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Rates of reaction Plan Aim: In this experiment I will find the rate of reaction between Sodium thiosulphate NaS2o3 and Hydrochloric acid HCl. There are different variables I could use to see the change in the rate of reaction. These include temperature, concentration or catalysts. I will investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction between Sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid. Prediction When sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid react they produce a cloudy precipitate. The two chemicals are both clear solutions and will react together to form a yellow precipitate of sulphur, the equation for which is as follows: NaS2O3 aq+ HCll¨Sg+NaCls+ H2Ol+SO2s As the solution will turn cloudy, we can observe the rate of reaction by placing a black cross underneath the beaker and seeing how long it takes for it to disappear. There are factors that affect this experiment such as temperature, concentration and time. I do not think that surface area will affect the experiment, as both chemicals are liquids. For my experiment I will study temperature as this is easily observed and can be easily varied. I think that as the temperature of sodium thiosulphate increases, the amount of time taken for a reaction decreases. I know this because before two particles can react they must meet. The higher the temperature there is the more successful collisions between other particles is increased. When temperature increases the bonds in NaS2O3 break quicker because more energy is available greater than the activation energy of the reaction. As a result S2O3 2- ions are available so it takes less time to bond with H+ ions from HCL and new bonds are formed quicker and therefore sulphur precipitates quicker and the rate of reaction increases. S2o3 2- aq +2H+ aq S02aq+Sg+H2Ol When the temperature increases it causes an increase in kinetic energy so you have more chances of successful collisions between NaS2O3 particles and HCl particles so the rate of reaction increases. Also more activation energy is made available to overcome the activation energy of the reaction; the reactants have greater energy than the activation energy, so the reaction takes place quicker. I will keep the concentration of NaS2O3 constant to prevent more successful collisions as there would be more particles available if a higher concentration is fed which will increase successful collisions. I will also keep the concentration of HCl constant as an increase or decrease in concentration will affect the rate of reaction. I will change the temperature of NaS2O3 so I can see how the temperature affects the rate of reaction. I will keep the temperature of the HCl acid at room temperature as we are only concentrating on the NaS2O3 and if we heat the HCl it might affect the rate of reaction it would not be a fair test if we heat the HCl when we are observing how NaS2O3. I also predict that every time the temperature increases by 10oC the rate of reaction doubles. The preliminary results Time on heat sec Temperature of NaS2O3 0C Time taken for cross to disappear sec 0 24 60 10 34 52 Method For the preliminary experiment I heated the NaS2O3 to get it to the temperature I wanted but it was difficult to get the NaS2O3 to the right temperature so the results were not as accurate, but for my real experiment I will use a water bath to get accurate results instead of a Bunsen burner. For the preliminary experiment I only recorded the temperature of the NaS2O3 but for my real experiment I will record the temperature of the HCl as well to get more accurate results because if the NaS2O3 was high and the HCl could bring the temperature down quicker and also have to make sure all the temperature of the HCl is the same. I will also take the temperature of the mixture so I know the temperature at which the reaction took place. 1. I will set up my apparatus and put an X on a piece of paper and measure out 50ml of NaS2O3 and 10ml of HCl. 2. I will pour the NaS2O3 into a conical flask and measure the temperature and pour the HCl in to the same conical flask and time how long it will take for the cross on the paper to disappear. 3. I will do 4 different temperatures and I will do them three times each to get accurate results. 4. I will record the results in a table of results. Apparatus used Sodium thiosulphate NaS2O3-50ml Hydrochloric acid HCl-1M Conical flaskx2 Measuring cylinderx2 Thermometer Water bath at different temperatures Paper marked with X Stop watch Distilled water Analysis From graph 1 I can see that when temperature increases the time taken for reaction to take place decreased. In graph 2 I can see when temperature increases the rate of reaction increases. There was an anomalous result in graph 2, when the temperature was 480C and 1€time was 1.18. My results agree with my prediction because I predicted that the higher the temperature the lower the time taken for the reaction to take place and we can see this from the graphs. The graph shows this pattern taking place. For my experiment I studied temperature as this is easily observed and can be easily varied. The temperature of sodium thiosulphate increased, and the amount of time taken for a reaction decreased. When temperature increased the bonds in NaS2O3 broke quicker and more energy is available greater than the activation energy of the reaction and S2O3 2- ions are available so it takes less time to bond with H+ ions from HCl and new bonds were formed quicker and therefore sulphur precipitated quicker and the rate of reaction increased. This is why in graph 2, I had a strait line positive correlation graph. When the temperature increased it caused an increase in kinetic energy so we had more successful collisions between NaS2O3 particles and HCl particles and the rate of reaction increased. Also more activation energy was made available to overcome the activation energy of the reaction; the reactants had greater energy than the activation energy, so the reaction took place quicker. I think my results support my prediction because I predicted when temperature increases the rate at which the reaction takes place is faster. In graph 2, the theory that every time the temperature increases by 10oC, the rate of reaction will double did not work in my experiment and the results of that theory is given below: 10"¹C¨0.018 0.024€0.018=1.333 20"¹C¨0.024 0.052€0.024=2.167 30"¹C¨0.052 0.078€0.052=1.500 40"¹C¨0.078 0.086€0.078=1.103 50"¹C¨0.086 0.104€0.086=1.209 60"¹C¨0.104 0.120€0.104=1.154 70"¹C¨0.020 0.1380.120=1.1500 80"¹C¨0.138 Evaluation I think my method worked well as I repeated the experiments three times for five different temperatures and got three results which were similar. I think the experiment worked but when we used NaS2O3 with a high temperature, it was difficult for us to time the reaction as it was more rapid than we had expected. If I had the chance to repeat the experiment I would concentrate on the concentration of the NaS2O3 rather than the temperature as there are a lot of factors which could affect the temperature. I think my experiment was done reasonably well as l got similar results when I repeated them three times. There was one anomalous result in graph 2 and I think there was an anomalous result because the NaS2O3 was at a high temperature and the reactants reacted rapidly that the timing was wrong. I also think this was caused by the open window we worked next to which brought the temperature down quickly. I think my results are fairly reliable and it supports my analysis as I said, when temperature increased the time taken for the reaction to take place decreased. I could try the experiment with different methods and different reactants to get additional knowledge. I could use magnesium instead of Sodium thiosulphate and I could heat the hydrochloric acid instead of heating the NaS2O3 and to make more of a fair test I could make sure all the windows and doors are closed and no cold air comes in.
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Rates of reaction Plan Aim: In this experiment I will find the rate of reaction between Sodium thiosulphate NaS2o3 and Hydrochloric acid HCl. There are different variables I could use to see the change in the rate of reaction. These include temperature, concentration or catalysts. I will investigate how temperature affects the rate of reaction between Sodium thiosulphate and Hydrochloric acid. Prediction When sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid react they produce a cloudy precipitate. The two chemicals are both clear solutions and will react together to form a yellow precipitate of sulphur, the equation for...
worked next to which brought the temperature down quickly. I think my results are fairly reliable and it supports my analysis as I said, when temperature increased the time taken for the reaction to take place decreased.

I could try the experiment with different methods and different reactants to get additional knowledge. I could use magnesium instead of Sodium thiosulphate and I could heat the hydrochloric acid instead of heating the NaS2O3 and to make more of a fair test I could make sure all the windows and doors are closed and no cold air comes in.

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