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The Cystic Fibrosis Gene
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Introduction Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive disease that exerts its main effects on the digestive system and the lungs. This disease is the most common genetic disorder amongst Caucasians. Cystic fibrosis affects about one in 2,500 people, with one in twenty five being a heterozygote. With the use of antibiotics, the life span of a person afflicted with CF can be extended up to thirty years however, most die before the age of thirteen.1 Since so many people are affected by this disease, it"s no wonder that CF was the first human genetic disease to be cloned by...
mutation of one channel or even a partial mutation of a channel, that causes a decrease in the percentage of channel openings, can exert a major effect. Even the mildest of cures altering the Cystic Fibrosis Conductance Regulator in CF afflicted people would lead to significant improvements in that individuals health. Since cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disorder, particularly amongst Caucasians, in today"s society, intense research efforts towards its cure would be invaluable. When will cystic fibrosis be completely cured? No one can say for sure but, strong steps have already been taken towards reaching this goal.
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What is Acid Rain? Acid rain...What is Acid Rain? Acid rain is a form of precipitation that falls to the earth as rain. For rain to be acidic it has a pH level of less than 5.6. The corrosive nature of acid rain causes widespread damage to the environment. The problem begins with the production of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, natural gas, oil and other kinds of manufacturing. When these pollutants are in the air, they react with water and other chemicals, to form sulfuric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid and other pollutants. Once these pollutants are in the air, they can travel for many miles, and when rain clouds get to heavy to hold all the moisture they drop their deadly load of chemicals onto the earth in a form of rain, snow, hail or fog. In Eastern North America, throughout Europe, Japan, China, and Southeast Asia damage from acid rain has been widespread. Acid rain causes nutrients from the soil to disappear, causes trees to grow slower, causes aquatic life in lakes to die off and as well wildlife. Acid rain also affects cities by corroding everything that the rain touches. Acid rain accelerates the natural wear and tear on structures such as buildings and statues. Acid rain also forms urban smog, which attacks the lungs, causing severe health problems for the elderly. Formation of Acid Rain The formation of acid rain starts off with the burning of fossil fuels. Burning is a chemical reaction, in which oxygen from the air combines with carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and other elements in the substance that is being burned. The new compounds that are being formed are gases called oxides. When sulfur and nitrogen are present in the substance being burned, their reaction with oxygen yields sulfur dioxide and various nitrogen oxide compounds. In the United States, 70 percent of sulfur dioxide pollution comes from power plants, especially those that burn coal. In Canada, oil refining and metal smelting, account for 61 percent of sulfur dioxide pollution. Nitrogen oxides enter the atmosphere from many sources, with vehicles emitting the largest share, 43 percent in the United States and 60 percent in Canada. When these chemicals are in the air, the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides undergo a very complicated reaction with water vapor and other chemicals to yield sulfuric and nitric acid. The compounds that are now formed travel in the air currents for many kilometers at a time. When the air becomes dense with moisture, clouds form in the acidic air and so when precipitation comes down as rain, snow etc, the acids fall with them back to earth. Effects of Acid Rain When looking at the effects of acid rain there is a scale on with scientists use. The pH scale has units from 0 "“ 14. Acidic substances have a pH number from 1 to 6, the lower the number the higher the corrosiveness. Alkalis are bases and are nonacidic substances and they have pH values for 8 to 14, the higher the value the higher the alkalinity. Pure water has a neutral pH of 7 and it is neither an acid nor a base. Rain, snow, hail etc with a pH value below 5.6 is considered acid rain. If there is a high acid and high bases are in the air, they mix and form normal rain when they fall to earth. This is a normal occurrence in nature. When rain falls with a pH near 5.6 the alkaline chemicals in the environment, found in rocks, soil etc absorb and neutralize this acidic rain. If rainfalls with a pH lower then 5.6, the environment is unable to neutralize the acid rain. When this rainfalls it damages whole ecosystems and even destroys man made structures. Effects on Soil When acid rain reaches the soil it washes away all the important nutrients that plants need to survive on. It also dissolves small quantities of aluminum and mercury that are present in the soil. Once the toxics are freed they are either flushed into the water systems or absorbed into plants causing drastic affects if eaten by humans. In some places the soil may be high in alkaline bases and so the soil is unaffected by the rain, but normally there is only a small amount of alkaline in normal soil and so with two or three acid rain falls the acid is only stopped briefly. Once there in no more alkaline the acid is free to destroy the fragile ground at its own will. Effects on Trees When there are no nutrients left in the soil, the growth of plants and trees are reduced dramatically. When acid rain falls upon trees, the corrosiveness of the precipitation destroys the waxy coating on the leave and needles causing the needles and leaves to die. If a tree looses most of the waxy coating on its needles and leaves the tree loses the ability to make its food by use of photosynthesis. Also without the protective coating the tree loses its defense that help the tree defend off diseases, resulting in that the tree will be come weaker and be vulnerable to other stresses such as insects, drought, and cold temperatures. The cold temperatures are mainly responsible for the death of most trees under these conditions of acid rain. Effects on Plants and Animals When acid rain falls on certain plants that animals feed off of the effects can be very damaging. If all the plants die that a certain animal feeds off of the animal will not most likely survive. In the end the worst thing that could happen is that a whole ecosystem could become endangered. To explain what an ecosystem is I will use a scenario. When a water system pH level becomes lower than 6.0 the insects and plankton that the fish feed off of start to die off. When the fish can't find any food to feed off of, their population in a certain area begins to die. Once the fish population becomes endangered, the land creatures like bears, eagles, and raccoons become affected and start to die off too. If conditions like this happen over a wide area whole populations can die off just because of acid rainfall. Effects on Water Sources After a heavy rainfall all the extra precipitation ends up in streams and lakes. When spring comes the snow melts and also ends up in streams and lakes. Normally the waters are usually neutral, meaning that they have a pH between 6 and 8. If the rain that fell and the snow that melted have a very high pH level it would affect the normal water by making it acidic. Once the water has a pH value below 5.6, the water is acidic and aquatic life starts to die. If the pH value of the water doesn't get better, the lakes and streams/rivers will be come sterile and not hold any kind of life forms. Man Made Structures Plants, animals, trees, and water systems aren't the only thing that acid rain destroys, acid rain also effects buildings, cars, statues, etc. The corrosive damage can be expensive to fix and in cities with old historic buildings statues very devastating. To give an idea of how much cost is involved, take the United States as an example. In 1990 the U.S spent 35 billion on paint damage. On ancient Roman monuments it cost the Roman Government 200 million dollars to restore them. These are just a few examples of how wide spread the acid rain problem is on just man made structures. Effects on Humans When acid rain falls on humans it has really no adverse effect on the outside, humans can even swim in acidic lakes and its doesn't harm them. The serious effects start to take place on the inside of the body and that is respiratory problems. When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions gives risk to respiratory problems such as dry coughs, asthma, headaches, eye, nose, and throat irritation. Polluted rainfall is especially harmful to those who suffer form asthma or those who have hard time breathing. Even healthy people can have their lungs damaged by acid air pollutants. Acid rain can aggravate a person's ability to breathe and may increase disease, which could lead to death. {"Acid Rain": Http://www.geocities.com} What can be done to Control Acid Rain The most important thing that people can do to control acid rain is reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that are releases into the air. So that means to reduce the emissions of fossil fuels. If people use less power and drive their vehicles less that will be a start to reduce acid rain. If everyone bought energy efficient appliances, bought energy efficient house or upgrade old houses to be energy efficient, take transit to work, ride a bike, or walk it would make the air a lot cleaner to breathe. If every person in the world would do this we help dramatically to reduce acid rain. By switching to cleaner burning fuels you can combat the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that are released into the air. When electric companies burn coal they could switch to coal that contains low sulfur, thus creating a cleaner burning fuel. If gas companies created cleaner burning fuels for vehicles, it would result in less nitrogen oxide being produced into the air. If you burn natural gas it will help the environment because natural gas has very low traced of sulfur in it, but to find these clean gases are hard and so it will result in people paying more for them. After fuel is burned the harmful gases still can be trapped. In factory smokestacks, devices called scrubbers spray a mixture of water and limestone into the waste gases as they leave. What these scrubbers do is recapture the sulfur pollutants. The other type of device that can be used is called a catalytic converter. What this device does is the waste gas passes over small beads coated with metals; the metals promote chemical reactions that change harmful chemicals to less harmful ones, resulting in less pollution. In Canada and the United States catalytic converters are required in all vehicles by law. When sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides have been released into the environment there are only a few ways to prevent further damage. One technique that is put in lakes and in the soil is lime. Lime as mentioned early reduces the corrosive nature of acid rain and makes it more alkaline. What countries like Norway and Sweden do is they drop powered lime from the air into lakes and forests. In cities, exposed structures are painted with acid resistant paints. Ancient statues are taken indoors and out of the dangerous environment. By using all these methods we can reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that are released into the air. The results will be cleaner air, no smog, and no harmful precipitation. What Governments Do In 1970 the United States passed a bill to control the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the bill was the Clean Air Act. What this bill did was establish a standard for pollutants from vehicles and industry. Later in 1990 the U.S. government amended the legislation and aimed for a new goal and that was to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide from 23.5 million tons to 16 million tons by the year 2010. The government also set a goal for power plants to reduce their production of nitrogen oxides from 7.5 million tons to 5 million tons by the year 2010. Canada also mandated legislation on sulfur dioxide emissions to 2.3 million tons in Canada's eastern provinces. This is where most of the acid rain damage was done in Canada. For Canada nation wide a limit was set for sulfur dioxide emissions at 3.2 million tons per year. Canada is developing stricter pollution control and they will be enforced by the year 2010. In 1990 the U.S. government made amendments to the 1970 bill and it gave polluting companies permits to release a specified number of tons of sulfur dioxide. The government also allowed companies to sell their unused permits. What this means is when a company is below the emissions standard, they wouldn't need to use their permits and so they could sell their permits to companies that hadn't complied with the government's regulations. Once that buyer has the permit they were allowed to pollute above the limit until the permit ran out. The government also allowed companies to bank up their permits for future use. The government hopes with this legislation that the companies will clean up their emissions more quickly and cheaply than a set of rigid rules. All these laws that the governments are making are paying off in the reduction of acid rain. Targets that are set in laws or treaties are being met, some even ahead of schedule. Between 1980 to 1994 sulfur emissions in Europe have decreased by 40 percent. In Norway the emissions of sulfur dioxide have been reduced by 75 percent. The United States the sulfur dioxide emissions in 1980 were at 26 million tons per year, now the U.S. has dropped the emissions to 18.3 million tons. Canada is also beating their proposed emissions of 3.2 million tons to 2.6 million tons an 18 percent decrease below the limit they set. All these laws that the government has set is a real benefit for the world, but remember that the governments around the world can't clean up the acid rain mess instantly, it will take time. To speed the process of preventing the harmful release of emissions into the air people can help. Each person can turn down the temperature in his or her home. Instead of driving to work people can ride bikes or walk etc. If just a few people do this it will help. Remember governments can enforce legislation but if people just conserve energy because they are forced to it will take a long time for benefits to happen, but if individuals realize that the governments are doing this for their own good the process of preventing acid rain will increase. Remember one small step from man makes a big leap for mankind!!   

What is Acid Rain? Acid rain is a form of precipitation that falls to the earth as rain. For rain to be acidic it has a pH level of less than 5.6. The corrosive nature of acid rain causes widespread damage to the environment. The problem begins with the production...

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According to Jan Abrams 1996, "In...According to Jan Abrams 1996, "In the successful version of the mother-child relationship, "the mother begins to emerge from her state of primary maternal preoccupation [towards her infant] and remembers who she is in terms of being an independent individual in the world. She is recovering, both physically and emotionally, from the last important stages of pregnancy, giving birth, and being merged in identification with her infant"s absolute dependence on her. The infant requires his mother to de-adapt, which is part and parcel of her remembering herself. This "failure" on the mother"s part introduces the "reality principle" to the child and is part of the disillusioning process, related to weaning. By "failing" in this way, the mother, unknowingly, allows the infant to feel and experience his needs. This "failure" contributes to his developing sense of self -- a self that is Me and separate from his mother." [italics mine] a If, however, the mother cannot gradually "fail" in the way Abrams describes allowing the infant"s affective life to become self-regulated then the infant"s drive to self realization of these potentials is impeded. Donald Winnicott 1960 words the child"s dilemma in the following way: "¦the infant who has begun to become separate from the mother has no means of gaining control of all the good things that are going on. The creative gesture, the cry, the protest, all the little signs that are supposed to produce what the mother does, all these things are missing, because the mother has already met the need just as if the infant were still merged with her and she with the infant. In this way the mother, by being a seemingly good mother, does something worse that castrate the infant. The latter is left with two alternatives: either being in a permanent state of regression and of being merged with the mother. We see therefore that in infancy and in the management of infants there is a very subtle distinction between the mother"s understanding of her infant"s need based on empathy, and her change over to an understanding based on something in the infant or small child that indicates need. a Transitional objects: "Part of the de-adaption process involves facilitating the child"s use of transitional objects to symbolize inner object relations and their affective dynamics. In the case of the mother who is reluctant to de-adapt from her maternal providence; "It has been observed also that some mothers interfere with their child"s creation of a transitional object, either by prohibiting every attempt on the infant"s part to use precursor objects, or by offering themselves to the infant as the only source of satisfaction Gaddini 1978. Such intrusions inhibit the emergence of imaginal activities in the infant, including the ability to create fantasies and play, and thus block the development of important affect regulating capacities. The associated restricted imaginal capacities also limit the extent to which alexithymic individuals can modulate anxiety and other emotions by fantasy, dreams, interest, and play Mayes & Cohen, 1992." b "Most studies do not take account of [other] transitional phenomena, such as babblings, humming tunes, and creating imaginary companions, which many infants and children use to induce pleasurable affects or to modulate distressing states. From its roots in the sensation-objects and transitional objects of the infant, and aided by the neocortical structures and functions Schore, 1994, the child"s imaginal capacity evolves into forming a mental image of the mother in her absence, and eventually to creating fantasies, dreams, interests, and play that go beyond images derived from external objects. These capacities play an important role in personality development and in the self-regulation of affects throughout life. As Mayes and Cohen 1992 indicate: Imagination encompasses a number of interrelated functions and concept, including the capacity to create a fantasy, the ability to use such a fantasy in the service of affect regulation and/or defense, the synthesis of memories and percepts into the mental image of a person or thing which is not present, and the inner world of mental representations, as opposed to the external world of sensory perceptions. The role of fantasy in affect regulation, especially the induction of positive affective experiences, is very evident in children"s play, an activity which usually first occurs in interactions with parents. Singer 1979 regards play in early childhood as an adaptive resource by which children can organize complex experiences into manageable forms, and thereby avoid extreme negative affects and maximize the occurance of the positive affects of interest and joy. Izard and Kobak 1991 similarly view play as one of the most important developmental processes through which children learn to integrate affect, cognition, and action, "It is through play that children have repeated opportunities to rehearse verbal and motoric responses to their emotion-feeling states. In their various types of play, children make connections among their feelings, thoughts, and activities". Children who have difficulty engaging in imaginative play show degrees of failure in integrating cognitions with emotions, as well as a disturbance in the symbolic function of fantasy and an inability to identify with the feelings of others galenson, 1984; Tustin, 1998. Another important way in which imaginal activity regulates affects, as well as instinctual wishes, is through the creation of symbolic wish-fulfilling dreams"¦.." b Inhibitive superego structures: Implicated in the care style of the mother who does not de-adapt from primary maternal intervention is the possibility of introducing early superego inhibition towards imaginal and affective expression. This process in turn creates stagnation in affective and imaginal development, and the deficits associated with alexithymia. "Support for the presence and role of inhibitory structures, rather than simplistic congenital deficit theories, comes from John H. Krystal, who writes: "Whether there is a true deficiency, however, is questionable. For, although the patients do not produce these fantasies spontaneously, they can "share" or "borrow" them or form them when presented with them in things that they read or see. The earlier mentioned alexithymic patient who tried in vain to imagine what she would like to do for fun on a vacation was certainly able to understand what other people would do and imagine doing and enjoying." b Role of imagination in affect regulation Several theorists have pointed to the imaginal and affective inhibitions and/or deficits in alexithymia as co-present, and have cited the special role played by imagination in processing affect. "Fain and David 1963 studied impairment in dreaming and unconscious fantasy formation in alexithymic patients. They showed that there was particularly a failure to create fantasies to deal with infantile and present day conflicts. Since fantasies are not elaborated, the observations generated in psychoanalysis regarding the patient"s character are mostly of a negative kind: the missing element. Stephanos 1975, explained... that by virtue of the absence of fantasies, there is an inability to develop attachments and there is a "psychic emptiness," which he likened to Balint"s 1968 "basic fault" and Winnicott"s "environmental failure." McDougall focused on the difference between alexithymic patients and neurotics: Alexithymics "often show little spontaneous fantasy, whether attached to their somatic affliction or other aspect of their lives, it is an important note for the attuned ear of the analyst. One may become aware as it were of listening to a song in which the words are present but the melody is missing." As she saw it, these patients manage to totally destroy the mental representations of their own parts and parts of their object representations. The outcome is a robotlike existence, with what appears to be a superadaption to reality after the world of imagination and feelings has been eliminated. The supernormal robot is the future of the psychosomatic patient. Lacking knowledge of their own emotional experiences, alexithymic individuals cannot readily imagine themselves in another person"s situation and are consequently unempathic and ineffective in modulating the emotional states of others Goleman, 1995, Krystal, 1979, Lane & Schwartz, 1987. As Newton & Contrada 1994 point out, however, alexithymic individuals are distinguished from high-anxious individuals by their diminished fantasy life and externally orientated cognitive style. As Grotstein 1986 has elaborated, there are deficits not only in the capacity to regulate affects by way of mature ego defenses, but also in the capacity to mythicize primitive affects and drives into dreams or fantasies." b Vicarious regulation of affect: Alexithymics characteristically defer affect processing to other people, prefering to live out feeling states vicariously, by borrowing from, or actively evoking feelings in surrogates -friends, partners, parents, therapists- which can then be re-stated and utilized as one"s own feelings. Higher functioning alexithymics may be able to form and express some coherent feelings, feelings which are not infrequently accompanied by a notable body tension and anxiety. Just recently an alexithymic woman recounted to me her experience at a P&C school meeting, where she had posed a public opinion regarding how the school might provide education for the children, but in this act felt that she had usurped the role of the woman facilitating the meeting usurping the role of Mother?, after which event she came home "feeling horrible and lay down on the bed all seized up, and not knowing why". This distraught reaction is common from this woman after verbalizing certain feelings which are not vicariously expressed i.e., she would have prefered to "quote" the appropriate feelings from another person, rather than offer her own. This woman does not often allow herself to have a feeling about a matter, and will usually quote the feelings that another person expresses which incorperate her own "unspeakable" feelings. We might hypothesize that the internal superego prohibitions move the alexithymic to exploit other people"s words, which provide the forbidden expression for them. In an article by Donald Winnicott he notes several degrees of false-self organization, of which the following matches the vicarious expression found in alexithymia: d "The False Self defends the True Self; the True Self is, however, acknowledged as a potential and is allowed a secret life"¦. When the degree of the split in the infant"s person is not too great there may be some almost personal living through imitation, and it may even be possible for the child to act a special role, that of the True Self as it would be if it had had existence." In its function of vicarious identification, perhaps the earliest description of an alexithymic condition comes from Carl Jung"s coarse description of the daughter who lives through her mother: "Identity with the mother -- If a mother-complex in a woman does not produce an overdeveloped Eros, it leads to identification with the mother and to paralysis of the daughter"s feminine initiative. A complete projection of her personality on to the mother takes place... Everything which reminds her of motherhood, responsibility, personal relationships, and erotic demands arouses feelings of inferiority and compels her to run away -to mother, naturally, who lives to perfection everything that seems unattainable to her daughter. As a sort of superwoman admired involuntarily by the daughter, the mother lives out for her beforehand all that the girl might have lived for herself." e Image focussed Therapy Image focussed therapy is particularly intended for those in whom the capacity to imagine is stifled, undeveloped, or repressed. This method is particularly helpful in altering states of depression and depersonalization f, and as an essential aid in making cognitive clarification of affective states: "Image-based psychology reverses the relation of feeling and image: feelings are considered to be, as William Blake said, "divine influxes," accompanying, qualifying, and energizing images. They are not merely personal but belong to imaginal reality, the reality of the image, and help make the image felt as a specific value. Feelings elaborate the complexity of the image, and feelings are as complex as the image that contains them. Not images represent feelings, but feelings are inherent to images. Berry 1974 writes: "A dream image is or has the quality of emotion, and emotions adhere or inhere to the image and may not be explicit at all.... We cannot entertain any image in dreams, or poetry or painting, without experiencing an emotional quality presented by the image itself." This further implies that any event experienced as an image is at once animated, emotionalized, and placed in the realm of value. The task of therapy is to return personal feelings anxiety, desire, confusion, boredom, misery to the specific images which hold them. Therapy [of the imaginal] attempts to individualize the face of each emotion: the body of desire, the face of fear, the situation of dispair. Feelings are imagined into their details. This move is similar to that of the imagist theory of poetry Hulme 1924, where any emotion not differentiated by a specific image is inchoate, common, and dumb, remaining both sentimentally personal and yet collectively unindividualized." g Hillman also describes troubling affective symptoms as resulting from restrictions in imagination: "Restrictions of imagination appear as excessive emotion. For when an emotion is not held aesthetically within its images --when the images have been reduced in quality...-- then emotion runs rampant and we have to damp it down with drugs or exorcise it through therapies of release and expression. Instead, I am suggesting that restoration of the imagination is the fundamental cure of disordered emotion" h According to Segal 1981 and Taylor 1987, "Individuals with an inadequate ability to symbolize are unable to transform affective experiences into creative stories; consequently, their dreams are either banal or highly disturbing, the latter type appearing to attempt to regulate intense emotions through "evacuation". b Animation of feelings Hillman writes, "Ours could be called an image-focused therapy. Thus the dream as an image or bundle of images is paradigmatic, as if we were placing the entire psychotherapuetic procedure within the context of a dream. It is not, however, that dreams as such become the focus of therapy but that all events [ie., including experiences of emotional states] are regarded from the dream-viewpoint, as if they were images, metaphorical expressions." "Stick to the image" has become a golden rule of archetypal psychology"s method, and this because the image is the primary psychological datum". g In this procedure it is assumed that when spontaneous images are evoked in connection with emotional arousal, then a cognitive-verbal description can be more easily formed. This of course can only come about after an initial vicarious transference has been formed, and the therapist can slowly begin to offer measured "permission", and space, for self expresion. As Henry Krystal writes, "Eventually, the benign mental representations become so secure that the direct use of a security blanket can be given up. Dreams, fantasy, and play can be used to activate the image of mother so that self-caring can be carried out. But with this creative solution, the illusion is built up that the mother continues for the life of the child to control all vital and affective homeostatic functions. The mothering parent or maternal-transference objects God, doctors have to be mobilized -in person or symbolically- to dispense the enabling in order." i Facilitation of a steady reduction in the vicarious transference I would like to finish with three more quotes, one from an alexithymia sufferer, and the other two from Donald Winnicott, both of which show the need for a gradually reduced vicarious transference, in favour of an increasing ability of the patient to articulate their own affective feelings without help: "Something I warn people about who are trying to help alexs [ie., people with alexithymia] is not to come in too close. This happened to me with my ex husband. He would always be trying to work out what was wrong with me, and find solutions because he could see that I had no idea what I was like. Although he meant well, I always felt disempowered by this taking place, but I would never say so. It would infuriate my ex partner that I never tried to put any of his ideas into practise, and in the end he was so devasted that he had to give up. Maybe alexs need their partners to show them just how much of a deficeit they have and then stand back a bit and let the person take on their own problems. An alex needs to solve their own problems. My ex now gives me this kind of feedback, but in a detached way this allows me to own the information so that I feel in control of my emotions and my decisions. I worry that I am feeling what the other person has put into me, so if I"m given information that has no emotional content in it, it makes it easier for me to work out what I really do feel, and so what needs to be done." [by "Anne"] "What I have to say in this present chapter is extremely simple. Although it comes out of my psychoanalytical experience I would not say that it could have come out of my psychoanalytical experience of two decades ago, because I would not then have had the technique to make possible the transference movements that I wish to describe. For instance, it is only in recent years that I have become able to wait and wait for the natural evolution of the transference arising out of the patient"s growing trust in the psychoanalytic technique and setting, and to avoid breaking up this natural process by making interpretations. It will be noticed that I am talking about the making of interpretations and not about interpretations as such. It appals me to think how much deep change I have prevented or delayed in patients in a certain classification category by my personal need to interpret. If only we can wait, the patient arrives at understanding creatively and with immense joy, and I now enjoy this joy more than I used to enjoy the sense of having been clever. I think I interpret mainly to let the patient know the limits of my understanding. The principle is that it is the patient and only the patient who has the answers. We may or may not enable him or her to encompass what is known or become aware of it with acceptance." j "¦"¦At the end of merging, when the child has become separate from the environment, an important feature is that the infant has to give a signal. We find this subtlety appearing clearly in the transference in our analytic work. It is very important when the patient is regressed to earliest infancy and to a state of merging, that the analyst shall not know the answers except in so far as the patient gives the clues. d   

According to Jan Abrams 1996, "In the successful version of the mother-child relationship, "the mother begins to emerge from her state of primary maternal preoccupation [towards her infant] and remembers who she is in terms of being an independent individual in the world. She is recovering, both physically and emotionally,...

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The sentence "all cats are black"...The sentence "all cats are black" is evidently untrue even if only one cat in the whole universe were to be white. Thus, the property "being black" cannot form a part of the definition of a cat. The lesson to be learnt is that definitions must be universal. They must apply to all the members of a defined set the set of "all cats" in our example. Let us try to define a chair. In doing so we are trying to capture the essence of being a chair, its "chairness". It is chairness that is defined "“ not this or that specific chair. We want to be able to identify chairness whenever and wherever we come across it. But chairness cannot be captured without somehow tackling and including the uses of a chair "“ what is it made for, what does it do or help to do. In other words, a definition must include an operative part, a function. In many cases the function of the Definiendum the term defined constitutes its meaning. The function of a vinyl record is its meaning. It has no meaning outside its function. The Definiens the expression supplying the definition of a vinyl record both encompasses and consists of its function or use. Yet, can a vinyl record be defined in vacuum, without incorporating the record player in the definiens? After all, a vinyl record is an object containing audio information decoded by a record player. Without the "record player" bit, the definiens becomes ambiguous. It can fit an audio cassette, or a compact disc. So, the context is essential. A good definition includes a context, which serves to alleviate ambiguity. Ostensibly, the more details provided in the definition "“ the less ambiguous it becomes. But this is not true. Actually, the more details provided the more prone is the definition to be ambiguous. A definition must strive to be both minimal and aesthetic. In this sense it is much like a scientific theory. It talks about the match or the correlation between language and reality. Reality is parsimonious and to reflect it, definitions must be as parsimonious as it is. Let us summarize the characteristics of a good definition and then apply them and try to define a few very mundane terms. First, a definition must reveal the meaning of the term or concept defined. By "meaning" I mean the independent and invariant meaning "“ not the culturally dependent, narrative derived, type. The invariant meaning has to do with a function, or a use. A term or a concept can have several uses or functions, even conflicting ones. But all of the uses and functions must be universally recognized. Think about Marijuana or tobacco. They have medical uses and recreational uses. These uses are expressly contradictory. But both are universally acknowledged, so both define the meaning of marijuana or tobacco and form a part of their definitions. Let us try to construct the first, indisputable, functional, part of the definitions of a few terms. "Chair" "“ Intended for sitting "Game" "“ Deals with the accomplishment of goals "Window" "“ Allows to look through it, or for the penetration of light or air when open or not covered "Table" "“ Intended for laying things on its surface It is only when we know the function or use of the definiendum that we can begin to look for it. The function/use FILTERS the world and narrows the set of candidates to the definiendum. A definition is a series of superimposed language filters. Only the definendum can penetrate this lineup of filters. It is like a high-specificity membrane: only one term can slip in. The next parameter to look for is the characteristics of the definiendum. In the case of physical objects, we will be looking for physical characteristics, of course. Otherwise, we will be looking for more ephemeral traits. "Chair" "“ Solid structure Intended for sitting "Game" "“ Mental or physical activity of one or more people the players, which deals with the accomplishment of goals "Window" "“ Planar discontinuity in a solid surface, which allows to look through it, or for the penetration of light or air when open or not covered "Table" "“ Structure with at least one leg and one flat surface, intended for laying things on its surface. A contrast begins to emerge between a rigorous "dictionary-language-lexical definition" and a "stipulative definition" explaining how the term is to be used. The first might not be immediately recognizable, the second may be inaccurate, non-universal or otherwise lacking. Every definition contrasts the general with the particular. The first part of the definiens is almost always the genus the wider class to which the term belongs. It is only as we refine the definition that we introduce the differentia the distinguishing features. A good definition allows for the substitution of the defined by its definition a bit awkward if we are trying to define God, for instance, or love. This would be impossible without a union of the general and the particular. A case could be made that the genus is more "lexical" while the differentia are more stipulative. But whatever the case, a definition must include a genus and a differentia because, as we said, it is bound to reflect reality and reality is hierarchical and inclusive "The Matriushka Doll Principle". "Chair" "“ Solid structure Intended for sitting genus. Makes use of at least one bodily axis of the sitter differentia. Without the differentia "“ with the genus alone "“ the definition can well fit a bed or a divan. "Game" "“ Mental or physical activity of one or more people the players, which deals with the accomplishment of goals genus, in which both the activities and the goals accomplished are reversible differentia. Without the differentia "“ with the genus alone "“ the definition can well fit most other human activities. "Window" "“ Planar discontinuity in a solid surface genus, which allows to look through it, or for the penetration of light or air when open or not covered differentia. Without the differentia "“ with the genus alone "“ the definition can well fit a door. "Table" "“ Structure with at least one leg and one flat surface genus, intended for laying things on its surfaces differentia. Without the differentia "“ with the genus alone "“ the definition can well fit the statue of a one-legged soldier holding a tray. It was Locke who realized that there are words whose meaning can be precisely explained but which cannot be DEFINED in this sense. This is either because the explanatory equivalent may require more than genus and differentia "“ or because some words cannot be defined by means of others because those other words also have to be defined and this leads to infinite regression. If we adopt the broad view that a definition is the explanation of meaning by other words, how can we define "blue"? Only by pointing out examples of blue. Thus, names of elementary ideas colors, for instance cannot be defined by words. They require an "ostensive definition" definition by pointing out examples. This is because elementary concepts apply to our experiences emotions, sensations, or impressions and to sensa sense data. These are usually words in a private language, our private language. How does one communicate let alone define the emotions one experiences during an epiphany? On the contrary: dictionary definitions suffer from gross inaccuracies precisely because they are confined to established meanings. They usually include in the definition things that they should have excluded, exclude things that they should have included or get it altogether wrong. Stipulative or ostensive definitions cannot be wrong by definition. They may conflict with the lexical dictionary definition and diverge from established meanings. This may prove to be both confusing and costly for instance, in legal matters. But this has nothing to do with their accuracy or truthfulness. Additionally, both types of definition may be insufficiently explanatory. They may be circular, or obscure, leaving more than one possibility open ambiguous or equivocal. Many of these problems are solved when we introduce context to the definition. Context has four conceptual pillars: time, place, cultural context and mental context or mental characteristics. A definition, which is able to incorporate all four elements is monovalent, unequivocal, unambiguous, precise, universal, appropriately exclusive and inclusive, aesthetic and parsimonious. "Chair" "“ Artificial context solid structure Intended for sitting genus. Makes use of at least one bodily axis of the sitter differentia. Without the context, the definition can well fit an appropriately shaped rock. "Game" "“ Mental or physical activity of one or more people the players, subject to agreed rules of confrontation, collaboration and scoring context, which deals with the accomplishment of goals genus, in which both the activities and the goals accomplished are reversible differentia. Without the context, the definition can well fit most other non-playing human activities. "Window" "“ Planar discontinuity in a solid artificial context surface genus, which allows to look through it, or for the penetration of light or air when not covered or open differentia. Without the context, the definition can well fit a hole in a rock. It is easy to notice that the distinction between the differentia and the context is rather blurred. Many of the diffrerentia are the result of cultural and historical context. A lot of the context emerges from the critical mass of differentia. We have confined our discussion hitherto to the structural elements of a definition. But a definition is a dynamic process. It involves the sentence doing the defining, the process of defining and the resulting defining expression definiens. This interaction between different definitions of definition gives rise to numerous forms of equivalence, all called "definitions". Real definitions, nominal definitions, prescriptive, contextual, recursive, inductive, persuasive, impredicative, extensional and intensional definitions, are stars in a galaxy of alternative modes of explanation. But it all boils down to the same truth: it is the type of definition chosen and the rigorousness with which we understand the meaning of "definition" that determine which words can and cannot be defined. In my view, there is still a mistaken belief that there are terms which can be defined without going outside a specified realm=set of terms. People are trying to define life or love by resorting to chemical reactions. This reductionism inevitably and invariably leads to the Locke paradoxes. It is true that a definition must include all the necessary conditions to the definiendum. Chemical reactions are a necessary condition to life. But they are not sufficient conditions. A definition must include all the sufficient conditions as well. Now we can try to define "definition" itself: "Definition" "“ A statement which captures the meaning, the use, the function and the essence of a term or a concept.   

The sentence "all cats are black" is evidently untrue even if only one cat in the whole universe were to be white. Thus, the property "being black" cannot form a part of the definition of a cat. The lesson to be learnt is that definitions must be universal. They must...

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