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Thomas Hardy concentrated on human relationships in his short stories, as this was his main area of interest. Hardy also had a keen interest on the supernatural such as aliens. In 1874, Thomas Hardy got married to the love of his life, Emma Gifford, but after 38 years of marriage in 1912, Emma passed away sending Hardy into deep depression. This is when Hardy's short stories hit its prime. He went on a pilgrimage in 1914 to find out about life after Emma. Although, in the same year, he re-married to Florence Dugdale at the age of 74 and in 1928, he passed away. All his poems are firmly grounded in Dorset life and folklore, particularly the short stories The Withered Arm and Tony Kytes: Arch The first relationship that we find out about in the Withered Arm is Getrude and Farmer Lodge, we find out that they are married: "Her face too was fresh in colour, but it was of a totally different quality- soft and evanescent, like the light under a heap of rose petals." This is the comparison between Gertrude and Farmer Lodge. Hardy describes Gertrude as "the light under a heap of rose petals" suggesting she is way beyond beauty. The simile is effective, as this sets a picture in your head of what she would look like. This may also suggest that the marriage is purely superficial and Lodge has only married Gertrude purely as she is pretty: "The well-to-do Farmer Lodge came nearly last; and his young wife, who accompanied him, walked up the aisle"¦appeared thus for the first time." This says that Lodge his parading his new "possession" to the public, and doesn't care about Gertrude's feelings, just the fact that he is with a beautiful woman. Later in the story, Lodge rejects Gertrude because of her disfigurement. This shows that Lodge is a very shallow individual and is defying the laws of marriage, for example "in sickness and health". Other people interpretations of Gertrude would be very positive as all eyes are upon her when she is paraded at church, but Rhoda, one of the milkmaids and Lodge's ex-girlfriend isn't best pleased about Lodge's new wife and how she looks: "I wouldn't look up at her if she were to pass my window this instant." This shows a very bad approach towards Gertrude and she feels threatened by her at the same time. Later in the story, Rhoda has a dream and her whole interpretation of Gertrude is changed, in fact, they become good friends: "I hope you will find this air agree with you, ma'am and not suffer from the damp of the water mead's" This tells us she has a enough courtesy to call her "ma'am". Her whole interpretation changed as she had a dream about Gertrude getting her arm cut off, and the next morning, Gertrude's arm hurt, so i guess she felt kind of responsible for what happened to her. Their relationship is very different from their relationships with Farmer Lodge as they are both in the same boat and they bond very well. Also, Farmer lodge used them both for their looks, and not for who they are so again, they have another thing in common. Tony Kytes: The arch deceiver is very different to the withered arm, as the man in this isn't using the women for his image, he's just a womaniser. Tony is described as not a very good looking man, but still get the girls: "'Twas a little, round, firm, tight face, with a seam here and there left by the smallpox" Hardy describes his face like a little mongrel's face; being left with small pox i would say is an insult. The affiliation between Tony Kytes and the three women he is playing with is very obscure because it would never happen. This makes the story slightly humorous too. The naivety of all three women is astounding, to say the least, as they believe Tony every time a word comes out of his mouth, they obey and listen: "Now, Milly, would you do me a favour- my coming wife, may I say...I don't mind, to oblige you, Tony" This is where Tony asks Milly to go in the back of the wagon, and she pretty much gives herself to way to him. I think this is awfully stupid but at the same time humorous. Tony's lack of fidelity is rife in this story as he cannot make up his mind who he wants to go with, this is a lot like Farmer Lodge and his lack of commitment to his ex Rhoda and ultimately, his son. Tony, like Farmer Lodge is very shallow as he would dump his wife-to-be Milly for either Unity or Hannah, and this is because he can't make his mind up: "I'm afeard...Now which would you marry, father, if you was in my place?" This shows that Tony is not just womaniser, but he has a heart too and he is afraid of the consequences, and fears he may end up with nothing. Jealousy is rife in this story, as all three women would go with Tony, even after what happened: "And away walks Unity Sallet likewise, though she looked back when she'd gone some way, to see if he was following her." Even after Unity rejected Tony, she still feels a sense of defeat and looks back to see if he was following her, knowing full well he went with Hannah. When Hardy puts Unity's whole name in the quotation given above, you know it will be her first, or final act in the story, and I think this is a good technique used in all stories. When all three women are in the cart together, the jealousy is so rife, they start to fight and sob to gain Tony's affections: "Now at these strange voices sounding from under the cloth Hannah was thunderstruck a'most into a swound" They are all fighting over the right to gain his affections, they don't care about there own safety, also another humorous part.
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Thomas Hardy concentrated on human relationships in his short stories, as this was his main area of interest. Hardy also had a keen interest on the supernatural such as aliens. In 1874, Thomas Hardy got married to the love of his life, Emma Gifford, but after 38 years of marriage in 1912, Emma passed away sending Hardy into deep depression. This is when Hardy's short stories hit its prime. He went on a pilgrimage in 1914 to find out about life after Emma. Although, in the same year, he re-married to Florence Dugdale at the age of 74 and in...
When Hardy puts Unity's whole name in the quotation given above, you know it will be her first, or final act in the story, and I think this is a good technique used in all stories.

When all three women are in the cart together, the jealousy is so rife, they start to fight and sob to gain Tony's affections:

"Now at these strange voices sounding from under the cloth Hannah was thunderstruck a'most into a swound"

They are all fighting over the right to gain his affections, they don't care about there own safety, also another humorous part.

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The role of the hero in...The role of the hero in Ken Kesey's novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, is played by Randle P. McMurphy, a wrongly committed mental patient with a lust for life. The qualities that garner McMurphy respect and admiration from his fellow patients are also responsible for his tragic downfall. These qualities include his temper, which leads to his being deemed "disturbed," his stubbornness, which results in his receiving numerous painful disciplinary treatments, and finally his free spirit, which leads to his death. Despite McMurphy being noble man, in the end, these characteristics hurt him more than they help him. Throughout the novel, McMurphy displays that he has a wild temper. This temper aids him in his battle with the "Big Nurse" Nurse Ratched for control of the mental ward. However, his temper eventually works against him. Upon McMurphy's arrival to the ward he establishes himself as a con man and a gambler. One of his first bets with the other patients is to see if, within a week, he can put "a bee in [Nurse Ratched's] butt, a burr in her bloomers. Get her goat. Bug her till she comes apart at those neat little seams" Kesey, Nest 69. McMurphy makes this bet after he learns about the Disturbed Ward where "assaultive" and "potential assaultives" are sent, and also about the "shock shop" where Electro-Shock Therapy is administered to unruly patients. Since McMurphy is "not in the habit of losing" Kesey 68, he wants to be certain that he can get away with harassing the Big Nurse without receiving any of these punishments. He is told by a fellow patient, "as long as you don't lose your temper and give her actual reason to request the restriction of the Disturbed Ward, or the therapeutic benefits of electro-shock you are safe. But that entails first and foremost keeping one's temper. And you? With your red hair and black record? Why delude yourself" 68. This shows that McMurphy is already perceived as a man with a temper after only one day on the ward. McMurphy displays this temper throughout the novel, but one incident finally gets him into trouble. During an argument with one of the black aides to the Big Nurse, a punch is thrown and a fight breaks out. This is what the Big Nurse has been waiting for; an excuse to send McMurphy to the Disturbed Ward. Upon his arrival to the Disturbed Ward, Electro-Shock Therapy is administered to McMurphy as punishment. The Big Nurse is able to get the upper hand in her battle against McMurphy when he allows his temper to take over. A second important personality trait of McMurphy is his stubbornness. It is part of his fighting spirit as he will not accept defeat. This is portrayed when McMurphy makes a wager with the other men that he can lift a large control panel. Despite everyone's doubts, he tries to lift it, and fails. Following his defeat, he tells the others, "but I tried though"¦goddammit I sure as hell did that much, now, didn't I" 111. This shows his fighting spirit, taking the challenge and not admitting total defeat, but it shows his stubbornness as well. He attempts the impossible and refuses to listen to anybody who doubts him. When McMurphy is committed to the Disturbed Ward, he has the opportunity to return to his old ward as long as he admits to being wrong. This would give the Big Nurse the final victory, but McMurphy is too stubborn to allow that to happen. As a result, he receives numerous Electro-Shock Therapy treatments. Each time he comes to, the Big Nurse offers him the chance to apologize and to admit that he was at fault, but he tells her "she could kiss his rosy red ass before he'd give up the goddam ship" 242. If McMurphy admitted he was wrong, he could avoid the Electro-Shock Therapies. However, he is too stubborn to allow the Big Nurse to win the war so easily. Throughout the novel, McMurphy's free spirit is demonstrated. He wishes to live his life on his own terms, not that of the social norm, and he spreads this mentality to the others. He "serves as an energy source and inspiration to"¦his fellows. They become less lethargic"¦but mainly, they become able and willing to struggle for life" Hicks, Criticism 234. This is one reason why the others look up to him so much. He helps them regain some control over their lives during his stay on the ward. McMurphy does this by teaching them how to laugh again, saying that "you have to laugh at the things that hurt you just to keep yourself in balance, just to keep the world from running you plumb crazy" Kesey 212. McMurphy also radiates his rebellious nature to the others by standing up against all the ward policies that he disagrees with. He does not wish for his life to be dictated to him by rules and restrictions, which is why he challenges the Big Nurses authority. At the end of the novel, McMurphy attacks the Big Nurse, and consequently receives a lobotomy. Although his mind is taken away, his body still struggles to stay alive. Knowing that McMurphy would not want to live his life in that state, a fellow patient decides to kill him. This task is more difficult than he anticipates, because "the big, hard body had a tough grip on life. It fought a long time against having it taken away" Kesey, Nest 270. This shows that McMurphy's free spirit and stubbornness is so strong and deeply anchored, that even though his mind is gone, his body continues the fight to stay alive. In Ken Kesey's novel, One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest, there is one character heroic enough to stand up against the tyranny of the Big Nurse. This character is Randle P. McMurphy. However, it is McMurphy's own personality traits including his wild temper, his stubbornness and his free spirit which ultimately defeat him.   

The role of the hero in Ken Kesey's novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, is played by Randle P. McMurphy, a wrongly committed mental patient with a lust for life. The qualities that garner McMurphy respect and admiration from his fellow patients are also responsible for his tragic downfall....

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Dostoevsky used confession as a path...Dostoevsky used confession as a path to forgiveness throughout the novel. From his first thought after the murders to the time that he actually confessed to the crimes. Whether it be from Raskolnikov to Nikolay, the act of confession made then feel better about themselves removing the weight that they had placed upon their shoulders. Confession is to the ordinary man the first step to forgiveness. Through confession, the ordinary man can share his burdens with others. Moreover, let known the dark secrets what he has been harboring, trying desperately to keep away from everyone else. In contrast, the extraordinary man would never have the need to confess his sins. Because he would not have, thought twice about what it was that he did, and therefore would have no need to tell others of his sins. Or even to then that what it was he did were even sins, after all the extraordinary man would have looked at it in the fact that he saved many people from the old "louse" and that he had, because he was extraordinary, the right to kill any one who he though deserved it. In the moments after the crime itself, Raskolnikov considers confessing everything. Only to have the pressure and sickness build up until the need to confess to someone is so great that he cannot contain it anymore. Confession is the one thing that Raskolnikov needs to do through out the novel but cannot. Instead of confessing to the crimes that he committed and suffer punishment from authority, he chooses to try to keep his secret and ended up punishing himself. The first thought of confession first appeared in part one chapter seven when his first thought was to give "up everything, and would have gone to give himself up, and not from fear, but from simple horror and loathing of what he had done. The feeling of loathing especially surged up within him and grew stronger every minute." Dostoyevsky 77 This scene starts how to show that Raskolnikov realized that his theory was flawed and that he was in fact not the extraordinary man that he thought that he was. The second thought of confession is when the porter hands him the summons to report to the police station. He completely forgot about how Nastasya had told him about how the landlady was suing for back rent. On his way to the police station, he thought, "I'll go in, fall on my knees and confess everything"¦" Dostoyevsky 91 He then again in the police station thinks of confessing to the crime in the police station. To avoid this he tells them the most personal thing in his life. How he was engaged to the landladies daughter, and how she was not even that attractive. After signing the IOU, he had the urge to confess again. "A strange Idea suddenly occurred to him, to get up at once, to go up to Nikodim Fomitch, and tell him everything that had happened yesterday, and then to go with him to his lodgings and to show him the things in the hole in the corner." Dostoyevsky 100 At the end of part two chapter one when Raskolnikov faints from the tension of being summons and the smell of the paint reminding him of the crime scene. The reader is shown how the horror of what he has done is growing "stronger every minute." Dostoyevsky 77 The act of murder, if he can ignore it, would therefore make him a superior extraordinary man. However, he cannot ignore it and is in need of human contact. Both of these things, the extraordinary man has no use for but the ordinary man requires. Then in part two, chapter six Raskolnikov confesses in a way to Zametov by saying that "it was I who murdered the old woman and Lizaveta." Dostoyevsky 155 Then gave a detailed explanation of what he 'would' do with the jewel and money if he did in fact kill the old 'louse' and her sister. All of which he did, but then passed it of as a joke, that he was just messing with Zametov. Zametov however does not as readily dismiss the confession, as Raskolnikov believes, and later it is used as part of Zametov's suspicion against Raskolnikov. The next thought of confession comes when he is walking home from the café and sees a woman attempt to drown herself, motivated by the nearness of the suicide. "Anyway, I will make an end, for I want to"¦ But does it matter? There will be the square yard of space"”ha! But what an end! Is it really the end? Shall I tell them or not? Ah "¦ damn! How tired I am!"Dostoyevsky 160 After seeing the woman try to commit suicide, he realized that spending time in a "square yard of space" Dostoyevsky 160 in jail would be better than the suffering that he is imposing upon himself, or the realization that he had been considering the same thing, suicide. On his way to the police station to confess to the crime, his intellectual desire to confess to the crime and ease his suffering was overruled by his emotion desire to help the injured man, who turned out to be Marmeladov. This shows the dual nature of Raskolnikov. How his intellectual side is always deliberate while his emotional responses are spontaneous. Then is reinforced when he gives away his last 20 rubles to Katerina, Marmeladov's wife. It is at this point in the novel that Raskolnikov meets the much talked about Sonya and that he realizes that she is also a person of great suffering and shame. That she is a person that he can confide in because she also has suffered. In part three chapter three in the mist of a discussion with his mother Raskolnikov realizes that the crime rather than making him above the ordinary man imprisons him and isolates him from others, even his mother: "It became suddenly plain and perceptible that he would never again be able to speak freely of anything to anyone." Dostoyevsky 214 Moving him farther and farther away from the extraordinary man that he though he was and closer to the ordinary man he is. Raskolnikov again considers confessing in Porfiry's office, with the stress of having a surprise hidden in the closet. When all of a sudden Nikolay comes in and confesses to the crime of killing the old louse and her sister. Nikolay confessed so that he could begin the path to forgiveness even though he did not commit the murders confessing to them make him feel better about himself and relieve the stress that had been placed upon him. Later in the novel, the painter that was the surprise hidden away in the closet comes up to Raskolnikov and apologizes for accusing Raskolnikov of the murders. This further pushed Raskolnikov to the point of confessing by knowing that an innocent man will pay for his crime if he does not come forward and confess to the crime that he committed. Raskolnikov's thoughts of confession, finally occur in part five, chapter four when Raskolnikov confesses to Sonya. Where she answers "What have you done, what have you done to yourself? ... There is no one, no one unhappier than you in the whole world." Dostoevsky 380-381 Sonya instructs him to go to the hay market and confess to his fellow ordinary people. His pride on the other hand this time kept him from doing this. It wasn't until latter with Luzhin gone and Svidrigailov dead that he was able to "take up his cross" and begin his re-entry into humanity. He has taken the cypress-wood cross, and makes the sign of the cross for Sonya's sake, which is a step towards redemption. Then he goes to the Hay Market to confess to the people, when he attempts this people think that he is a drunk and will not even listen to what he has to say. He then proceeds to the police station with the cross around his neck, being both a symbol of his crime and a symbol of redemption, to confess everything. Releasing himself from the punishment that he had inflicted upon himself and to accept the punishment of the law.   

Dostoevsky used confession as a path to forgiveness throughout the novel. From his first thought after the murders to the time that he actually confessed to the crimes. Whether it be from Raskolnikov to Nikolay, the act of confession made then feel better about themselves removing the weight that they...

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