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Thomas Hardy concentrated on human relationships in his short stories, as this was his main area of interest. Hardy also had a keen interest on the supernatural such as aliens. In 1874, Thomas Hardy got married to the love of his life, Emma Gifford, but after 38 years of marriage in 1912, Emma passed away sending Hardy into deep depression. This is when Hardy's short stories hit its prime. He went on a pilgrimage in 1914 to find out about life after Emma. Although, in the same year, he re-married to Florence Dugdale at the age of 74 and in 1928, he passed away. All his poems are firmly grounded in Dorset life and folklore, particularly the short stories The Withered Arm and Tony Kytes: Arch The first relationship that we find out about in the Withered Arm is Getrude and Farmer Lodge, we find out that they are married: "Her face too was fresh in colour, but it was of a totally different quality- soft and evanescent, like the light under a heap of rose petals." This is the comparison between Gertrude and Farmer Lodge. Hardy describes Gertrude as "the light under a heap of rose petals" suggesting she is way beyond beauty. The simile is effective, as this sets a picture in your head of what she would look like. This may also suggest that the marriage is purely superficial and Lodge has only married Gertrude purely as she is pretty: "The well-to-do Farmer Lodge came nearly last; and his young wife, who accompanied him, walked up the aisle"¦appeared thus for the first time." This says that Lodge his parading his new "possession" to the public, and doesn't care about Gertrude's feelings, just the fact that he is with a beautiful woman. Later in the story, Lodge rejects Gertrude because of her disfigurement. This shows that Lodge is a very shallow individual and is defying the laws of marriage, for example "in sickness and health". Other people interpretations of Gertrude would be very positive as all eyes are upon her when she is paraded at church, but Rhoda, one of the milkmaids and Lodge's ex-girlfriend isn't best pleased about Lodge's new wife and how she looks: "I wouldn't look up at her if she were to pass my window this instant." This shows a very bad approach towards Gertrude and she feels threatened by her at the same time. Later in the story, Rhoda has a dream and her whole interpretation of Gertrude is changed, in fact, they become good friends: "I hope you will find this air agree with you, ma'am and not suffer from the damp of the water mead's" This tells us she has a enough courtesy to call her "ma'am". Her whole interpretation changed as she had a dream about Gertrude getting her arm cut off, and the next morning, Gertrude's arm hurt, so i guess she felt kind of responsible for what happened to her. Their relationship is very different from their relationships with Farmer Lodge as they are both in the same boat and they bond very well. Also, Farmer lodge used them both for their looks, and not for who they are so again, they have another thing in common. Tony Kytes: The arch deceiver is very different to the withered arm, as the man in this isn't using the women for his image, he's just a womaniser. Tony is described as not a very good looking man, but still get the girls: "'Twas a little, round, firm, tight face, with a seam here and there left by the smallpox" Hardy describes his face like a little mongrel's face; being left with small pox i would say is an insult. The affiliation between Tony Kytes and the three women he is playing with is very obscure because it would never happen. This makes the story slightly humorous too. The naivety of all three women is astounding, to say the least, as they believe Tony every time a word comes out of his mouth, they obey and listen: "Now, Milly, would you do me a favour- my coming wife, may I say...I don't mind, to oblige you, Tony" This is where Tony asks Milly to go in the back of the wagon, and she pretty much gives herself to way to him. I think this is awfully stupid but at the same time humorous. Tony's lack of fidelity is rife in this story as he cannot make up his mind who he wants to go with, this is a lot like Farmer Lodge and his lack of commitment to his ex Rhoda and ultimately, his son. Tony, like Farmer Lodge is very shallow as he would dump his wife-to-be Milly for either Unity or Hannah, and this is because he can't make his mind up: "I'm afeard...Now which would you marry, father, if you was in my place?" This shows that Tony is not just womaniser, but he has a heart too and he is afraid of the consequences, and fears he may end up with nothing. Jealousy is rife in this story, as all three women would go with Tony, even after what happened: "And away walks Unity Sallet likewise, though she looked back when she'd gone some way, to see if he was following her." Even after Unity rejected Tony, she still feels a sense of defeat and looks back to see if he was following her, knowing full well he went with Hannah. When Hardy puts Unity's whole name in the quotation given above, you know it will be her first, or final act in the story, and I think this is a good technique used in all stories. When all three women are in the cart together, the jealousy is so rife, they start to fight and sob to gain Tony's affections: "Now at these strange voices sounding from under the cloth Hannah was thunderstruck a'most into a swound" They are all fighting over the right to gain his affections, they don't care about there own safety, also another humorous part.
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Thomas Hardy concentrated on human relationships in his short stories, as this was his main area of interest. Hardy also had a keen interest on the supernatural such as aliens. In 1874, Thomas Hardy got married to the love of his life, Emma Gifford, but after 38 years of marriage in 1912, Emma passed away sending Hardy into deep depression. This is when Hardy's short stories hit its prime. He went on a pilgrimage in 1914 to find out about life after Emma. Although, in the same year, he re-married to Florence Dugdale at the age of 74 and in...
When Hardy puts Unity's whole name in the quotation given above, you know it will be her first, or final act in the story, and I think this is a good technique used in all stories.

When all three women are in the cart together, the jealousy is so rife, they start to fight and sob to gain Tony's affections:

"Now at these strange voices sounding from under the cloth Hannah was thunderstruck a'most into a swound"

They are all fighting over the right to gain his affections, they don't care about there own safety, also another humorous part.

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Theme of the divided self within...Theme of the divided self within Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Thematically, the divided self is one of the most interesting themes within both novels and is of great importance to the development or ruin of the characters in both 'Wuthering Heights' and 'Frankenstein.' Both authors when primarily exploring this theme focus upon the physical, mental or spiritual division within certain characters. In Emily Bronte's novel 'Wuthering Heights,' the principal characters Cathy and Heathcliff are presented as needing this division within themselves to recognise their need for each other. This endurance of physical, mental and spiritual division whilst alive, allows them only tragically to experience when in death, complete entity within themselves. Primarily Cathy is not depicted as divided; instead, she is presented as belonging to a family unit, which seems to stay intact until the arrival of a 'gypsy brat.' Although Heathcliff creates a divide within the family due to his arrival, Cathy is seen to gain a friend with whom she feels she has an affinity both physically, spiritually and mentally, which will become increasingly evident as the novel progresses. However, this alliance throughout the novel is frequently thrown into turmoil by outside influences or factors. As we are informed from the onset, the "greatest punishment" that could be bestowed upon Cathy was separation from Heathcliff. Cathy and Heathcliff's separation only therefore ensues as a result of their initial outing to Thrushcross Grange. Their promise to grow up together as 'rude as savages,' is destroyed when Cathy and Heathcliff are separated physically by many factors resulting from this visitation. Just as the Linton's dog 'holds' Cathy, so too is the Linton's house symbolically presented as separating her from Heathcliff, when Heathcliff resorts to peering in through their 'great glass panes' to see Cathy, after being physically 'dragged' out of Thrushcross Grange. Cathy is also depicted as physically separated from Heathcliff even when she returns to Wuthering Heights. Instead of a 'wild, hatless little savage' with whom Heathcliff has an affinity with, she returns as a 'very dignified person.' Heathcliff is now therefore separated physically from Cathy, not only by appearance but as he said in the previous chapter, her superiority "to everybody," including him. The presentation of Cathy and Heathcliff as physically divided is not only literally seen through the differing households but also through Cathy's own actions and attire. Although Thrushcross Grange is symbolically portrayed as repressing Cathy and separating her from Heathcliff, Cathy is presented as 'readily' accepting from the Linton's, 'fine clothes and flattery,' which would in turn distinguish her from Heathcliff when she returns. Upon her arrival, she is immediately seen as separated when she sits above everyone else 'upon a handsome black pony.' This is emphasised further when although Cathy is joyful to return, she refrains from touching the dogs, 'lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments.' Similarly, when Cathy encounters Heathcliff, although she runs to embrace him, she gazes 'concernedly' at her dress, which she fears has become 'embellished.' Emily Bronte clearly depicts the physical state of the divided self also through Cathy and Heathcliff's marriages. Only when Cathy marries Edgar and Heathcliff marries Isabella, can we truly see the division within the self. As we see throughout the novel, Heathcliff's absence has a profound effect upon the steady decline of Catherine's physical and mental state of health. Due to their separation, Catherine no longer recognises her own reflection as Heathcliff mirrored all that she represented. "Don't you see that face?"¦ It was yourself Mrs Linton: You knew it a while since." The relationship between male and female in 'Frankenstein' is also subject to division. Whereas Cathy and Heathcliff need one another to survive as a whole, Frankenstein's relationship with Elizabeth cannot survive as the monster will not allow it due to Frankenstein's refusal to "create a female" for the monster. Just as Frankenstein hoped for happiness with his marriage to Elizabeth, the monster also wishes for a companion equal to him that will, in turn, "perfectionate" as Elizabeth would do with Frankenstein, his "weak and faulty natures." Frankenstein's marriage to Elizabeth would enable him to regain his lost innocence, which was lost, due to the creation of his "abhorred monster," thereby creating within Frankenstein an internal division, until this union occurs. As the monster is refused an opportunity to be free from 'misery,' he therefore destroys his creator's chance. "I shall be with you on your wedding night." Just as the monster is divided due to lack of companionship, one may also see his creator suffering the same fate that has not resulted, as in Wuthering Heights from outside influences, but due to his own actions. Emily Bronte further develops Catherine's state of division through where she lives, either in Wuthering Heights or Thrushcross Grange. Heathcliff and Edgar represent the extreme emotions felt by Cathy in certain parts of the novel. Both symbolise the differing households and how, when Cathy is contained within one of these environments with either Edgar or Heathcliff it has a discernible effect upon her character and future. To a certain extent, both are needed in order for Cathy to be complete. Without them she cannot survive as Heathcliff represents her sole being, "he's more myself than I am," her desire for freedom again to those "hills" where she may return to again with her former playmate and regain what was repressed within her due to her first outing to Thrushcross Grange and from her marriage to Edgar. However, even though she is presented as divided even when they are seen as physically together, due to her superiority in social class. "It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff"¦He shall never know how I love him." The importance of social class is emphasised through Cathy's marriage to Edgar. Edgar represents more of the imposed order of society, the conventional and cultivated, everything that Cathy seeks to obtain. "You love Mr Edgar because he's handsome, rich and loves you." She knows she can rely upon his predictability in any situation that may arise. Although Catherine desires the passion that Heathcliff presents to her, she is 'at present' depicted as believing Edgar's docile love will save her. As Catherine cannot live within both environments, ultimately she feels restricted when she picks Edgar as her husband and chooses to move to Thrushcross Grange, as spiritually Cathy is presented as needing Heathcliff as whatever their "souls are made of" they "are the same." Without him, Catherine considers herself a mere shadow of her former self, wishing to be a "girl again, half savage." Within Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein,' the divisional aspect of the two principal characters, Frankenstein and the monster, rather subvert the theme of being physically divided. Mary Shelley presents this theme through her use of juxtaposition when describing both Frankenstein and the monster convulsing in the same chapter. Linguistically she reflects Frankenstein as becoming part of his creation at the moment of its birth. Just as Frankenstein describes how in his fever "every limb became convulsed," so too does the monster reflect, effectively through Shelley's use of descriptive language, how when created it had a "convulsive motion" which "agitated its limbs." As Mary Shelley presents Frankenstein and the monster as one through her comparative language, her use of syntax within the description of the monster's birth also adds emphasis to this theme. Thematically, the divided self is once more, seen as subverted through the use of imagery instead of language. Rather than describing the actions of both Frankenstein and the monster as analogous through the use of language, Mary Shelley, through Robert Walton's encounter with Frankenstein also thematically reinforces both characters as united through the use of imagery. Even though the reader is later informed the traveller is Frankenstein, the unique choice of imagery when describing him as an 'interesting creature' serves only to reinforce how Frankenstein has become divided from humanity due to his unnatural creation. However, this singular image has a paradoxical effect upon Frankenstein's divided self. Although one may view Frankenstein as divided, one may also regard him as united with his 'creature.' Just as he is presented as 'gnashing his teeth,' the monster is later seen to reflect Frankenstein's actions by gnashing his teeth in 'the impotence of anger.' Mary Shelley's use of language regarding the theme of giving birth to an embodiment of ones self clearly depicts the physical, mental and spiritual void in both Frankenstein and his creation. Just as Cathy's emotions are repressed within Wuthering Heights, so too are Frankenstein's. The monster himself may represent the division within Frankenstein's sub conscience, his primitive self. "We are unfashioned creatures, but half made up." As his creation has given birth to his other self, he is closely linked with the monsters own spiritual self. "You my creator, detest and spurn me"¦to whom thou art bound by ties only dissoluble by the annihilation of one of us." Emily Bronte also successfully presents as Mary Shelley does, the theme of the divided self through her use of language. When the reader is told "her mind has wandered, her soul no longer remains within her," one may view Emily Bronte's description of Cathy's divided self as conflicting. Although her soul is seen to escape what she likens to a "shattered prison" which has, like the two households similarly restricted her, this liberation also divides Cathy within herself, spiritually, mentally and physically. The monster, within Frankenstein is also subjected to spiritual division. His perception of life is based upon experience. Through his involvement with the cottagers he instinctively learns to "assist their labours," thus developing a sense of humanity. This instinctive good side is destroyed however when the cottagers reject him and with a "bitter sickness" the monster therefore learns how he will treat Frankenstein in return, thus destroying his sense of humanity, forever dividing him until his death. Within both novels, the theme of the divided self is an experience, which each protagonist character is seen to endure. Until they tragically accept their destiny, Cathy, Heathcliff, Frankenstein and the monster are presented as physically, spiritually and mentally divided, not only within themselves but also with each other. Only when they finally succumb to death, are "the dead at peace," leaving the reader to ponder upon the rhetorical question which touches upon the theme of the divided self; for "where can I find rest but in death?" Theme of the divided self within Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Thematically, the divided self is one of the most interesting themes within both novels and is of great importance to the development or ruin of the characters in both 'Wuthering Heights' and 'Frankenstein.' Both authors when primarily exploring this theme focus upon the physical, mental or spiritual division within certain characters. In Emily Bronte's novel 'Wuthering Heights,' the principal characters Cathy and Heathcliff are presented as needing this division within themselves to recognise their need for each other. This endurance of physical, mental and spiritual division whilst alive, allows them only tragically to experience when in death, complete entity within themselves. Primarily Cathy is not depicted as divided; instead, she is presented as belonging to a family unit, which seems to stay intact until the arrival of a 'gypsy brat.' Although Heathcliff creates a divide within the family due to his arrival, Cathy is seen to gain a friend with whom she feels she has an affinity both physically, spiritually and mentally, which will become increasingly evident as the novel progresses. However, this alliance throughout the novel is frequently thrown into turmoil by outside influences or factors. As we are informed from the onset, the "greatest punishment" that could be bestowed upon Cathy was separation from Heathcliff. Cathy and Heathcliff's separation only therefore ensues as a result of their initial outing to Thrushcross Grange. Their promise to grow up together as 'rude as savages,' is destroyed when Cathy and Heathcliff are separated physically by many factors resulting from this visitation. Just as the Linton's dog 'holds' Cathy, so too is the Linton's house symbolically presented as separating her from Heathcliff, when Heathcliff resorts to peering in through their 'great glass panes' to see Cathy, after being physically 'dragged' out of Thrushcross Grange. Cathy is also depicted as physically separated from Heathcliff even when she returns to Wuthering Heights. Instead of a 'wild, hatless little savage' with whom Heathcliff has an affinity with, she returns as a 'very dignified person.' Heathcliff is now therefore separated physically from Cathy, not only by appearance but as he said in the previous chapter, her superiority "to everybody," including him. The presentation of Cathy and Heathcliff as physically divided is not only literally seen through the differing households but also through Cathy's own actions and attire. Although Thrushcross Grange is symbolically portrayed as repressing Cathy and separating her from Heathcliff, Cathy is presented as 'readily' accepting from the Linton's, 'fine clothes and flattery,' which would in turn distinguish her from Heathcliff when she returns. Upon her arrival, she is immediately seen as separated when she sits above everyone else 'upon a handsome black pony.' This is emphasised further when although Cathy is joyful to return, she refrains from touching the dogs, 'lest they should fawn upon her splendid garments.' Similarly, when Cathy encounters Heathcliff, although she runs to embrace him, she gazes 'concernedly' at her dress, which she fears has become 'embellished.' Emily Bronte clearly depicts the physical state of the divided self also through Cathy and Heathcliff's marriages. Only when Cathy marries Edgar and Heathcliff marries Isabella, can we truly see the division within the self. As we see throughout the novel, Heathcliff's absence has a profound effect upon the steady decline of Catherine's physical and mental state of health. Due to their separation, Catherine no longer recognises her own reflection as Heathcliff mirrored all that she represented. "Don't you see that face?"¦ It was yourself Mrs Linton: You knew it a while since." The relationship between male and female in 'Frankenstein' is also subject to division. Whereas Cathy and Heathcliff need one another to survive as a whole, Frankenstein's relationship with Elizabeth cannot survive as the monster will not allow it due to Frankenstein's refusal to "create a female" for the monster. Just as Frankenstein hoped for happiness with his marriage to Elizabeth, the monster also wishes for a companion equal to him that will, in turn, "perfectionate" as Elizabeth would do with Frankenstein, his "weak and faulty natures." Frankenstein's marriage to Elizabeth would enable him to regain his lost innocence, which was lost, due to the creation of his "abhorred monster," thereby creating within Frankenstein an internal division, until this union occurs. As the monster is refused an opportunity to be free from 'misery,' he therefore destroys his creator's chance. "I shall be with you on your wedding night." Just as the monster is divided due to lack of companionship, one may also see his creator suffering the same fate that has not resulted, as in Wuthering Heights from outside influences, but due to his own actions. Emily Bronte further develops Catherine's state of division through where she lives, either in Wuthering Heights or Thrushcross Grange. Heathcliff and Edgar represent the extreme emotions felt by Cathy in certain parts of the novel. Both symbolise the differing households and how, when Cathy is contained within one of these environments with either Edgar or Heathcliff it has a discernible effect upon her character and future. To a certain extent, both are needed in order for Cathy to be complete. Without them she cannot survive as Heathcliff represents her sole being, "he's more myself than I am," her desire for freedom again to those "hills" where she may return to again with her former playmate and regain what was repressed within her due to her first outing to Thrushcross Grange and from her marriage to Edgar. However, even though she is presented as divided even when they are seen as physically together, due to her superiority in social class. "It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff"¦He shall never know how I love him." The importance of social class is emphasised through Cathy's marriage to Edgar. Edgar represents more of the imposed order of society, the conventional and cultivated, everything that Cathy seeks to obtain. "You love Mr Edgar because he's handsome, rich and loves you." She knows she can rely upon his predictability in any situation that may arise. Although Catherine desires the passion that Heathcliff presents to her, she is 'at present' depicted as believing Edgar's docile love will save her. As Catherine cannot live within both environments, ultimately she feels restricted when she picks Edgar as her husband and chooses to move to Thrushcross Grange, as spiritually Cathy is presented as needing Heathcliff as whatever their "souls are made of" they "are the same." Without him, Catherine considers herself a mere shadow of her former self, wishing to be a "girl again, half savage." Within Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein,' the divisional aspect of the two principal characters, Frankenstein and the monster, rather subvert the theme of being physically divided. Mary Shelley presents this theme through her use of juxtaposition when describing both Frankenstein and the monster convulsing in the same chapter. Linguistically she reflects Frankenstein as becoming part of his creation at the moment of its birth. Just as Frankenstein describes how in his fever "every limb became convulsed," so too does the monster reflect, effectively through Shelley's use of descriptive language, how when created it had a "convulsive motion" which "agitated its limbs." As Mary Shelley presents Frankenstein and the monster as one through her comparative language, her use of syntax within the description of the monster's birth also adds emphasis to this theme. Thematically, the divided self is once more, seen as subverted through the use of imagery instead of language. Rather than describing the actions of both Frankenstein and the monster as analogous through the use of language, Mary Shelley, through Robert Walton's encounter with Frankenstein also thematically reinforces both characters as united through the use of imagery. Even though the reader is later informed the traveller is Frankenstein, the unique choice of imagery when describing him as an 'interesting creature' serves only to reinforce how Frankenstein has become divided from humanity due to his unnatural creation. However, this singular image has a paradoxical effect upon Frankenstein's divided self. Although one may view Frankenstein as divided, one may also regard him as united with his 'creature.' Just as he is presented as 'gnashing his teeth,' the monster is later seen to reflect Frankenstein's actions by gnashing his teeth in 'the impotence of anger.' Mary Shelley's use of language regarding the theme of giving birth to an embodiment of ones self clearly depicts the physical, mental and spiritual void in both Frankenstein and his creation. Just as Cathy's emotions are repressed within Wuthering Heights, so too are Frankenstein's. The monster himself may represent the division within Frankenstein's sub conscience, his primitive self. "We are unfashioned creatures, but half made up." As his creation has given birth to his other self, he is closely linked with the monsters own spiritual self. "You my creator, detest and spurn me"¦to whom thou art bound by ties only dissoluble by the annihilation of one of us." Emily Bronte also successfully presents as Mary Shelley does, the theme of the divided self through her use of language. When the reader is told "her mind has wandered, her soul no longer remains within her," one may view Emily Bronte's description of Cathy's divided self as conflicting. Although her soul is seen to escape what she likens to a "shattered prison" which has, like the two households similarly restricted her, this liberation also divides Cathy within herself, spiritually, mentally and physically. The monster, within Frankenstein is also subjected to spiritual division. His perception of life is based upon experience. Through his involvement with the cottagers he instinctively learns to "assist their labours," thus developing a sense of humanity. This instinctive good side is destroyed however when the cottagers reject him and with a "bitter sickness" the monster therefore learns how he will treat Frankenstein in return, thus destroying his sense of humanity, forever dividing him until his death. Within both novels, the theme of the divided self is an experience, which each protagonist character is seen to endure. Until they tragically accept their destiny, Cathy, Heathcliff, Frankenstein and the monster are presented as physically, spiritually and mentally divided, not only within themselves but also with each other. Only when they finally succumb to death, are "the dead at peace," leaving the reader to ponder upon the rhetorical question which touches upon the theme of the divided self; for "where can I find rest but in death?"   

Theme of the divided self within Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Thematically, the divided self is one of the most interesting themes within both novels and is of great importance to the development or ruin of the characters in both 'Wuthering Heights' and 'Frankenstein.' Both authors when...

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As fabled as fairies and dryads,...As fabled as fairies and dryads, only slightly more scientific, the imaginary device referred to as the "time machine" has gained many prospective engineers over the years. Young boys ponder thoughts of returning to Jurassic times in a time machine of their own, while little girls dream of princesses in castles. Even as we grow older, we fancy that such an appliance might help us revoke that angry diatribe towards our boss, or take us back to yesterday when we bought that lotto ticket. Certainly, the contraption has procured a wonderful spot on our list of "Things I Wish Bill Gates Would Hurry Up And Design." But who exactly was it that first conjured up such an idea? Most definitely not Bill Gates. In the late 1800s, H.G.Wells entertained many, as well as making a reputation for himself in the writing business, when he composed his "extraordinary voyage" The Time Machine. The Time Machine was perhaps the first book that allowed the world to accept the thesis that seeing is not believing. Our "voyage" begins much like any other book of the 1800s, with many respectable people gathered together in a drawing room. Not only is it redundant, but it is the forecast of a positively boring book. However, we must remember that just as weather forecasts have a way of being uncannily incorrect, book forecasts are commonly wrong as well. There is a psychologist, a medical man, a very young man, Filby, a provincial mayor, our narrator, and the Time Traveller himself. The group listens rather skeptically as the Time Traveller attempts to convince them of the validity of such trekking, even when he presents them with a miniature replica of the time machine he claims to have built for himself in the laboratory. When the "mini-machine" seems to disappear in mid air, they pass it off as a clever party trick. However, the resolute scientist invites the group back for a second dinner party the following week where he hopes the true device will be completed. The following week, the assemblage returns only to find that their host is absent. Mid-way through the main course, the Time Traveller appears, looking rugged and distressed. After shoveling the entrée into his mouth in a manner very much resembling a feasting lion, he sits to tell his story. The group listens intently as he divulges the details of his experience traveling to the year Eight Hundred and Two Thousand Seven Hundred and One A.D. After landing in front of a huge white Sphinx where his home once stood, the Time Traveller encounters an adorably strange race called the Eloi, who immediately whisk him away for a ceremonious dinner, deeming him a gift of the thunderstorm. However, when he returns to the White Sphinx, he discovers his time machine is missing. Obviously, the main complication in this story is the loss of the Time Machine, for without it, the main character would not be able to return home. Thus being, the story on truly begins at this time. Assuming the Eloi to be a very advanced form of the human species, the Time Traveller is amazed to discover their innocent, peaceful, and quite vegetarian ways. He becomes a good friend to them and even better friends with one named Weena after he saves her from the terrible fate of drowning. It comes to pass that a few days after his arrival, he comes upon an entirely different species called the Morlocks that appear to be subterranean dwellers. He discovers the entrance to their tunneled home is through a hollowed pillar in the Sphinx and is positive that they are responsible for the untimely disappearance of his beloved machine. His suspicions are confirmed after he journeys into their habitation and witnesses firsthand the whereabouts of his only ticket home. Had it not been for the matches in his pocket that nearly blinded the disgusting creatures, he would not have made it out alive. The conflict is now assuredly between man and man"¦or perhaps I should say man and Morlock. In actuality, the Morlocks are a descendant race of people, very distantly related to the Eloi. This so greatly disturbs the Time Traveller for prior to his burrow expedition, he had thought the Morlocks were slave to the Eloi, manufacturing and trudging on to make the Eloi happy. However, he realized that in fact, the Eloi were not the superior race. His dear friends were merely cattle being fattened by the Morlocks for their dinners. Outraged, the Time Traveller takes Weena with him to explore a building he could see in the distance. It was two days before the duo reached the porcelain palace and discovered it to be the ruins of a sort of museum. Knowing that fire was his only defense against the ghastly enemy, the Time Traveller searched until he came across a box of matches and two sticks of dynamite. Unfortunately, on their journey back, the couple is intercepted by a group of hungry Morlocks. While attempting to fight the beasts off, our hero's bonfire gets out of hand and lights the entire forest on fire. Unable to find Weena, he escapes the mess"¦alone. Because of his anger for the loss of sweet Weena, he is even more compelled to kick some major Morlock booty"¦or, more eloquently put, vanquish the unpleasant rival. Equipped with his provisions, he returns to the Sphinx, only to find that the doors into the lair are wide open. Planning to find the time machine and repair a broken lever while warding off the adversary with his matches, the prepared protagonist ventures into the dark. The thus-far intriguing story gets more interesting as it reaches its apex. Just as he is in need of his trusty matches and this is where the plot-twist is implicated, it is revealed that they are useless for the box is necessary for the inflammation of his rather makeshift weaponry"¦ which is conveniently located above ground. But obviously, he reattaches the lever anyway. If he hadn't, who would be telling the narrator the story? Our story is resolved as the main character zooms off into the unknown of many different times before finally returning home. And the group of listeners relaxes into their chairs. It is impossible to tell the mental reactions of most of the guests, but the narrator, who works for the paper, claims to doubt his previous incredulity. The story ends with his epilogue where he states that the whereabouts of the Time Traveller, not to mention his machine, are unknown to this day. So ends another classic story with a great amount of a cliffhanger"s appeal. The principal character of the account is the man that the narrator refers to as the Time Traveller. The primary characteristic of this man is undoubtedly his brilliance. He is exquisitely intelligent and it shows throughout the story. Even when he is seemingly lost in his own world, he remains on his toes and logical. It's a very realistic portrayal of a man that would be clever enough to design and construct such a contrivance as a time machine, so I'd have to say there was little, if any, exaggeration involved. His character was revealed purely through dialogue since he was revealing his whole journey throughout the book. However, within this dialogue, there were descriptions of himself and accounts of his actions. I suppose it could be stated that it was a combination of all three, though I maintain that since the descriptions and such were spoken, dialogue was the primary tool used. I absolutely loved the character that I came to understand! He was very compassionate towards the Eloi and had a very human amount of hatred for the Morlocks. I also liked the way he conveyed his prediction of doubt from his colleagues. All of this made him a very genuine guy. As far as I could tell, there was virtually nothing wrong with his disposition. The only way the Time Traveller changed throughout the story was in his knowledge of the future of mankind. This knowledge, I believe, made him more prepared and confident in his own time and place. However, he needed not be confident, for in the end, he didn't stay in his own place for long. Though the Time Traveller was the main character in the story, the narrator was probably the most important. He was one of the men at every dinner, so his insights into the story were very accurate and appreciated. It was vital that the story not be written from the eyes of the actual traveller because this way, the reader is left to elucidate whether or not the scientist's allegation was truthful, or the work of his imagination. It's more creative and open to interpretation. I had a lot of sympathy for every member of the Eloi race. It was almost pathetic the way that they were so sweet and trusting and innocent, yet only there at the mercy of cruel and unforgiving masters. It made my heart fall to read of them laughing gaily without any clue that they were simply livestock. I normally wouldn't say that I identify with them, but I'm sure the cow that sacrificed itself for my burger could. Since you are what you eat, that means that I am that cow. Therefor, I must identify somehow, on an extremely indirect level. Wells used very proper grammar and his dialogue was written correctly in every aspect. Usually such drab and lifeless vocabulary would contribute to the mundane tone of the book, but not in this case. Even with a complete diminishment of any colloquial expression, the book was lively and interesting. It was highly descriptive with adjectives that bequeathed an image in your head. This is obvious even within the opening paragraph of the book. "The Time Traveller for so it will be convenient to speak of him was expounding a recondite matter to us. His grey eyes shone and twinkled, and his usually pale face was flushed and animated. The fire burned brightly, and the soft radiance of the incandescent lights in the lilies of silver caught the bubbles that flashed and passed in our glasses. Our chairs, being his patents, embraced and caressed us rather than submitted to be sat upon, and there was that luxurious after-dinner atmosphere when thought runs gracefully free of the trammels of precision. And he put it to us in this way-marking the points with a lean forefinger-as we sat and lazily admired his earnestness over this new paradox as we thought it: and his fecundity." This is from the eyes of the narrator, who speaks in first person throughout the book. However, he knows nothing about the actual plot of the story because that is relayed by the Time Traveller. This is done by the narrator simply listening to the Time Traveller tell his story. Because of this, nearly the entirety of the book is a quoted monologue from the main character instead of description from the narrator. The story takes place in the late 1800s, which was the present at the time of the book's original publication. However, the majority of the book is a flashback. Instead of flashing back to an earlier date, it flashes back to a later date in the year 802,701. The date had already occurred, though. This is complicated because the book is about time travel. Essentially, the Time Traveller flashes back to the future minus Michael J. Fox when telling about his experience. But the story does move chronologically because the traveller is simply telling a story about something that's already happened. The story moves moderately rapidly. Much activity occurs within a duration of 120 pages. The place remains the same, however, the characteristics of that place change drastically. Originally, it is a flourishing respectable city, but it becomes a grassy hilled green location with forests and ancient ruins scattered about. There is the White Sphinx, which is a large hall inside, with pillars and pathways. Beneath the Sphinx, there is an elaborate tunneling system that extends throughout the land. There is an ancient museum with the remains of cultural artifacts and such. Since these descriptions are purely derivative of the author's imagination, there is no knowledge to be gained from these settings. The only good the elaborate descriptions do is to help the reader further understand the landscape on which the characters traverse. Though H.G. Wells himself originally dubbed this book as a work of "extraordinary voyage," it is more commonly called a science-fiction novel. It could also be called an adventure novel due to the fact that many adventurous aspects are present, such as extreme danger and perilous action. I'd imagine Wells wrote as he spoke, since formal language was present in the period it was written in. It was, as aforementioned, very vivid. Also, there was a good balance between lengthy, colorful sentences and short, to-the-point sentences. He kept things interesting and avoided loquacious descriptions. In the following excerpt, he is describing an encounter between the Time Traveller and the Morlocks. Notice the words he uses to illuminate his fear of the viscous creatures are captivating and clear. "In a moment I was clutched by several hands, and there was no mistaking that they were trying to haul me back. I struck another light, and waved it in their dazzled faces. You can scarce imagine how nauseatingly inhuman they looked- those pale, chinless faces and great, lidless, pinkish-grey eyes! - as they stared in their blindness and bewilderment. But I did not stay to look, I promise you: I retreated again, and when my second match had ended, I struck my third. It had almost burned through when I reached the opening into the shaft." I found three symbols. The Sphinx was the most interesting one of all, though. It was the barrier between the Eloi and the Morlocks. The Eloi represented mankind, as it should be: sweet, endearing, loving, and kind, with no emphasis on material objects. The Morlocks were the human race as it is now: greedy and cold, cruel, manipulative, conniving and confused. The Sphinx is the barrier between us today and our goal. In essence, the Sphinx is the time we have to correct our ways. The entire book was about mankind as a race and how we need to ameliorate our ways. It showed the cupidity we posses and how we manipulate everything to suit our needs, just as the Morlocks manipulated their cousins the Eloi to become their food source. Weena was my favorite character and she was everything a human is not. Weena is sweet and pure and was driven in life by love and compassion. I found it interesting that of the two groups of people he discovered, the Time Traveller automatically assumed the kinder was of descent from humans, while the other was another species. This confirmed that humans are self-admiring because we couldn't imagine why we wouldn't have evolved into a group of happy, mildly tempered, controlled people. If I didn't think our breed was in need of some revamped notions, I certainly believe it now. The Time Machine was an absolutely amazing journey from cover to cover. I loved it and would definitely read another book by H.G.Wells. There were so many great things about it, whether it be the plot, or style, or creativity. I'd read another Wells story for all of those aspects! The primary appeal of this work, however, would have to be the clarity of the writing. It was easy to understand and not excessively lengthy. In the interest of keeping this composition in the same manner, it is my pleasure to end on this note: it is not that we don't believe because we can't see, but that we don't believe because we haven't opened our eyes.   

As fabled as fairies and dryads, only slightly more scientific, the imaginary device referred to as the "time machine" has gained many prospective engineers over the years. Young boys ponder thoughts of returning to Jurassic times in a time machine of their own, while little girls dream of princesses in...

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Our universe is an ever-turning wheel...Our universe is an ever-turning wheel that maintains a beautiful balance of life. On the spokes of this wheel the existence of all things is assured; life is given, bodies and souls are fed, each position on the wheel is cultivated by the next, and then one day we will pass away, only to start the circle again in another mysterious way. Take a moment to look around you and see the many cycles that exist for the sole purpose of keeping our wheel in motion, and then recognize how little these great givers of life are celebrated, or even noticed. Without a second thought we will all at one time or another dishonor the same things that pay tribute to us. But that, too, is a part of the cycle. It's not good, nor is it bad. It just is. In his story "Death in the Woods," Sherwood Anderson demonstrates mankind's ability to take for granted the gifts received through our Mother Earth, aptly symbolized by an old woman with no name. He also reveals to his reader the beauty that lies within the ceremonies of life and death that are constantly taking place all around us and within us. The story is broken into 5 different parts, told in first person, and although the narrator is not the main character, he lends significant importance to the symbolism that takes place throughout the tale. In the first part of the story our nameless storyteller introduces his reader to an old woman; one that everyone sees, but nobody knows. Demonstrating society's lack of concern for such an old woman, the narrator states, "People drive right down a road and never notice an old woman like that" 23. In this first section he uses the words 'old woman' eight times, and yet we know he considers her to be strong, not frail like the people that we usually associate with the condition of being aged. Our first clue of this takes place in the first and second paragraphs where she is diligently working to make a few eggs and hens trade into enough food to feed a farm. This is her job, and she does it without complaint. Somehow, she is able to make the impossible work. In the fifth paragraph he describes himself as "a young and sick boy with rheumatism" 23, and then in the next sentence depicts her carrying a heavy pack on her back- one that he could probably not manage on his own. In that pack on her back she carries the burden of feeding and caring for those that depend on her, and yet she manages the load without any glory. Her burden is both physically and symbolically heavy, reflected in her drooping shoulders, and yet she never lets anyone down. The cows, horses, dogs, pigs, and men somehow always get fed despite her limited resources. She manages it simply because she must; it is her role just as it is the role of our Mother Earth. In the sixth paragraph we are introduced to the old woman's neglectful and abusive husband and son, undoubtedly the embodiment of the worst traits in all of us. They treat her with complete disrespect, and yet expect her to continue serving their endless needs. For instance, if the old man were to come home and find no food on the table, ""¦the old man gave his old woman a cut over the head" 25. Of course, she continues to feed them, and every other mouth on their pathetic farm. Interestingly enough, if they would only give her more to work with, i.e., more money, more hens, more love, more respect, she would undoubtedly be able to provide much more for them in turn. The men are hurting their own cycle of sustenance. This is so painfully symbolic of our relationship with our caretaker, Mother Earth. Even though we repeatedly abuse the source of our nourishment, she continues to provide for those that give so little back. After we are introduced to her husband, in paragraphs nine through fourteen Anderson flashes back to her youth in an abusive foster home, as well as her short courtship and abrupt marriage to an equally cruel husband. Even as a young girl she is fulfilling her role as caretaker and feeder. She fulfills the basic household needs, puts food in everyone's mouths, and satisfies the German farmer's more primal appetite for sex. Of course, sex is frequently not an issue of lust, but rather an issue of control for mankind, and of fertility for Mother Nature. It is in a struggle for this control that the young girl lucks into marrying her husband. Anderson tells us that he wouldn't have married her if ""¦the German farmer hadn't tried to tell him where to get off" 24. Neither of the men loved her, but both fought for the control of her body, her new suitor being the victor. So, away goes the trophy to the winner. In part two there are no less than sixteen references to the old woman feeding someone or something in her daily life. The narrator depicts her feeding meager supplies of food to the cows, dogs, pigs, horses, chickens, the German couple, and her husband as well as her son. He even makes reference to the old woman at one point having to feed her husband ""¦in a certain way" 25, though she stopped doing that after the children were born. It is well established that this is her role and duty in the circle of life, and it doesn't seem to bother her. She just accepts it. But under the weight of her duties her slender shoulders become stooped. At this point she is no longer a young woman, but has become old in appearance. She wanders around her farm muttering to herself, trying to figure out how she is going to get everything fed. The burdens of her life have aged her. Equally "yoked," our Mother Earth has begun to age prematurely as well. In the 19th paragraph the narrator states, "She had to scheme all of her life about getting things fed"¦" 25. She is responsible for making sure that all trades are equal, that her husbands shortcomings are compensated for and the lack of food is stretched far enough to sustain everyone concerned, whether it is deserved or not. Once again, this symbolizes our equal opportunities for survival, although our chances for abundance increase with every ounce that we invest back into the cycle of life and nourishment. Over and over throughout the story we see her struggling to protect the cycle of life on her farm. The narrator states that "The stock in the barn cried to her hungrily"¦" 26, for they know she is their benefactor of life. She watches over the eggs in the barn to be sure they don't freeze. She worries about the cows that don't give milk anymore. She understands the importance of feeding the horse that isn't good for anything, but maybe could be traded off. Even her abusive husband has a purpose in her world, and she knows that she must keep him fed, too. Everything has value, and she must care for it. Her survival depends on their survival. As the transition from the second part of the story into the third part occurs, the narrator describes her last journey into town to trade her meager goods for food. It is in this part of the story that the narrator's understanding of the old woman is changed. He is now connected to the mystical qualities that take place in her end of life. The butcher that she visits in town does not understand her compulsion to feed those that hurt her, and cannot see her place in the scheme of things. He does not have the insight that she is gifted with. What she understands innately, he takes for granted. Someone must care for the flock, although the flock rarely appreciates the effort. It is fitting that a man who slaughters animals for a living is critical of one whose role is to feed those same creatures. As the old woman starts back for the farm, followed by the dogs that depend on her scraps, it is growing late and cold. It is here that we are witness to the beautiful ceremony that takes place in the transition of life and death on the wheel of life. As she slowly passes away under a tree in the woods, we can see through the narrator's eyes the ceremony that takes place all around her. The dogs run in circles, and the moon shines in a full circle. Round and round the dogs run in quiet ceremony in a sacred clearing of the woods. All of this comes together to symbolize the great circle of life that we exist in. The narrator knows this and appreciates it because he has experienced it as well. He states, "I knew all about it afterward, when I grew to be a man, because once in a woods in Illinois, on another Winter night, I saw a pack of dogs just like that. The dogs were waiting for me to die just as they had waited for the old woman that night"¦" 28. His story is deeply important to him because he understands the 'mystical' quality of it all. That is a powerful word; one that is used when no other word will suffice in description of the spiritual nature of life. He used it a total of three times, making the impact even stronger. Throughout life the old woman fed those who depended on her, and she fulfilled this role in death while the dogs feed on the food in her bag. The narrator understood that this was simply her part in this world: "She died in a clearing in the woods and even after her death continued feeding animal life" 31. Even beyond that, she will eventually lay to rest in the ground where she will feed back into nature. She has come from the earth, and now she completes the circle to return back to the earth. Once again Anderson symbolizes the all-important cycle of life that we all must exist within. In her death our narrator is able to see her beauty when the weight of her responsibilities are lifted from her shoulder. She is a young and innocent girl once again, and she is finally given her due respect in death. Unfortunately, when the weight of our burdens finally does our Mother Earth in, we won't be able to mourn her and put her to rest with ceremony. Our own circle of life is far too dependent on hers. Most likely, the animals on the old woman's farm will die within days of her passing, since there will no longer be anyone around to fulfill their needs. In the fifth and final part of the story the narrator recounts how the details all come together for him since the time of the old woman's death. He slowly collects the pieces of information throughout his life in a quest to understand the meaning of it all. For some enlightened people, the search for understanding of our place in the universe is very much like that. We gather together the clues that our Mother leaves us and slowly come to respect the important nature of life and death. We begin to see the rituals, appreciate our roles and recognize the signs of our Mother's wellness, or illness. The cycle of life and death is dependant on our cooperation, or lack thereof. We decide how much we want to invest into its abundance.   

Our universe is an ever-turning wheel that maintains a beautiful balance of life. On the spokes of this wheel the existence of all things is assured; life is given, bodies and souls are fed, each position on the wheel is cultivated by the next, and then one day we will...

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