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Thomas Hardy concentrated on human relationships in his short stories, as this was his main area of interest. Hardy also had a keen interest on the supernatural such as aliens. In 1874, Thomas Hardy got married to the love of his life, Emma Gifford, but after 38 years of marriage in 1912, Emma passed away sending Hardy into deep depression. This is when Hardy's short stories hit its prime. He went on a pilgrimage in 1914 to find out about life after Emma. Although, in the same year, he re-married to Florence Dugdale at the age of 74 and in 1928, he passed away. All his poems are firmly grounded in Dorset life and folklore, particularly the short stories The Withered Arm and Tony Kytes: Arch The first relationship that we find out about in the Withered Arm is Getrude and Farmer Lodge, we find out that they are married: "Her face too was fresh in colour, but it was of a totally different quality- soft and evanescent, like the light under a heap of rose petals." This is the comparison between Gertrude and Farmer Lodge. Hardy describes Gertrude as "the light under a heap of rose petals" suggesting she is way beyond beauty. The simile is effective, as this sets a picture in your head of what she would look like. This may also suggest that the marriage is purely superficial and Lodge has only married Gertrude purely as she is pretty: "The well-to-do Farmer Lodge came nearly last; and his young wife, who accompanied him, walked up the aisle"¦appeared thus for the first time." This says that Lodge his parading his new "possession" to the public, and doesn't care about Gertrude's feelings, just the fact that he is with a beautiful woman. Later in the story, Lodge rejects Gertrude because of her disfigurement. This shows that Lodge is a very shallow individual and is defying the laws of marriage, for example "in sickness and health". Other people interpretations of Gertrude would be very positive as all eyes are upon her when she is paraded at church, but Rhoda, one of the milkmaids and Lodge's ex-girlfriend isn't best pleased about Lodge's new wife and how she looks: "I wouldn't look up at her if she were to pass my window this instant." This shows a very bad approach towards Gertrude and she feels threatened by her at the same time. Later in the story, Rhoda has a dream and her whole interpretation of Gertrude is changed, in fact, they become good friends: "I hope you will find this air agree with you, ma'am and not suffer from the damp of the water mead's" This tells us she has a enough courtesy to call her "ma'am". Her whole interpretation changed as she had a dream about Gertrude getting her arm cut off, and the next morning, Gertrude's arm hurt, so i guess she felt kind of responsible for what happened to her. Their relationship is very different from their relationships with Farmer Lodge as they are both in the same boat and they bond very well. Also, Farmer lodge used them both for their looks, and not for who they are so again, they have another thing in common. Tony Kytes: The arch deceiver is very different to the withered arm, as the man in this isn't using the women for his image, he's just a womaniser. Tony is described as not a very good looking man, but still get the girls: "'Twas a little, round, firm, tight face, with a seam here and there left by the smallpox" Hardy describes his face like a little mongrel's face; being left with small pox i would say is an insult. The affiliation between Tony Kytes and the three women he is playing with is very obscure because it would never happen. This makes the story slightly humorous too. The naivety of all three women is astounding, to say the least, as they believe Tony every time a word comes out of his mouth, they obey and listen: "Now, Milly, would you do me a favour- my coming wife, may I say...I don't mind, to oblige you, Tony" This is where Tony asks Milly to go in the back of the wagon, and she pretty much gives herself to way to him. I think this is awfully stupid but at the same time humorous. Tony's lack of fidelity is rife in this story as he cannot make up his mind who he wants to go with, this is a lot like Farmer Lodge and his lack of commitment to his ex Rhoda and ultimately, his son. Tony, like Farmer Lodge is very shallow as he would dump his wife-to-be Milly for either Unity or Hannah, and this is because he can't make his mind up: "I'm afeard...Now which would you marry, father, if you was in my place?" This shows that Tony is not just womaniser, but he has a heart too and he is afraid of the consequences, and fears he may end up with nothing. Jealousy is rife in this story, as all three women would go with Tony, even after what happened: "And away walks Unity Sallet likewise, though she looked back when she'd gone some way, to see if he was following her." Even after Unity rejected Tony, she still feels a sense of defeat and looks back to see if he was following her, knowing full well he went with Hannah. When Hardy puts Unity's whole name in the quotation given above, you know it will be her first, or final act in the story, and I think this is a good technique used in all stories. When all three women are in the cart together, the jealousy is so rife, they start to fight and sob to gain Tony's affections: "Now at these strange voices sounding from under the cloth Hannah was thunderstruck a'most into a swound" They are all fighting over the right to gain his affections, they don't care about there own safety, also another humorous part.
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Thomas Hardy concentrated on human relationships in his short stories, as this was his main area of interest. Hardy also had a keen interest on the supernatural such as aliens. In 1874, Thomas Hardy got married to the love of his life, Emma Gifford, but after 38 years of marriage in 1912, Emma passed away sending Hardy into deep depression. This is when Hardy's short stories hit its prime. He went on a pilgrimage in 1914 to find out about life after Emma. Although, in the same year, he re-married to Florence Dugdale at the age of 74 and in...
When Hardy puts Unity's whole name in the quotation given above, you know it will be her first, or final act in the story, and I think this is a good technique used in all stories.

When all three women are in the cart together, the jealousy is so rife, they start to fight and sob to gain Tony's affections:

"Now at these strange voices sounding from under the cloth Hannah was thunderstruck a'most into a swound"

They are all fighting over the right to gain his affections, they don't care about there own safety, also another humorous part.

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The story begins in a village...The story begins in a village near the marshes where a young boy named Pip lives. Because his parents are dead, he lives with his sister, Mrs. Joe Gargery and her husband Joe who's a blacksmith and Pip's trusted friend. Pip doesn't have much of a future, he's destined to become Joe's apprentice and eventually a blacksmith. Then, Pip meets a convict out on the marshes. It seems like nothing important, despite it being frightening, but this meeting will change his life forever. The convict asks him to bring some food. Pip, fearing for his life, steals some food from his house, brings them to the convict and doesn't see him again. Later, a stranger will show up in the Three Jolly Bargemen. He'll scare Pip a little because he reminds him of the convict. Pip thinks he might be in danger, but instead, the stranger gives him two one-pound notes. At that time, not much connection is shown between the notes and the convict on the marshes, but later discoveries indicate that it was the convict that had sent the man with the notes. Suddenly, there's a twist of fate. Pip's invited to play at Miss Havisham's. Miss Havisham is a wealthy old lady who lives uptown in a large, gloomy house. Next to the house is an old, decrepit brewery and a garden overrun with weeds, both remnants of better times. The interior of the house isn't much looked after either. The drapes are closed as to block as much sunlight as possible; the only light inside is that of candles, and cobwebs decorate the furniture. Miss Havisham turns out to be an elderly woman in an old bridal dress that was once white, but has now faded to pale yellow. Most objects in the house were once white actually, but had also faded. And a remarkable fact was that all the clocks were stopped exactly at 8.40 A.M. Pip later finds out that Miss Havisham was abandoned by her fiancé at the altar at that time and straight after that, she had all the clocks stopped. Miss Havisham was heartbroken and turned into a bitter, cold woman. She stayed indoors, stopping the clocks and leaving everything the way it was on the day she was to be married. She stayed in the darkness, not seeing any sun or anything outside her mansion called Satis House. Satis stood for "enough". As if to imply that any who resides in the house won't need anything else. Miss Havisham had adopted Estella, a young girl, and raised her in her own way, teaching her to be cruel to men and break their hearts, to make them feel the pain she had once felt herself. She used Estella as 'exhaust-pipe' for all her blocked anger , frustration and pain. Estella became her weapon of revenge. Revenge against mankind. Estella was actually a caring person, but was taught not to be and as all children do, obeyed the orders given to her and took on the attitude that she was taught to have. Pip creates a serious infatuation for Estella from the moment he meets her and is dazzled by her beauty. Estella is very proud and looks down on him, making remarks such as : "He calls the knaves, Jacks, this boy! And what coarse hands he has and what thick boots!" chapter 8, page 58. Pip starts thinking very lowly of himself and of the way he has been raised. He yearns to be less common. At one point, Miss Havisham actually says to Estella: " Well! You can break his heart!" chapter 8, page 57, blatantly indicating what her plans for Pip are. Pip now wants nothing else but to be a gentleman and to be noticed by Estella. Also at Miss Havisham's, he meets a young boy with who he has a fight, they'll meet again later in different circumstances. I think Pip has a very odd point of view about women now. He's met so many harsh women, he must think at his young age, that most women are like that. First, there is his sister, Mrs. Joe, who 'raised him by hand' and constantly reminds him of it and who treats him and Joe in a very unpleasant way. Then there's Estella, who looks down on him and Miss Havisham, who confuses him and even tells Estella to break his heart. Only Biddy, who is actually in love with Pip, seems to be a nice, young lady. A few months later, while he's already apprenticed to Joe he hears the great news from a man named Mr. Jaggers. He is to have Great Expectations. Everyone is in an uproar about this and Pip is certain that his benefactor for these Great Expectations is Miss Havisham. Pip moves to London and meets Mr.Jaggers, who takes care of him, but is also the mastermind behind Pip's meeting with Estella and Estella's adoption by Miss Havisham. Jaggers' assistant, Wemmicks, becomes a friend of Pip and helps him with a lot of things. I feel that Pip now knows the ways of the world, living in a big, crowded city which is so different from his hometown, he finds out how much more there is besides the forge, the marshes and the Three Jolly Bargemen. He also meets Herbert Pocket, who turns out to be the young boy he fought with at Miss Havisham's. They become good friends and roommates. When Pip is a bit older, now a real gentleman, the convict he met on the marshes all those years ago, returns. His real name is Magwitch and he tells Pip that he's the benefactor for Pip's Great Expectations. Pip is abhorred. Inside, he wanted Miss Havisham to be his benefactress and now that he's discovered that it's actually Magwitch, he can't imagine such a poor, dirty, old man to be his benefactor, the person to whom he owes so much. He wants to get rid of Magwitch as soon as possible. However, slowly but surely he develops a real affection for the man. Magwitch Provis also tells Pip about Compeyson, another convict, who made Miss Havisham the way she is today"¦ Pip tries to help Magwitch escape by sea, aided by his friend Herbert. Unfortunately, they fail and Magwitch is severely injured, so much so, that he dies from the injuries. Before the attempt of escape, Pip finds out that Magwitch is Estella's real father, even though Magwitch believes his daughter to be dead, and Jaggers' housekeeper Molly to be the mother. Just before Magwitch dies, Pip tells him about Estella and his feelings for her, showed by his quote saying : "You had a child once, whom you loved and lost. She lived and found powerful friends. She is living now. She is a lady and very beautiful. And I love her!" Chapter 56, page 451. After Mrs. Joe died, Joe marries Biddy and when Pip returns to see him, they realize they are really the best of friends, shown by this quote from Pip : "We have had a time together, Joe, that I can never forget. There were days once, I know, that I did for a while forget; but I never shall forget these." chapter 57, page 462. Pip meets Bentley Drummle in London, a real gentleman of high standing, yet an idiot who tries to prove himself to everyone and especially Jaggers, which works, since Jaggers takes a liking to him. Bentley starts chasing Estella and in the end, he marries her. Pip is furious and can't believe Estella even considered marrying Bentley. The down side to the story is that Bentley abuses Estella and is very cruel to her. This humanizes her and part of her own identity is exposed. Ironically enough, Bentley is later killed by a horse which he was abusing. Miss Havisham finally realized what she has done to herself and to others. She realizes all the things she did wrong and falls into a depression. The fact that Estella does not love her, upsets her even more. She sets herself on fire and Pip saves her, since he was at Satis House at the time and both suffer wounds. Miss Havisham is really stressing the fact that she needs Pip to love Estella. I think she wants them both to be happy. Miss Havisham doesn't recover though and passes away. Nearly everything of Pip's childhood fades away. A whole new world opens its gate to him"¦. He returns to his town and to Satis House, which is not there anymore. There, he finds Estella, now a widow, and changed into her real self and together they walk away, to a future.   

The story begins in a village near the marshes where a young boy named Pip lives. Because his parents are dead, he lives with his sister, Mrs. Joe Gargery and her husband Joe who's a blacksmith and Pip's trusted friend. Pip doesn't have much of a future, he's destined to...

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Loneliness is a state of being...Loneliness is a state of being alone in sadness, resulting from being forsaken or abandoned. Loneliness is when a person has no one to talk to, no one to confide in, nor anyone to keep companionship with. Loneliness also makes a person slip into a desolate state, which they try to conceal under a tough image, and is an emotion even the strongest cannot avoid. In the novel, Of Mice and Men, John Steinbeck depicts his characters as always looking for any kind of comfort in a friend; but settling for the attentive ear of a stranger. Although they seem at ease and friendly on the surface, a deep sense of loneliness lingers in the hearts of Crooks, George, Lennie and Curley"s wife, to which they are desperate to find an escape from to cope with their seclusion from the rest of society. Crooks, a lively, sharp-witted, black stablebuck, who takes his name from his crooked back, lives a lonely life. He lives according to the rule that no black man is allowed to enter a white man"s home. Crooks' loneliness is a result of rejection from everyone else on the ranch. He is forced to live alone in a barn, where he lives his life in isolation because of his color. When Lennie visits him in the room, Crooks" reactions reveal the fact that he is lonely. As a black man with a physical handicap, Crooks is forced to live on the border of ranch life. He is not even allowed to enter the white men"s bunkhouse, or join them in a game of cards. His resentment typically comes out through his bitter, sad, and touching vulnerability, as he tells Lennie: "'"¦A guy needs somebody--to be near him. A guy goes nuts if he ain"t got nobody. Don"t make no difference who the guy is, long"s he"s with you. "¦I tell ya a guy gets too lonely an" he gets sick.'" 72-73 Crooks" openness of his inner self, and his ability to speak his heart"s desire to a stranger illustrates how lonely he gets, and admits that it results in sickness. Furthermore, as bitter as he is about his exclusion from other men, Crooks is grateful for Lennie"s company, and when Candy enters Crook"s room, it becomes difficult for him to conceal his pleasure with anger. The only relationship he can find is with his books. When Lennie talks about his dream farm, Crooks hesitantly asks Lennie an alternative for him to escape his loneliness, """¦If you"¦guys would want a hand to work for nothing--just his keep, why I"d come an" lend a hand"" 76. Crooks" desperation to get out of his lonely spell prompts him to make such a drastic, but shy, suggestion. Crooks becomes so desperate for a relationship that he offers his services to George and Lennie for free, just to escape his loneliness. Crooks is not successful in overcoming his loneliness because Lennie dies in a matter of days, and no white man in his right mind would care to step foot in Crooks" humble abode. George, a short-tempered but loving and devoted friend, is lost in loneliness. At the beginning of the novel, George reveals his thoughts on loneliness in a story that he narrates about Lennie, himself, on a farm: "'Guys like us, that work on ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don"t belong no place"¦. With us it ain"t like that. We got a future. We got somebody to talk to that gives a damn about us. We don"t have to sit in no bar room blowin" in our jack jus" because we got no place else to go. If them other guys gets in jail they can rot for all anybody gives a damn. But not us.'" 13-14 George realizes that loneliness attributes too much of his sufferings. George"s rough attitude to conceal his loneliness and to admit to suffering from profound loneliness is revealed when he reminds Lennie that the life on a ranch is the loneliest of lives. Migrant workers, like George, rarely have anyone to look to for companionship. Towards the end of the novel, George feels an even greater sense of loneliness before he kills Lennie. Instead of being angry and reprimanding Lennie, George, overcome by his loneliness, responds to Lennie"s running away to the caves, "'No "¦ I want you to stay here with me'" 104. The feeling of loneliness that overwhelms George is so overwhelming, that he shoots Lennie. In this way, George is not successful of overcoming his loneliness because he would mourn for the loss of his friend for a long time, leading him to feel even more guilty and lonely. Curley"s wife, who walks the ranch as a "prostitute", hides a deep sense of loneliness behind the "tramp," "tart," and "bitch" masks that she puts on. For a young lady to wed at an early age, and then be left alone at home, sends her into a deep state of loneliness and depression. She is married to a man that gives her little attention and none of his time. Curley"s wife"s "mask" of a prostitute hides the vulnerability, dissatisfaction, and loneliness in her life. Her first outburst in Crooks" room tears down a wall of her image: ""¦'Sat"iday night. Ever"body out doin" som"pin". Ever"body! An" what am I doin"? Standin" here talkin" to a bunch of bindle stiffs--a nigger an" a dum-dum and a lousy ol" sheep--an" likin" it because they ain"t nobody else.'" 78. Being the only woman on the ranch, Curley"s wife does not have another person to talk to who could bond with her and understand her feelings. She has no friends, and gets no respect; she is not even given a name! Desperate to satisfy her need for belonging and love, she turns to strangers such as Lennie, Crooks, and Candy. Before her death, Curley"s wife reveals a lot about herself to Lennie, the only person that she feels she can talk to. She hints at her loneliness when she says, "'Seems like they ain"t none of them cares how I gotta live.'" 88. She is successful in getting a person like Lennie to talk to and reveal herself to, but it works out to her misfortune that she has to be mercilessly killed by his hands. All three of the characters share the despair of wanting to change the way they are and attain a victory over their loneliness. Crook"s loneliness is hidden by his character, but eventually comes to surface while talking to Lennie. George"s loneliness is hidden by his rough attitude, which seems to disappear when narrating the story of the farm to Lennie. Curley"s wife"s loneliness is covered behind the mask of a portrayed prostitute, but the mask falls off during her conversations with strangers, including Lennie. Throughout the novel John Steinbeck"s creates a picture for the reader about loneliness and the attempts to overcome isolation in the novel is to reveal to us the nature of human"s true existence. One cannot escape from being lonely, and the characters" attempts to overcome their loneliness is to seek the desire and comfort of a friend, but settle for the devoted ear of a stranger.   

Loneliness is a state of being alone in sadness, resulting from being forsaken or abandoned. Loneliness is when a person has no one to talk to, no one to confide in, nor anyone to keep companionship with. Loneliness also makes a person slip into a desolate state, which they try...

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