not her own person, but is owned. The portrayal of possession in love and relationships is further reiterated as it becomes evident that the event is actually premeditated. This can be portrayed to the reader as the speaker tells, "Will't please you sit and look at her? I said 'Frà Pandolf' by design" The speaker actually forces the servant of his future father in law to listen, making this a purposeful action, and so, therefore, further restates the possession being portrayed in the love and the relationship. The theme of jealousy is also portrayed in love and relationship within the poem. As the speaker tells his story, he deforms his own character and reveals the jealousy felt in the love and the relationship. This is demonstrated as he describes how "she smiled, no doubt, Whene'er I passed her: but whom passed without Much the same smile?" This shows how the speaker disliked being treated equally, and marks the jealousy of the relationship and love, as it is evident that to smile at anyone was unacceptable behavior. The portrayal of love and relationship to contain obsession can be presented to the audience in a number of ways. The fact that the speaker has total possession over the "Duchess" in the form of a painting demonstrates how obsessed he is, as he constantly says "Will't please you sit and look at her?" and forces people to sit and listen to his story. The obsession felt is further accentuated as "they seemed as they would ask me" The speaker has complete control and has allowed no one to interrupt, this suggests how the speaker has become completely obsessed and paranoid with the love and relationship, as it is evident, that he cannot stop thinking about the "Duchess". The control of the love and the relationship can be presented to the reader in this poem, demonstrating an alternate aspect of theses themes. This cannot only be presented through language, but also through structure. The structural point of rhyming couplets such as: For calling up that spot of joy. She had A heart"¦how shall I say?"¦too soon made glad Illustrates how the speaker has complete control over the speech, which he presents, as all the rhyme scheme of the speech is rhyming couplets. The punctuation of "This grew; I gave commands: Then all smiles stopped together." Presents to the reader the idea of control that he possess, as the short clauses, separated by the semi-colon demonstrate the power the speaker has over the speech as what he says is exact. This may however, also show how this attack or speech is pre mediated, adding further to the idea that the relationship and the love he had, had qualities of obsession and control. The full stop can also reveal the power and complete control, which the speaker has. The control that is present in the relationship and love is also highlighted by the use of language. It is evident that the speaker ahs compete control over the duchess as "The curtain I have drawn for you, but I". The speaker now has the ability to control who sees the Duchess, as before he describes her "looks went everywhere. Sir 'twas all one". The speaker is clearly trying to disgrace her character with, ironically, the opposite effect. As the speaker can control "The curtain", he can control the love and the relationship. The materialistic theme of love and relationships is also portrayed throughout the use of language and structure. This can be highlighted as "My gift of a nine hundred years old name With anybodies gift" shows the materialistic impression that can be conveyed, as the speaker believes his name to be an important factor of the relationship. This is presented to the audience through the tone of outrage within his voice that is conveyed, suggesting that his name has up most importance within the love and relationship and should, therefore be respected. This tone of outrage is presented to the audience through the structure of the line. The lack of punctuation of "My gift of a nine hundred years old name With anybodies gift" reveals the outburst as the lack of control that is conveyed through the lack of punctuation demonstrates his mood. The speech throughout has been controlled, and so this sudden lack of it can convey to the audience the outrage. The speaker also demonstrates how the materialistic aspect of love and relationship was not only a contributing factor to the marriage of the Duchess, but also will be present in the new marriage. This is presented to the reader as: Is ample warrant that no just pretence Of mine for dowry will be disallowed; Those his fair daughter's self"¦ Is my object. The speaker shows how he cares about the dowry over his new "object" as the placement of dowry is before his new wife. This can demonstrate the materialistic side of love and relationship. It also shows how the possessive characteristic of love and relationship is continued into the next marriage, as even now the daughter is described as "my the speakers object". This may show the self-perpetuating characteristic of love and relationship, as a foreseeable end is not presented. "My Last Duchess" presents to the reader the negative aspects of a relationship of love. The jealousy, possession, control and materialistic characteristics are conveyed and show how it can lead to conflict. To conclude, by presenting the differing aspects of love and relationships, a true image is revealed. Love and relationships alone are not always joyful, eternal and "ideal" but also can feature "darkness and corruption". To experience love, is to experience a range of emotion, from joy to pain, charitable to possession and "ideal Grace" to perhaps death. Love and relationships present an idea of a great life experience, one that we should all gain. As Alfred Lord Tennyson wrote, "It is better to have loved and lost Than never to have loved at all".   

Discuss the portrayal of love and relationships in any three poems. The poems that I have selected to portray the idea of love and relationships all incorporate contrasting thoughts to show the many different aspects of love and relationships. The poet achieves this in the use of language, structure and...

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