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I consider the question of the managing change with the healthcare issues in a way of curtain problems and they're solutions. First of all, let's see some current issues in the USA health care system today. New diagnostic and treatment procedures flourish in the United States. Our medical schools are of the best, our physicians of the first rank. And why not, since we spend some 15 percent of our GDP on health care? Few would argue that there's a better place to get sick than in the United States "“ if you can penetrate the system. Our system is the problem, and it's only going to get worse. At dinner party, if you listen to people on the subway, if you talk with physicians, and if you talk with leaders of small business and big business, they're all very unhappy "“ and confused. Private insurance companies are happy about current trends, if not happy about where we are. In the present, they're making money. Drug companies were happier six months ago. They think they've been taken aback by the bad press that they've been getting, and they're searching for how they can do better. But by and large, until relatively recently, I think they were feeling "“ again "“ comfortable. The more-affluent people that are also fully insured. While they grouse about the paperwork, they have reasonable ways of accessing the tremendous advances that have taken place in the biomedical sciences, which are increasingly translated into better diagnostic care, therapy, drugs. I use the word "access" advisedly, because it isn't always easy for them either to get to the right places because of the bureaucratic constraints, because of the third-party payers who say you've got to have your primary-care physician refer you before you can see a specialist. But when they do gain access to the system, this group feels reasonably satisfied. National medical errors database hits one million records milestone. Medmarkx, nongovernmental database of medication errors, has received over one million medication error records to date, the U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP announced recently. Medmarx is an anonymous, Internet-based program used by hospitals and other healthcare organizations to report track and analyze medication errors. Since the program began in 1998, more than 900 HCOs have contributed data to use an historical review of Medmarx data reveals that approximately 46 percent of the medication errors reported reached the patient; 98 percent of the reported errors did not result in harm. JCAHO Creates IT Panel. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations has created an advisory panel to recommend ways the Oakbrook Terrace, Ill.-based organization can use its accreditation process to increase the role of IT in healthcare. The panel will conduct a benchmark survey on the existing state of IT adoption in healthcare, and track progress annually. The 39-member panel, chaired by William Jessee, M.D., president and CEO of MGMA, includes provider representatives and reps from health insurers, academia, think tanks, IT vendors and government agencies. The Council of Smaller Enterprises is putting its considerable weight behind a push by the National Small Business Association for health care reform on a national level. The National Small Business Association, of which COSE is a member, has developed three ideas it plans to take to the federal government as ways to reform the ailing health care system, said William Lindsay III, immediate past chairman of the association, during a recent visit to Cleveland. Those ideas are fair sharing of costs, empowering and focusing on the individual, and reducing costs while improving quality. "The fundamental problem in America is the cost of health care and the cost of insurance," he said. "We've got to get everybody insured." The Washington, D.C.-based association already has begun to lobby lawmakers to adopt the three basic principles, and they've been receptive so far, Mr. Lindsay said. For its part, COSE soon will lobby Ohio lawmakers on the same issues, said COSE president Jeanne Coughlin. Under the association's proposal, all Americans would be required to obtain basic health care coverage, a package that would be designed and mandated by the federal government, Mr. Lindsay said. The basic package would cost the same for anyone in a given market, regardless of their health condition, he said. For that proposal to work, insurance companies would need to accept everyone into one insurance pool, which would spread costs broadly and reduce uncompensated care, Mr. Lindsay said. If companies provide health care coverage above the basic federal level, they would need to pay taxes on the money spent on those benefits, he said. Those additional tax dollars then would be set aside for health insurance subsidies for people who don't qualify for Medicaid but can't afford their own insurance. It is ironic that Mrs. Jeannie Lacombe received so much attention after her death; she didn't receive much of it immediately beforehand. On the morning of February 1, the Montrealer suffered chest pains and went to the nearest hospital emergency room. Four hours later, a physician finally looked at the 66-year-old woman, who lay on a stretcher in the hallway. She was dead. On that early February morning, Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital was crowded with 63 patients in a ward designed for 34. Only three of Montreal's 24 emergency rooms were not overflowing with double or triple their capacity. The problem isn't confined to Montreal. Two weeks later, in Toronto, a five-year-old boy died in an ER five hours after arriving, without having seen a physician. At times this February, Toronto nurses have fought with ambulance attendants over the stretchers patients were brought in on. A Toronto Ambulance official commented last week that the hospitals have been refusing ambulance patients more often, and for longer periods, than at any time in the last 27 years. In Winnipeg, hospitals have been routinely on "redirect," meaning that they accept only critical patients, and "critical care bypass," meaning they are too crowded even for those. In Calgary, a physician arrived for work at Rocky View Hospital one day to find emergency patients lined up in the parking lot. The ER and the foyer were already filled. "I have never seen anything like that in all the years I have been practising," he says. Calgary's regional health authority openly contemplated cancelling all elective surgeries, and near month's end, health officials in Edmonton did so. Somehow, in the "best healthcare system in the world," patients are waiting hours to be examined. The sickest lie on stretchers for days, awaiting admission. Some argue that a combination of winter storms and flu have placed an unusually great strain on the system. These two factors surely contributed, but how did Medicare erode to the point where minor stresses can wreak such havoc? And is ER overcrowding such an isolated phenomenon? Last year at this time, with neither flu nor ice storm, Montreal's emergency wards were filled to 155% capacity. And the problems with Canada's emergency rooms are only the tip of the iceberg. In truth, Medicare has been languishing for years. Consider the plight of Jim Cullen of Winnipeg. Mr. Cullen has a potentially life-threatening abdominal aneurysm. He could bleed to death without warning unless the aneurysm is surgically repaired. Mr. Cullen has waited five long months for that surgery. Despite his optimism, he wonders every day: "How long will that artery wall hold out?" But because of the ER crisis, Mr. Cullen's surgery is on hold indefinitely. Once Canada's pride and joy, Medicare is marked by long waiting lists for life-saving surgeries, inaccessible diagnostic equipment, dwindling standards of hospital care, and an exodus of good physicians. Meanwhile, Canada's population is aging. Over the next 40 years, the percentage of senior citizens will double. More seniors require more services; if we can't meet today's demand, how will we meet tomorrow's? To improve Medicare, Canadians must first answer one question: what ails the system? Some-opposition politicians, professional associations, and public-sector unions-argue that the system is simply under funded. Others-cabinet ministers, economists, and policy experts-maintain that the system has enough money: we just have to spend it better through greater government control. If Medicare is under funded, people should pay more into the system. But according to a study by the Fraser Institute, working Canadians already spend 21 cents of every dollar they earn paying for Medicare. How much more do we need to spend? How much higher must taxes rise? The aging of the baby boomers will almost certainly bankrupt us: the Canadian Actuarial Society estimates that taxes will need to rise to an average of 94% of income in the next 40 years to sustain the system. If greater control is needed, governments must take a larger role in the healthcare system. This has been the trend over the past two decades, but has any government ever managed to browbeat part of the economy into efficiency? Governments are increasingly involved in hospital decision-making, but if Moscow central planning didn't work in Moscow, what makes us think it will work in Victoria, Edmonton or Toronto? When healthcare is "free," people do not hesitate to use the system. They request too many tests. They stay in hospitals too long. They consult too many physicians. The costs add up. Millions of Canadians suffer from problems such as insomnia, back pain, chronic fatigue, severe headaches, and arthritis: there is a great potential for them to spend vast resources to little proven benefit. In 1977, a joint Ontario government-medical association committee reviewed patients' use of the system and concluded that "demand for medical care appears infinite." Canadians assume that in a "free" system there are no tough decisions to be made. If the doctor suggests that you need an X-ray, you get one. But while you don"t need to think about the cost of the X-ray, the folks at the Ministry of Health do. You don"t worry about the cost of visiting walk-in clinics, or lengthy hospital stays, but these costs still add up. According to the Ontario Task Force on the Use and Provision of Medical Services, Ontario physicians billed $200 million in 1990 alone for "treating" the common cold. In Canada, the provinces have achieved cost control by restricting access to health services. They have downsized medical schools, restricted access to specialists, and reduced the availability of diagnostic equipment. In many ways, Canada has opted for the old Soviet method of rationing-everything is free, and nothing is readily available. And so Canadians must line up for tests. For surgery. For the basic healthcare they need. Provinces have been busily "reforming" health care, but what are the long-term results? Patients are discharged earlier from hospitals, often too early. Patients wait for treatment; some develop complications. Hospital beds are closed, reducing doctors' ability to admit patients. All these factors played a role in the ER crisis this February. To make matters worse, bureaucrats have developed elaborate spending controls, reducing the system's ability to react. Canadians have assumed that if we make health care "free" and pay the consequent high taxes, no one will ever need to worry about getting quality care when they need it. It seems that this assumption is false. Making health care "free" means everyone must worry about getting quality care. And yet the so-called experts continue to try to make Medicare work-against the odds, against human nature. This dooms us to longer waiting lists and more horror stories. Isn't it time we had a meaningful public discussion about health care? Lives are at stake. Most Americans are insured through their jobs. Employers used to buy the insurance from a third party, typically the local Blue Cross/Blue Shield not-for-profit plan. Recently the Blues have lost ground to more aggressive for-profit insurers. But their strongest competitor is now employers themselves, stung by rising health-care costs and the state authorities' burdensome regulation of the insurance industry. Federal law allows employers who "self-insure" usually through an arm's-length intermediary to escape state regulation. Over half of America's biggest employers have now made the switch, in effect paying their workers' medical bills themselves. The other main insurer in America is the government. The old and the disabled are covered by a federal programme, Medicare. Medicare, which will spend about $110 billion this year "“ roughly twice the cost of Britain's NHS "“, is divided into two parts: the first pays for most hospital care out of payroll taxes; the second pays for doctors' fees out of general taxation and a premium paid by the patient. Medicaid, a state-federal programme that will cost nearly $90 billion this year, pays all the medical bills of the poor, including those for long-term care. Retired and serving soldiers are covered by the Veterans' Administration, which has a network of inefficient hospitals, and by a special programme with the colourful acronym champus. This patchwork quilt see chart 4 on next page has two gaping holes. One is that it leaves a large and growing number of people "“ currently around 35m "“ without any insurance at all. The plight of the uninsured is bad, but not as bad as it sounds: most get care from hospitals that are, in theory, not allowed to turn anyone away. Figures from the census bureau and the American Hospital Association suggest that overall spending on the uninsured is comparable to spending on the insured, though it is unevenly distributed. Uninsured people can be bankrupted by big medical bills. And the bills they cannot or will not pay are a time-bomb passed among others involved in the system. The hospitals try to pass it to the insured in higher premiums; insurers try to pass it back in lower hospital profits, or to offload it on to state and local governments. The other flaw in the American way is caused by costs that are spinning out of control. At over $600 billion, the cost of health care in America now absorbs 12% of GDP. And whereas in other countries it has roughly stabilised, in America the share has been rising throughout the 1980s. Employers have reacted by trimming the health benefits they offer, especially undertakings to cover staff who have retired. Those undertakings will knock a $200 billion hole in profits when they have to be shown in company accounts from next year. One result is that in four-fifths of labour disputes in the past two years, the main fight has been over health benefits. Foreigners like to blame the tribulations of American health care on excessive reliance on the free market. In fact, government policy has played a big part. Instead of improving equity, well-intentioned state regulation of the insurance market has made insurance all but impossible for small employers to buy. Two-thirds of the uninsured work, many for employers who would like to offer insurance if they could find it. The other third ought to have Medicaid cover, but budget cuts and a diversion of cash into long-term care for poor, old people mean that the programme now covers only 40% of those below the federal poverty line. As for costs of treatment, the biggest source of inflation has been reliance on expensive fee for-service medicine that gives doctors and hospitals an incentive to treat people in the most expensive possible ways. This might look like a market fault. But another prime contributor is the government's decision to exempt employer-paid insurance premiums from federal and state income taxes "“ amounting to an annual subsidy of nearly $60 billion. It is bad enough that this subsidy is biased to the better-off; worse, it destroys any incentive for employees to choose cheaper insurance. The government is also partly to blame for a legal system that has produced astronomical awards to patients in malpractice suits. These feed straight into the costs of health care through malpractice insurance taken out by doctors. High premiums and the fear of being sued have also made some types of care hard to get try finding an obstetrician in Florida to deliver a baby. Even more expensively, they encourage doctors to practise defensive medicine "“ such as ordering unnecessary tests. Not everything about American health care is bad. Its quality is widely thought to be high which is why one opinion poll had 90% of respondents favouring "major changes" in the system, but over half satisfied with their own care. There is plenty of choice of doctors and hospitals: European indifference to patients is rare in America. America has made the biggest progress in developing quality assessment and output measures for health. It remains the world leader in innovation, experiment and new technology, both in medical care and in different ways of delivering and paying for it. In 1915 a labour pressure group looked forward to national health insurance as the "next great step in social legislation". Truman tried and failed to introduce it in 1948. In the mid-1960s Johnson managed to push through Medicare and Medicaid. Richard Nixon encouraged the spread of HMOS in which patients pay a fixed fee to cover all their health care and managed care. But when he suggested a national health programme based on a mandate for employers to provide health insurance for their workers, it died "“ partly because Democrats like Edward Kennedy wanted government insurance instead. Ironically Senator Kennedy now supports something like the Nixon plan, but it is opposed by George Bush. There is a host of other ideas on offer: "¢ Insurance reform. Some want to ban "experience rating" skimming the cream of insurance risks and insist on community rating. Others want to encourage the small-employer insurance market, perhaps by pooling risks. A third idea is an "all-payer" system such as Maryland's, under which all insurers agree to pay the same price to hospitals "“ an attempt to create the monophony power among purchasers that is common in most other countries. But the insurance market already suffers from too much regulation. And an all-payer system could stop the move towards cheaper selective contracts with providers. Medicaid expansion to cover more of the uninsured. This might include letting people above the poverty line, but who cannot otherwise find insurance, buy into the public programme. An alternative is to expand Medicare to cover the whole population. But in deficit-ridden, taxophobic America, neither the federal nor any state government is in a position to take on a new spending commitment that could add up to $250 billion a year even if it saves more in private spending. State governors have repeatedly asked Congress to stop expanding the coverage of Medicaid. "¢ Price and volume controls. The most successful of these has been Medicare's prospective budgeting for hospitals, where payments are based not on the costs incurred but on fixed prices per case known in the jargon as diagnosis-related groups, or DRGS. This has been copied by many private insurers. The average patient now stays in hospital for a shorter period in America than in any other country, and a recent Rand Corporation study confirmed that the quality of patient care has not been affected. A new set of Medicare price and volume controls on doctors comes into force next year. But though such controls might hold down spending in one place, bills have a nasty habit of popping up somewhere else as providers fight to maintain incomes. "¢ Alain Enthoven of Stanford University has put forward the most sophisticated single reform plan. TO encourage managed care of which more below he would cap the tax exemption for health insurance at the cheapest insurance policy available. He would create state insurance pools under healthcare "sponsors" for those who cannot get coverage. Employers who did not give their workers insurance would have to contribute to a state pool "“ an idea known as "play-or-pay". Congress's Pepper commission, which reported in 1990, also wanted a play-or-pay plan. But such employer mandates would increase business costs, and without firm cost controls they might lead to more overall spend on health care. "¢ Individual mandates. The Heritage Foundation, a right-wing think-tank based in Washington, DC, is touting a plan that would replace the employee-tax exemption by a tax credit to help people buy their own health insurance. The government would require everyone to take out "catastrophic" health insurance "“ a long-stop protection against the biggest medical bills. Potting the burden on individuals sounds attractive, but it would make it harder to avoid adverse selection by both insurer and insured. As a variant, a government commission headed by Deborah Steelman has been considering replacing both Medicare and Medicaid with catastrophic coverage for all. "¢ More patient charges or what are known in the jargon as "co-payments". But these are already high, in both the private and the public sectors on some estimates, old people now pay as much out of their own pockets for health care as they did before Medicare. And if they are pushed too far, people simply take out extra private insurance. "¢ Managed care in HMOS or PPOS preferred-provider organisations that offer more choice of doctor and hospital than most HMOS. This still looks the most promising option. About 70m Americans now belong to a managed-care plan. Some plans do little more than insist on second opinions before surgery. But the best of them offer patients all the care they need for an annual prepayment, reversing fee-for-service medicine's incentive to excessive treatment. HMOS have been touted as the answer for American health care since Paul Ellwood, a health economist, coined the phrase in 1972. But after a one-off cut in costs, their spending growth has since matched the inflation of the fee for-service sector. Many HMOS have lost money; some have gone bust. No wonder Bob Evans of the University of British Columbia says that "HMOS are the future; always have been and always will be." Is America ready to make any changes to its chaotic system at all? One day, it must: the uninsured are a growing embarrassment; spending cannot rise for ever; growing paperwork will become intolerable; increasing interference in doctors' clinical judgments will provoke revolt. But the short-term prospects for reform are poor. The White House appears to think that any change would be politically riskier than letting the system bumble along as it is. As for the Democrat-controlled Congress, it was badly burnt when it expanded Medicare to cover catastrophic health-care costs in 1988, only to be forced to retract it in 1989 when the better-off elderly objected to paying extra taxes. In recent months the Democrats, especially in the Senate, have gingerly begun to discuss changes in health care. Some hope to make a version of national health insurance a big issue in the 1992 election campaign. The biggest problem for Republicans and Democrats alike is the mulish conservatism of America's powerful interest groups. John Ring, president of the American Medical Association, says his organisation is firmly against national health insurance, or any plan that involves a single payer. It might "“ horrors "“ reduce doctors' incomes from their present average of $150,000 a year. Insurers and private hospitals similarly guard against invasion by "socialised medicine" "“ especially of the iniquitous British variety
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I consider the question of the managing change with the healthcare issues in a way of curtain problems and they're solutions. First of all, let's see some current issues in the USA health care system today. New diagnostic and treatment procedures flourish in the United States. Our medical schools are of the best, our physicians of the first rank. And why not, since we spend some 15 percent of our GDP on health care? Few would argue that there's a better place to get sick than in the United States – if you can penetrate the system. Our system...
to discuss changes in health care. Some hope to make a version of national health insurance a big issue in the 1992 election campaign. The biggest problem for Republicans and Democrats alike is the mulish conservatism of America's powerful interest groups. John Ring, president of the American Medical Association, says his organisation is firmly against national health insurance, or any plan that involves a single payer. It might – horrors – reduce doctors' incomes from their present average of $150,000 a year.

Insurers and private hospitals similarly guard against invasion by "socialised medicine" – especially of the iniquitous British variety

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The official working week is being...The official working week is being reduced to 35 hours a week. In most countries in the world, it is limited to 45 hours a week. The trend during the last century seems to be unequivocal : less work, more play. Yet, what may be true for blue collar workers or state employees "“ is not necessarily so for white collar members of the liberal professions. It is not rare for these people "“ lawyers, accountants, consultants, managers, academics "“ to put in 80 hour weeks. The phenomenon is so widespread and its social consequences so damaging that it acquired the unflattering nickname workaholism, a combination of the words "work" and "alcoholism". Family life is disrupted, intellectual horizons narrow, the consequences to the workaholic's health are severe : fat, lack of exercise, stress take their toll. Classified as "alpha" types, workaholics suffer three times as many heart attacks as their peers. But what are the social and economic roots of this phenomenon ? Put succinctly, it is the result of the blurring borders and differences between work and leisure. The distinction between these two types of time "“ the one dedicated to labour and the one spent in the pursuit of one's interests "“ was so clear for thousands of years that its gradual disappearance is one of the most important and profound social changes in human history. A host of other shifts in the character of the work and domestic environments of humans converged to produce this momentous change. Arguably the most important was the increase in labour mobility and the fluid nature of the very concept of work and the workplace. The transitions from agricultural to industrial, then to the services and now to the information and knowledge societies, each, in turn, increased the mobility of the workforce. A farmer is the least mobile. His means of production are fixed, his produce was mostly consumed locally because of lack of proper refrigeration, preservation and transportation methods. A marginal group of people became nomad-traders. This group exploded in size with the advent of the industrial revolution. True, the bulk of the workforce was still immobile and affixed to the production floor. But raw materials and the finished products travelled long distances to faraway markets. Professional services were needed and the professional manager, the lawyer, the accountant, the consultant, the trader, the broker "“ all emerged as both the parasites of the production processes and the indispensable oil on its cogs. Then came the services industry. Its protagonists were no longer geographically dependent. They rendered their services to a host of "employers" in a variety of ways and geographically spread. This trend accelerated today, at the beginning of the information and knowledge revolution. Knowledge is not locale-bound. It is easily transferable across boundaries. Its ephemeral quality gives it a-temporal and non-spatial qualities. The location of the participants in the economic interactions of this new age are geographically transparent. These trends converged with an increase of mobility of people, goods and data voice, visual, textual and other. The twin revolutions of transportation and of telecommunications really reduced the world to a global village. Phenomena like commuting to work and multinationals were first made possible. Facsimile messages, electronic mail, other modem data transfers, the Internet broke not only physical barriers "“ but also temporal ones. Today, virtual offices are not only spatially virtual "“ but also temporally so. This means that workers can collaborate not only across continents but also across time zones. They can leave their work for someone else to continue in an electronic mailbox, for instance. These last technological advances precipitated the fragmentation of the very concepts of "work" and "workplace". No longer the three Aristotelian dramatic unities. Work could be carried out in different places, not simultaneously, by workers who worked part time whenever it suited them best, Flexitime and work from home replaced commuting as the preferred venue much moreso in the Anglo-Saxon countries, but they have always been the pioneering harbingers of change. This fitted squarely into the social fragmentation which characterizes today's world : the disintegration of previously cohesive social structures, such as the nuclear not to mention the extended family. This was all neatly wrapped in the ideology of individualism which was presented as a private case of capitalism and liberalism. People were encouraged to feel and behave as distinct, autonomous units. The perception of individuals as islands replaced the former perception of humans as cells in an organism. This trend was coupled with "“ and enhanced by "“ the unprecedented successive annual rises in productivity and increases in world trade. These trends were brought about by new management techniques, new production technology, innovative inventory control methods, automatization, robotization, plant modernization, telecommunications which facilitates more efficient transfers of information, even new design concepts. But productivity gains made humans redundant. No amount of retraining could cope with the incredible rate of technological change. The more technologically advanced the country "“ the higher its structural unemployment attributable to changes in the very structure of the market went. In Western Europe, it shot up from 5-6% of the workforce to 9% in one decade. One way to manage this flood of ejected humans was to cut the workweek. Another was to support a large population of unemployed. The third, more tacit, way was to legitimize leisure time. Whereas the Jewish and Protestant work ethics condemned idleness in the past "“ they now started encouraging people to "self fulfil", pursue habits and non-work related interests and express the whole of their personality. This served to blur the historical differences between work and leisure. They were both commended now by the mores of our time. Work became less and less structured and rigid "“ formerly, the main feature of leisure time. Work could be pursued "“ and to an ever growing extent, was pursued "“ from home. The territorial separation between "work-place" and "home turf" was essentially eliminated. The emotional leap was only a question of time. Historically, people went to work because they had to "“ and all the rest was designated "pleasure". Now, both were pleasure "“ or torture "“ or mixture. Some people began to enjoy their work so much that it fulfilled for them the functions normally reserved to leisure time. They are the workaholics. Others continued to hate work "“ but felt disoriented in the new, leisure enriched environment. They were not qualified or trained to deal with excess time, lack of framework, no clear instructions what to do, when, with whom and to what. Socialization processes and socialization agents the State, parents, educators, employers were not geared "“ nor did they regard it as being their responsibility "“ to train the populace to cope with free time and with the baffling and dazzling variety of options. Economies and markets can be classified using many criteria. Not the least of them is the work-leisure axis. Those societies and economies that maintain the old distinction between hated work and liberating leisure "“ are doomed to perish or, at best, radically lag behind. This is because they will not have developed a class of workaholics big enough to move the economy ahead. And this is the Big Lesson : it takes workaholics to create, maintain and expand capitalism. As opposed to common beliefs held by the uninitiated "“ people, mostly, do not engage in business because they are looking for money the classic profit motive. They do what they do because they like the Game of Business, its twists and turns, the brainstorming, the battle of brains, subjugating markets, the ups and downs, the excitement. All this has nothing to do with pure money. It has everything to do with psychology. True, the meter by which success is measured in the world of money is money "“ but very fast it is transformed into an abstract meter, akin to the monopoly money. It is a symbol of shrewdness, wit, foresight and insight. Workaholics identify business with pleasure. They are the embodiment of the pleasure principle. They make up the class of the entrepreneurs, the managers, the businessmen. They are the movers, the shakers, the pushers, the energy. Without them, we have socialist economies, where everything belongs to everyone and, actually to none. In these economies of "collective ownership" people go to work because they have to, they try to avoid it, to sabotage the workplace, they harbour negative feelings. Slowly, they wither and die professionally "“ because no one can live long in hatred and deceit. Joy is an essential ingredient. And this is the true meaning of capitalism : the abolition of work and leisure and the pursuit of both with the same zeal and satisfaction. Above all, the increasing liberty to do it whenever, wherever, with whomever you choose. Unless and until the Homo East Europeansis changes his set of mind "“ there will be no real transition. Because transition happens in the human mind much before it takes form in reality. It is no use to dictate, to legislate, to finance, to cajole, to offer "“ the human being must change first. It was Marx a devout non-capitalist who said : it is consciousness that determines reality. How right was he. Witness the USA and witness the miserable failure of communism.   

The official working week is being reduced to 35 hours a week. In most countries in the world, it is limited to 45 hours a week. The trend during the last century seems to be unequivocal : less work, more play. Yet, what may be true for blue collar workers...

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Specific Purpose "“ To persuade my...Specific Purpose "“ To persuade my audience that animal testing is wrong and how other safer alternatives should be taken. Central Idea "“ By going the extra mile in using safer alternatives when experimenting with animals will not only prevent conflicts from pro-life activists, it will minimize lawsuits and morals will be preserved. Introduction I. Okay I got a riddle I made up for the class. A. What was once cute and furry but becomes a bloody rotted mess? B. You guys give up? C. Well the answer to this question is an animal that has undergone chemical testing. II. I know that wasn't too funny but I needed some sort of attention-grabber and this hit home on the question of my topic; whether animal testing is right or wrong. A. After all, the question whether animals should be tested is often hotly debated. B. Through intense research I have discovered that the issue on whether animals should be experimented upon, or "vivisection", has cropped up in history as early as the 17th century. III. Although animal testing is much less frequent today than in the past, I will reinforce the idea that alternatives to animal testing should be preserved today. A. I will first explain the conflicts in the past where animal testing caused many problems. B. Then I will reinforce the solution to animal testing by discussing the various alternatives that can be taken. Transition: Let us first look at the problem of animal testing. Body I. As I have mentioned, the question on animal testing was posed even as early as the 17th century, according to the All For Animals Newsletter. A. According to this newsletter, Philosopher Jeremy Bentham rejected philosopher Rene Descartes' theory that because animals have no reasoning that humans have, they therefore cannot feel pain or suffering. 1. But Bentham went further in this issue, rejecting Descartes' idea because the idea of reasoning was irrelevant on the moral issue whether animals should be tested. 2. Bentham's philosophy on animals, instead, was: "The question is not can they reason? Nor can they talk? But could they suffer?" B. Vivisection began early after Bentham's time period as scientists cut open animals to learn about the functions of the heart, lungs, and other parts of the body. C. The practice of testing cosmetics on animals started around 1933. 1. This began after a woman used Lush Lure cosmetics darken her eye lashes. 2. The woman's eyes eventually burned, and later the woman became blind and eventually died. 3. Because of this incident, the Food and Drug Administration passed the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1938 to protect the public from unsafe cosmetics and resorted to animals for testing dangerous cosmetics. D. Other deadly tests on animals that began to crop up included the Draize Test and another tested called LD50. 1. The Draize Test was named after the Federal Drug Administration scientist John Draize. a. In this test, substances were dropped directly into an animal's eye usually an albino rat and results were recorded. b. Through this inhumanity, the first successful eye droppers were developed. 2. The other test was the LD50, or in longhand, the Lethal Dose 50. a. According to a National Institute of Health release, this procedure was where a substance was fed to a group of animals until half the test subjects died. b. This example to me personally represents the epitome of cruelty by modern science toward animals. Transition: Now that I have explained the cruel injustices of animals in the past, let us now look at how these problems are solved today. II. One of the ways animals are now protected is through laws and organizations. 1. One such important law that was signed in 1966 was the Animal Welfare Act that regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers. a. In brief, certain animals could only be used in laboratories. b. Also, records were to be kept on number of animals and details on the animal experimentation. 2. There are also such organizations as the National Institute of Health, The American Anti-Vivisection Society, as well as the The Humane Society of the United States to name a few. 3. One other animals rights organization, the Alternatives Research Development Foundation, has made it on the news recently with a winning lawsuit against the United States Agriculture Department. a. With this won lawsuit, the USDA is required to expand Animal Welfare Acts to not only include chimpanzees, cats and guinea pigs, but to also include rats, mice, and birds. b. Researchers estimate that biomedical laboratories will be required to pay from 80 to 90 million dollars for scientific research. c. Director of the department, John McArdle, even estimated that there are around 23 million rodents used for research in medical schools, pharmaceutical companies and other laboratories. d. According to this won lawsuit for the Alternatives Research Development Foundation, Tina Nelson, executive director of the American Anti-Vivisection Society states, "The more than 90 percent of animals used in laboratories who currently have no legal protection could now be covered by federal law." Conclusion I. On a closing note, I would just like to re-mention that alternatives have already been taken to prevent animals from being subjected to the cruelties of scientific research. II. I merely wanted to reinforce the idea on how most vivisection problems are now solved, and should stay solved. III. After all, if you were a guinea pig or albino rat, would you like to be tested upon by dangerous chemicals?   

Specific Purpose – To persuade my audience that animal testing is wrong and how other safer alternatives should be taken. Central Idea – By going the extra mile in using safer alternatives when experimenting with animals will not only prevent conflicts from pro-life activists, it will minimize lawsuits and morals...

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