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Passing Essay
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In Nella Larsen"s novel, Passing, Irene Redfield and Clare Kendry can be considered as the protagonists. The novel concentrates on the issue of skin color and passing. Passing is when African-American"s with light skin pass as white in order to enjoy the privileges that white people enjoyed. Irene Redfield is a middle-class, light-skin African-American woman who regrets passing but occasionally passes as white. She is married to Brian a doctor who is too dark to pass. Irene"s life is going along as usual when she runs into a childhood friend, Clare Kendry. Clare Kendry is also a light-skin African-American woman...
to renew their friendship. Deep inside Irene is fascinated by Clare"s ability to pass, and Clare is her connection to the white world as she is Clare"s connection to the black world. Clare also brings doubt about her pride of being black to Irene. Irene"s indifference towards Clare in the beginning turns into appreciation almost obsession towards Clare. Irene learns to understand Clare and builds a friendship with her that she is unable to reveal Clare"s indetity to John. When Clare gets so involved in their lives Irene wishes that she could somehow leave and Clare passes away.

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The works of George Gordon, Lord...The works of George Gordon, Lord Byron have long been controversial, nearly as controversial as his lifestyle. Gordon Byron was born with a clubfoot and his sensitivity to it haunted his life and his works. Despite being a very handsome child, a fragile self-esteem made Byron extremely sensitive to criticism, of himself or of his poetry and he tended to make enemies rather quickly. The young Byron was often unhappy and lonely any many of his works seem to be a sort of introspective therapy. Throughout his writings and life history there is much evidence to suggest that his poetry was greatly influenced by his mental instability. In many ways, Byron seems to use his work as an escape from a difficult reality. The lengthy poem Don Juan offers an especially intimate glimpse of Byron's psyche. In order to understand the depth of Byron's psychological troubles and their influence on his poetry, it is important to examine Byron's heritage and his upbringing. Young George Gordon inherited the title of Lord Byron at the age of six. This him a rank in society and a bit of wealth to go along with it. Byron's heritage is a colorful one. His paternal line includes the "Wicked Lord", "Mad Jack and "Foul Weather Jack Grosskurth 6." The family propensity for eccentric behavior was acerbated by young George Gordon's upbringing. When Byron was just three his financially irresponsible father died, leaving the family with a heavy burden of debt. Byron's mother then proudly moved from the meager lodging in Aberdeen, Scotland to England. Young Byron fell in love with the ghostly halls and spacious grounds of Newstead Abbey, which had been presented to the Byron's by Henry VIII, had received little care since. He and his mother lived in the run down estate for a while. While in England he was sent to a "public" school in Nottingham where he was doctored by a quack named Lavender who subjected the boy to a torturous and ineffective treatment for his clubfoot Bloom 45. During this time, young Byron was left in the care of his nurse May Grey. He was subjected to her drunken tantrums, beatings, neglect, and sexual liberties Grosskurth 28. This abuse was not stopped early enough to protect the boy from psychological injury. Byron confesses to his sister that "My passions were developed very early- so early that few would believe me Grosskurth 40." Byron also suffered from constant exposure to his mother's bad temper. Mrs. Byron alternately spoiled her son and abused him, often calling him a "lame brat Crompton 82." Eventually John Hanson, Mrs. Byron's attorney, rescued him from the unnatural affections of May Grey, the tortures of Lavender and uneven temper of his mother. The effects of his early experiences were to be felt by the poet for many years. "The consequences of these tortured episodes blend into his entire life in the anticipated melancholy that he always experience Eisler 41." At seventeen he entered Cambridge University. Determined to overcome his physical handicap, Byron became a good rider, swimmer, boxer, and marksman. He enjoyed literature but cared little for other subjects. After graduation he embarked on a grand tour that supplied inspiration for many of his later works. Of the many poems in which Byron reveals details from his own experiences, Don Juan offers the most intimate look into the life of the artist. Canto I of Don Juan describes Juan's mother, Donna Inez as being a woman who look'd a lecture, each eye a sermon Longman 577." Donna Inez watched carefully over every detail of her son's education and Catherine Byron did the same for her son, attempting in her clumsy way to provide Byron with preparation for life as a member of the gentry. "Mrs. Byron became obsessed with making her son perfect and he in turn submitted stoically to various forms of torture Grosskurth 29." Although the description of Donna Inez is often interpreted as being directed at Byron's ex-wife, much of Inez's personality is similar to Catherine's. It is possible that Byron's opinion of women was formed by his exposure to these two and many of his female characters would bear their mark. In stanza 61 of Canto I Donna Julia is described with a mixture of affection and sarcasm. Bright with intelligence, and fair and smooth"¦her stature tall-I hate a dumpy woman Longman 586." Byron begins with a fairly conventional description of a pretty girl but ends the stanza with what seems to be a truly backhanded compliment. Donna Julia follows the pattern of the idealized heroine. She is portrayed to be pretty, gentle, sweet, the perfect and passive wife. When she interacts with Don Juan, however Donna Julia breaks out of the traditional role by being the older woman who is eager to educate young Juan in the ways of love. Byron thus reverses gender roles and with a sexually mature woman who actively seducing a naive and innocent young man. "Don Juan at sixteen is a pious mamma's boy, dedicated to heaven by a mother from hell Eisler 612". This relates directly to Byron as a youth who had been reared by a suffocating mother and prematurely initiated into sexuality by someone the family trusted. His mother unknowingly entrusted her son with a viper when she brought Donna Inez into the family home. While Donna Julia is not as vicious as May Grey, she took equal advantage of the family's trust. Even more general attributes of this poem and it's characters reflect details from the author's own life. Juan is able to survive shipwreck because he could swim. Byron was also known as an exceptionally strong swimmer. Don Juan embarks on a grand adventure that includes travels very similar to Byron's own. He has a number of sexual conquests during his journey, as did the randy author. Even the naiveté of young Juan is strikingly similar to the shy young George Gordon. In Don Juan, Byron says "I want a hero" and he adopts a one from the past. He alters the legend of Don Juan to fit his own needs because he cannot find a modern hero that fits the bill. Don Juan's character a direct personification of the poet who has grown older and wiser that his young subject. The author is reflected instead in the many details of the epic drawn from the author's own experiences. Although Don Juan's narrator is not purely Byron's voice, it does seem to speak for him. The poet expresses himself through his interpretation of the story and by using the voice of the narrator to speak for him. Byron's narrator is always present in the poem, commenting and showing off, making quite certain that the he is not being ignored. His voice permeates Don Juan and he appears to be reflecting much of his own life in his creation. Perhaps Byron used this enormous poem as a catharsis for his trouble emotions; perhaps this is the reason that Don Juan was never finished. It was extended throughout the remainder of the poet's life. The poem, like Byron's psychological healing was never finished.   

The works of George Gordon, Lord Byron have long been controversial, nearly as controversial as his lifestyle. Gordon Byron was born with a clubfoot and his sensitivity to it haunted his life and his works. Despite being a very handsome child, a fragile self-esteem made Byron extremely sensitive to criticism,...

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Dear Kylie, I noticed your submission...Dear Kylie, I noticed your submission to Culture Magazine, regarding Shakespeare's great play "Hamlet". Having recently studied "Hamlet" in Year 12 English, I think I can help answer one of your questions. You asked why is Hamlet regarded as a tragic hero and the play a classic tragedy? Before I can answer your question, you must first understand the difference between the meaning of tragedy today and what is meant by tragedy in drama. Whereas a tragedy in life may be considered something such as a death or accident, in drama a tragedy in drama is much more. In a tragedy, although the hero may be in conflict with an opposing force, the cause of his downfall falls ultimately on himself. This is usually because of a character defect "“ a "tragic flaw" which causes him to act in a way which ends up bringing about his own misfortune, suffering and ultimately death. "Hamlet" is very much a tragedy, but it is also different, being a revenge tragedy where the hero is driven by the need for revenge, not unlike a modern day horror movie. Prince Hamlet is a tragedy of character where it is himself that brings his downfall, not fate. Well Kylie, a tragedy is usually a story of one person, with both the hero victims in the play usually of a high standing of society. This is especially the case in "Hamlet", with his victims being King Claudius, Queen Gertrude, Polonious, Laertes, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, all being linked to the Royal Family of Denmark. A personality fault the tragic flaw causes the hero to act in a manner which brings about his own misfortune and eventually death, during which he lets the audience know he is dying by delivering a final speech. In "Hamlet", it is his tragic flaw of his indecisiveness and inability to act, which brings his own suffering and misfortune. Had he been able to kill King Claudius in the beginning none of the suffering would have occurred. He also delivers his final speech telling the audience of his death, "I am dead Horatio. Wretched queen, adieu!" he exclaims after being poisoned by Laertes envenomed rapier. In a tragedy the pity and fear known in drama as pathos is ultimately replaced by an uplifting and suffering known in drama as catharsis Hamlet's acts cause suffering but in the end ultimately achieve learning. Hamlet's ultimate death teaches the country of Denmark about Claudius's murder and brings them under the reins of a new ruler Fortinbras of Norway. A tragic hero must not be purely good or purely evil. If he were purely good we would not understand his actions and if he were purely evil we would expect them. Hamlet is not purely good or purely evil, he is mixture or good and evil. He was intelligent, witty and cheerful and delighted in "flashes of merriment that were wont to set the table in a roar" in the beginning, but he was also in a state of melancholy and irresolution for much of the play. The hero in a tragedy is unable to resist the force. Hamlet cannot live knowing Claudius murdered his father and will either take his life or his own. The story focuses on the troubled part. In "Hamlet" this is mostly about his mental state with the famous "To Be, Or Not to be" being an expression of his thoughts on suicide. In "Hamlet", as in all tragedies, the tragedy is in the suffering and the whole story, not in the death. We feel pity and fear for the hero, because we feel sorry for his cause and we fear what will happen if he does not carry out his actions. In tragedies, the flaw dominates the hero. In "Hamlet" this is the case for much of the play, he does try to kill the King earlier on but in a mistake of judgement murders Polonious instead, but from this accident he carries on his procrastination and hurts and causes In a tragedy the suffering affects many innocent people, not only the hero. In Hamlet the suffering goes on to affect Queen Gertrude, Laertes and Ophelia and eventually leads to the death of all of these characters as well as Polonious and Prince Hamlet. It even, in the end affects the whole of Denmark, as the throne is taken by Fortinbras of Norway. In the beginning Marcellus says "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" and nothing could be more true with the murder of King Hamlet. The suffering in a tragedy is exceptional and unexpected. Before the murder of King Hamlet Denmark was in all its glory, occupying part of Norway and Hamlet was a happy scholar at the University of Wittenberg. Everything changes due to Claudius and this brings on Hamlets madness. Tragedies generally have to do in part to the supernatural. In "Hamlet" the supernatural is the ghost of King Hamlet who tells Hamlet of his murder by the hand of Claudius. Many other revenge tragedy ingredients exist, such as mutilation and carnage, tales of revenge and murder, a play within a play, sensational happenings and of course a bloody end. "Hamlet" is also in part a detective story, with Prince Hamlet trying to find out the murder of his father in order to bring him to justice when he gets the players to act out a play to see if the King reacted "I'll have grounds more relative than this: the play's the thing wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king." As you can see Kylie, "Hamlet" is clearly a revenge tragedy, following all of the revenge play traditions. Hamlet the Prince of Denmark is clearly the tragic hero, with all of the suffering in the play due to, in some part, his tragic flaw. Kylie, I hope this answers your questions and that it provides you with the help you require.   

Dear Kylie, I noticed your submission to Culture Magazine, regarding Shakespeare's great play "Hamlet". Having recently studied "Hamlet" in Year 12 English, I think I can help answer one of your questions. You asked why is Hamlet regarded as a tragic hero and the play a classic tragedy? Before I...

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