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Passing Essay
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In Nella Larsen"s novel, Passing, Irene Redfield and Clare Kendry can be considered as the protagonists. The novel concentrates on the issue of skin color and passing. Passing is when African-American"s with light skin pass as white in order to enjoy the privileges that white people enjoyed. Irene Redfield is a middle-class, light-skin African-American woman who regrets passing but occasionally passes as white. She is married to Brian a doctor who is too dark to pass. Irene"s life is going along as usual when she runs into a childhood friend, Clare Kendry. Clare Kendry is also a light-skin African-American woman...
to renew their friendship. Deep inside Irene is fascinated by Clare"s ability to pass, and Clare is her connection to the white world as she is Clare"s connection to the black world. Clare also brings doubt about her pride of being black to Irene. Irene"s indifference towards Clare in the beginning turns into appreciation almost obsession towards Clare. Irene learns to understand Clare and builds a friendship with her that she is unable to reveal Clare"s indetity to John. When Clare gets so involved in their lives Irene wishes that she could somehow leave and Clare passes away.

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Jane Eyre, a novel about an...Jane Eyre, a novel about an English woman's struggles told through the writing of Charlotte Brontë, has filled its audience with thoughts of hope, love, and deception for many years. These thoughts surround people, not just women, everyday, as if an endless cycle from birth to death. As men and women fall further into this spiral of life they begin to find their true beings along with the qualities of others. This spiral then turns into a web of conflicts as the passenger of life proceeds and often these conflicts are caused by those sought out to be guides through the journey of life but merely are spiders building a magnificent web to catch its prey. In Jane Eyre, Brontë uses the literary elements of plot and character to convey the theme that a person often falls in love with a manipulator because she has little experiences of other forms of love and as a result she has to establish her own integrity. Brontë uses the character element of opinions to show how some people often form conclusions about others and express them in their thoughts as either cruel or friendly. Since Brontë bases Jane Eyre as story told through a young lady the reader is allowed to experience her thoughts and reactions to those around her who make her very personality. As Jane is in her youth she develops these notions about her own family yelling at her cousin John saying, "You are like a murderer--you are like a slave-driver"”you are like the Roman Emperors." p. 8 Not only showing that Jane has the intellectual maturity much greater than that of a normal ten-year-old but also that she finds John cruel and sees him becoming a bad man when he grows up. Due to Mrs. Reed's lack of discipline John did grow as his cousin perceived causing his own demise and the relief of Jane for her cousin no longer could torment those lesser than himself. "Mr. Rochester continued blind for the first two years of our union: perhaps it was that circumstance that drew us so very near "“ that knit us so very close: for I was then his vision, as I am still his right hand. Literally, I was the apple of his eye." p.578 Jane expresses her grief over Rochester's injuries but emphasizes her constant love as everything that he has lost. Rochester appears completely opposite from the first time they met; he's helpless just as Jane was when they first met and it is her influence which provokes him to her. All of Jane's, along with the other characters, opinions cause changes in positions from being blind to walking for the blind, or from being led to doing the leading. Brontë uses the character element of appearance to show that corrupting people often influence others by their mere charismatic look. This is shown through the description of Edward Rochester as he first meets Jane and begins his moral capture of Jane. "He had a dark face, with stern features and a heavy brow; his eyes and gathered eyebrows looked ireful and thwarted, just now; he was past youth' but had not reached middle age; perhaps he might be thirty-five. I felt no fear of him and but little shyness." p.142 These words spoken by Jane clearly show that by a slight glance, without even knowing a person, a conclusion is made; Jane's decision here is that Rochester is her protection, her scapegoat out of her life of solitude. She also mentions how she doesn't fear him, allowing the audience to sense his commanding aura as if it were a protective wall giving this young shy lady the ability to comfort herself in this strange new acquaintance. Jane continues by saying, "Had he been a handsome, heroic-looking young gentleman, I should not have dared to stand thus questioning him against his will and offering my services unwillingly." p.142 This is an example of the theory that women choose to be with men that they feel will ensure them with protection and strong healthy children. Every woman has her vision of that prince charming that will ride in on his steed and woe her off her feet and give her that magical kiss to free her from all previous burdens that she may have had. Jane seems to take notice to Rochester's age but in change is intrigued by his masculinity, which she experienced in short at Lowood School with Mr. Brocklehurst. All it took was an accidental meeting between Jane and her employer to begin the cycle of love that would eventually overtake then empower a meek woman inexperienced in the art for which she has been a pawn of. Brontë uses the stylistic character element of speech to induce a thought that the words of some admirable people often influence others and sometimes can even be heard from them. Through the mentoring of Rochester and St. John does the reader see two different men, both in some way bringing them closer to Jane turning her into what they have both become. "Brontë's authorial strategy is to balance one kind of temptation with its obverse: if Rochester is all romantic passion, urging her to succumb to emotional excess, St. John Rivers is all Christian ambition, urging her to attempt a spiritual asceticism of which she knows herself incapable." Joyce Carol Oates Oates relates these men to their backgrounds and how they both tempt Jane with their own strategies of moral tactics. Because Jane was raised in a strict boarding school it becomes apparent why she can be attracted to St. John and his Christian-like ways, but her inexperience with love due to Lowood always causes her to be attracted to Rochester. Rochester ask Jane, "am I cruel in my love" p.365 This question provokes Jane to decide whether she truly knows love or not. A young woman from a boarding school having to resolve her love for this man causes a type of confusion in Jane and she is left with the mere thought that she must love this man. Rochester furthermore entangles Jane when he tells her, "Be not far from me, for trouble is near: there is none to help."p.377 Rochester gives her assurance that he is her protection and that she has somewhere to go when trouble rises. This is better for Rochester because he knows that this is the first and only secure place that she has known of and if trouble arises she will come to him for help as her guide and mentor. Men realize that they can input their vibes into young woman and often do this in order to either please their own lustful wants or fulfill their needs. Brontë uses the plot element of general events to show that as corrupters advance with those easily manipulated they change, not only themselves, but also those they try to manipulate. Jane initially meets Mr. Rochester as a governess to Adèle, but their conversations lead to mysterious times of revealing each others past so Rochester decided to dress as a fortune-teller. Fortune-tellers are seen as mysterious and able to unlock truths, which apparently Rochester attempts to do; find the truths about Jane's emotions, especially anything about him. When Rochester reveals his identity Jane realizes the traps she's fallen in and the entrapment that Rochester causes for his own wants to know about Jane. As Rochester remain handicapped before their marriage he ask Jane if she would marry a, "crippled man, twenty years older than [her], whom [she] will have to wait on." p.570 This particular event is Jane's deciding moment where she picks to stay with the man that she supposedly loves or to go out and adventure like the one she somewhat had love for in St. John. Jane chooses to stay with Rochester and start a beautiful life together as she had always planned to do. As she is married to Rochester Jane sends Adèle off to school in order to get rid of her French heritage. This is exactly what Jane didn't want to happen when Blanche Ingram was supposedly going to marry Rochester. The reader can find this her ultimate change from an innocent woman to the one manipulating others in place of her crippled husband. When Jane finally ends as a manipulator the reader sees that corruption can be passed and characters undergo changes due the actions of those around them. Brontë uses the plot element of a specific event to reveal that some people have dark past which cause them to seem mysterious and sometimes very intriguing, this is seen in the discussion between Jane and Rochester for the fir time in the house. Rochester begins his insightful conversation by telling Mrs. Fairfax that Jane is the reason for his sprained ankle. The reader immediately catches this as distaste for Jane and sees Rochester as a resentful man full of hatred. The men Jane had known in her life were all full of hate; from little John Reed to the schoolmaster, Mr. Brocklehurst. Rochester then brought up her former schoolmaster, asking about conditions at Lowood and what all she had the privilege to learn while attending. Rochester becomes more involved asking these type questions and allows Jane to find her security in him for he is her employer and must know her background if she wishes to teach his Adèle. The thought of Lowood has significance because of the low, which symbolizes her lowest point of existence and if she is able to just talk about it he will know where it is that haunts her most. They end with comments on Jane's artwork and how imaginative it is. This partially is due to her over-imaginative youth with books and troubling family. Rochester hit every point of the childhood Jane wanted to forget so that he would know a little about the new lady sleeping in his home. In order for someone to come accustomed to their surroundings they must make peace with their past; Rochester guides Jane into accepting her past. Brontë uses the plot element of digression to express that individual questioning and talking between two people can provoke one, such as Jane when she gets her fortune told, to express all their feelings and find themselves in the process. Rochester, imposing as a gypsy, begins by asking Jane about now she is feeling and why she's not nervous. This type of introduction gives Jane a sense of self-determination knowing that she feels fine and controls her own destiny no matter what the fortune-teller may say. This type of confidence is found through self-examination and allows its seekers the will to continue no matter what the outcome may be. Though Jane replied to the fortune-teller as being fine the fortune-teller told her "You are cold, because you are alone; no contact strikes the fire from you that is in you. You are sick, because the best of feelings, the highest and the sweetest given to man, keeps far away from you. You are silly, because, suffer as you may, you will not beckon it to approach, nor will you stir one step to meet it where it waits for you." p.248 Rochester notices her fault and clearly points them out to her. Allowing a person to hear their own faults causes them to examine whether or not these accusations are true or not. In Jane's case Rochester pinned out Jane's faults and he's doing his part to help her become more like him instead of being a shy, little, shrewd Quaker. The fortune-teller finally mentions Jane's love for Rochester, but unknown to Jane the fortune-teller is Edward Fairfax Rochester. Jane hints toward this love but has clearly been manipulated by Rochester into his entanglement of love, which Blanche was thought to be in the center of. The main point of Rochester's deception is to encourage Jane to except her love and express is to someone other than Rochester and to feel love for the first time if at all possible. As Brontë's novel is read over through the generations, the theme that a person can be manipulated into love and often times has to find her own integrity is passed on. By using many different elements of plot and characters she creates a novel forever found to be part of American Literature and English History.   

Jane Eyre, a novel about an English woman's struggles told through the writing of Charlotte Brontë, has filled its audience with thoughts of hope, love, and deception for many years. These thoughts surround people, not just women, everyday, as if an endless cycle from birth to death. As men and...

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Having studied George Orwell"s "Nineteen Eighty-Four",...Having studied George Orwell"s "Nineteen Eighty-Four", I intend to discuss the type of Government envisaged by Orwell and to what extent his totalitarian Party, "Ingsoc", satirises past regimes. I will also discuss Orwell"s motive in writing such a piece and how his writing style helps it become clear. The main theme of Nineteen Eighty-Four concerns the restrictions imposed on individual freedom by a totalitarian regime. Orwell shows how such a system can impose its will on the people through manipulation of the press, the elimination of democracy, constant supervision courtesy of the Telescreens and more. Orwell also shows how the state has more subtle methods for imposing its authority, such as the manipulation of language and control of the media. Propaganda also plays a central role within the Party"s infrastructure and it is used to gain support for Big Brother, stir patriotism and induce hate towards the chosen "enemy" country. Workers in the Ministry of Truth work to change the past, making Big Brother seem to have always been right. Also, the Party seeks to stifle any individual or "potentially revolutionary" thought by introducing a new language, Newspeak, the eradication of English and the deployment of "Thought Police" who terrorize Party members by accusing them of "Thought Crime" ie. to think a crime is to commit a crime. The introduction of this new language means that eventually, no-one is able to commit thought-crime due to the lack of words to express it. This is a frightening concept "“ the restriction of your thought could destroy your personality if the ability to think for oneself was erased. Words are a weapon as far as the Party are concerned, but the war is not physical; it is a war against truth - The Ministry of Truth, minitrue, re-writes history and falsifies documents, the Ministry of Peace, minipax, makes war, "It"s a beautiful thing, destruction of words... You haven"t a real appreciation of Newspeak, Winston... Don"t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end we will make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it." Syme to Winston -p46 Nineteen Eighty-Four may not be known to everyone, but there are certain phrases and expressions that have actually gained common usage in the English Language. Examples of this would be Newspeak, thought-crime, Big Brother, unperson and doublethink. All of which relate to the State"s frightening power to alter reality. Possibly the most interesting of these is doublethink, defined as "the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one"s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them". This, of course, sounds ludicrous until one considers the fact that this is evident within modern politics. There are many parallels between "Nineteen Eighty-Four" and other real-life examples. It has been said that it can be compared to both Stalinist Russia and National Socialist Germany. The fact that the Party can be compared to two supposedly diametrically opposed political systems does, at first, seem paradoxical, but yet the Party, the NSDAP and The Communist Party share a common thread: totalitarian rule. This is a point that Orwell was well aware of. However, this story was probably much more an attack on Stalinism, or at least autocracy in general. Renowned internationally as a forthright speaker against Stalin, Orwell was, however, an ardent Socialist and was keen to distance himself from Russian totalitarianism. His Socialist beliefs, coupled with his experience in the Spanish Civil War as a member of the revolutionary POUM Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista militia, led him to realise the threat of fascist, or at least autocratic, rule. It was this realisation that led him to pen his greatest novels - "Animal Farm" and "Nineteen Eighty-Four" the latter was almost titled "The Last Man in Europe", but Orwell favoured "Nineteen Eighty-Four". The fact that Oceania, the country envisaged by Orwell, is ruled by Ingsoc, Newspeak for English Socialism, and Ingsoc itself is by no means a socialist Party, is brutally ironic to say the least. Possibly the best example of doublethink is that "the Party rejects and vilifies every principle for which the Socialist movement ever stood, and it chooses to do this in the name of Socialism". Another symbolic parallel in "Nineteen Eighty-Four" is that of the Roman Catholic Church. It can be said that Big Brother is not dissimilar to God and the Inner party could indeed be equated with his Priesthood. It is then possible to interpret Winston"s role as one who has lost his faith and O"Brien"s concern that he should return to the thinking of the party could be seen as the Priest"s desire to convert one who has lapsed from the faith. This is an interesting interpretation, but not one of the more obvious ones that it is almost certain Orwell intended. Orwell"s writing style paints a bleak picture of man"s future, although "Nineteen Eighty-Four" is not a prophecy. The vivid horror depicted in his work can be attributed, says he, to his ill health while authoring this book he had severe Tuberculosis. This is evident when Winston is introduced to Room 101. Perhaps the book is so bleak because the events in the book are a somewhat logical projection of the events in the recent past at the time of the writing of the novel. The portrayal of the ordinary, non-Party civilians is also somewhat unsettling because they have even lost the title of "civilian". They are know known as "proletarians" - a term which I feel dehumanises the ordinary man and strips him of any apparent individuality whatsoever. Their label makes them seem almost robotic. Yet their role is not minor because if there is any hope left in Oceania, Winston is certain it lies with the proles. But these simple working-class drones are not free, despite the relative freedom they apparently possess, because this "freedom" is just a symptom of the utter contempt in which they are held by the Party. This 'freedom' means nothing because they have no mind in which to free. Even Emmanuel Goldstein, the Trotsky-like enemy of Big Brother, tells the Party that "nothing is to be feared [from the proletarians]. They can be granted intellectual liberty," he adds "because they have no intellect". The subject of the Party holds an interesting theme. Its quest for absolute power is reminiscent of Lord Acton's famous apothegm, 'power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely'. The Party seems to be in a constant drive to control every aspect of the proletarians' and the lower Party members' lives. This is exemplified by the complete psychological and physical surveillance provided by the Telescreens and the Thought Police. Even in unpopulated countrysides, the Thought Police have microphones disguised as flowers. Oceania, it is said, can be seen as to be beyond totalitarianism; an extreme even by extremist standards. Even in the death camps of the Third Reich, the Jewish community could continue to exist and heroic behaviour, of sorts, was still possible. But in Oceania, heroism is a dead concept because it cannot exist when there is no-one to save in the first place. Ben Pilmot states in the introduction, "it"s like spitting in the wind". Indeed it is. No other book has been known to inspire people with such a love of liberty and hatred of tyranny. The individual has a basic desire to be free from restraint and control, and Orwell recognised this. Nineteen Eighty-Four is an expression of Orwell's irritation at many of the facets of English Socialism, as well as Russian Communism. It is also a reflection of his own ideas about the nature of political corruption and, to be specific, Stalinist Russia. Whatever his motivation, over fifty years after its publication, Nineteen Eighty-Four remains one of the greatest novels of our time.   

Having studied George Orwell"s "Nineteen Eighty-Four", I intend to discuss the type of Government envisaged by Orwell and to what extent his totalitarian Party, "Ingsoc", satirises past regimes. I will also discuss Orwell"s motive in writing such a piece and how his writing style helps it become clear. The main...

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