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The rate of Hydrochloric acid reacting with magnesium ribbon.
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Introduction In the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon, the hydrochloric acid will dissolve the magnesium and produce hydrogen gas. All chemical reactions involve reactants which when mixed may cause a chemical reaction which will make products. In my case the reactants are hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The chemical reaction takes place when the magnesium ribbon is dropped into the hydrochloric acid. The products that are formed during this reaction are hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. The formula equation for this experiment is: Mg + 2HCl r MgCl2 + H2 Magnesium + Hydrochloric...
be similar to the ones I already have, so I would not use this for any further experiments. The reason I could use a different type of acid for any further work is to find if the is a difference between them if their molecular build up is different.

I could also use the less reactive metals of the reactivity series zinc, aluminium, iron and lead that way I could find the initial rate of reaction at 5 seconds for the higher concentrations of acid like 3.0M or 3.5M and I could find there relative activity.

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Introduction In this... Introduction In this assignment I will investigate hazard and prevention. This is three tasks assignment. In task one I will make a checklist and definition of checklist and why we should make a checklist for any place. For task two I have given an A4 sheet with tropical image of accidents. For this task I need to find out these accidents and write how I could prevent them. Fro task three I need to write all about hazards and anything related to this. Task one In this task I am going to make a checklist for my chemistry lab. Checklist is a tool to ensure all-important steps or actions in an operation have been taken. Checklist contains items important or relevant to an issue or situation. Checklist is a safety list. Checklist is a list of different equipment in a lab or home or office. Make sure that all the equipment listed in the checklist and it should check once or twice a year. A checklist helps us to find out what type of equipment we get a specific place, such as lab or home. If I don¡¦t have a checklist, than I can¡¦t tell what I have gets in a place such as lab or home. Checklist often confused with check sheet. Check sheet is a simple data-recording device. The check sheet is custom designed by the user, which allow him or her to readily interpret the result. I am going to make a checklist about G4 Chemistry laboratory. I will check each item once a year. Category Date of checking Any thing wrong Yes No Action Job Done First Aid Eye wash 20 /08/2002 Water line block Call an plumber Clear the line. Fire fighting Equipment Fire Extinguisher Fire Blanket Fire Alarm Fire Exit Sand Bucket Main Equipment Gas guard Electric power supply Gas tapes Electric sockets Equipment Broken bucket Bin bag Water bath Oven Special equipment Distilled water Eye/body protection Lab coat Goggle Spectacles Face shield Experiment safety Hazards warning sign Safety screen Task two a I have given an A4 sheet paper where they gave me a typical image of an accident waiting to happen in the laboratory. My task is to identify these accidents and explain how I could prevent them happening. List of the accident may happen in this laboratory: 1. A boy doing an experiment where chemicals will fall of on his body. And he didn¡¦t wear an eye protection. And height of the object is not appropriate for him. 2. A girl doing en experiment but her long hears were untied, under her hair there is a Bunsen burner with fire. 3. Middle of the class room there is water on the floor. 4. A boy opens an electric socket without teacher permission. He might get electric shock. 5. All students do not wear eye protection. 6. A girl playing with the rubber band and disturbing other to do their experiment. 7. A girl doing experiment but her test tube face at her chemicals will go on to her body. 8. A girl doing an experiment but her test tube faced straight to up. Hot chemicals may explore and fall on to her body. 9. A girl holding a hot bicker without a glove. 10. A girl looking to other girl and mistakenly she put her hand up on the hot gorse. 11. A boy carrying box but he can¡¦t see anything what happen to front. 12. Main exit door blocked by boxes. If fire in the room no one can get out. 13. Teacher given demonstration about chemical where students were too close and there is no safety screen. None of these students wearing goggle. 14. A girl put an iron stand at the edge of the tale. It could fall onto someone¡¦s foot. 15. Some one put a biker up on the gorse at the edge of the table. 16. Bunsen burner left with blue fire. I could prevent these accidents by: 1. Height of the object must be appropriate for him. And he must wear a goggle to do chemical experiment. 2. This girl must tie her hear up and when she does not use Bunsen burner she must left it with yellow coloured fire. 3. Clean the water as soon as possible. Otherwise someone may slip n the floor. And it may break their leg or hip. 4. Teacher must warn students about electric socket that students never try to open an electric socket. It is dangerous to get an electric shock. 5. All students doing various experiments, but none of them use eye protection. Chemicals or other thing could spill in to the eye. To prevent this happen teacher must tell students advantage of wearing a goggle which can save my eyes to have any damages. 6. Tell her play outside. 7. Test tube must not face to you or other people, because chemical may explore and go onto your body. 8. Test tube must put diagonally, because if test tube put straight up and chemicals heated than chemical will explore and could fall onto your body. 9. If anyone needs to hold some thing hot they must use glove. Because otherwise they might burn themselves. 10. If anyone does any experiment they must concentrate with their experiment. 11. Tell him to remove these boxes after the class. 12. Clear the door way. 13. Use a safety screen and student must wear goggle. 14. Put the iron stand middle of the table. 15. Put bicker and gorse middle on the table. 16. Bunsen burner must be left with yellow flame. Task two b In this task I will write about three accident and necessary emergency procedures could be used in these accident. There are the accidents: ƒ¾ Chemical in the eye ƒ¾ Chemical burn ƒ¾ Electric shock Chemical in the eye: splashes of chemicals in the eye can cause serious injury if not treated quickly. Recognition of chemicals there may be: "žÃ Intense pain in the eye "žÃ Inability to open the injured eye "žÃ Redness and swelling around the eye "žÃ Copious watering of the eye "žÃ Evidence of chemical substance or containers in the immediate area. Treatment: First thing do not allow the casualty to touch the injured eye or forcibly remove contact lens. Hold the affected eye under gently running cold water for at least ten minutes. Make sure that you irrigate both sides of the eyelid thoroughly. If the eye is shut in a spasm of pain, gently but firmly pull the eyelid open. Be careful that contaminate/rotten water does not splash the uninjured eye. Ask the casualty to hold sterile eye pad or any clean pad or non-fluffy materials over the injured eye. Than take or send the casualty to the hospital. Chemical burn: certain chemicals may irritate, harm or be absorbed through the skin, causing widespread and some times fatal damage. Recognition of chemical there may be: "žÃ Evidence of chemical in the vicinity "žÃ Intense, stinging pain "žÃ Later, discolouration and swelling of the affected area. Treatment: Never attempt to neutralise acid or alkali burn unless trained to do so. Do not delay starting treatment by searching for an ambulance. First make sure that injured area is safe. Ventilate the area and remove the casualty if necessary. And seal the chemical container if possible. Flood the affected area with water to disperse the chemical and stop the burning. Do this at least 20 minutes. Gently remove the pollute clothing during flooding the injury. Take or sand the casualty to hospital. Give the details about chemical to medical person. Electric shock: Domestic current, as used in home, office, college lab etc, can caused serious injury and even death. Action: do not touch the casualty if they contact with electrical current, he will be ¡§live¡¨ and risk electrocution. Do no use anything metallic to push away the electrical source. Try to switch off the socket or main power, if you can¡¦t switch off than stand on dry insulating materials such as a wooden box or telephone guide. Push the casualty¡¦s limbs away from the source with a broom, wooden chair or stool or push the push the source from the casualty, whichever is easier. If the casualty is unconscious, open the airway check for breathing and be ready to place them in recovery position. Cool if there any burn with cold water. Dial 999 for an ambulance. If the casualty seems to be unharmed, advise them to rest. Observe them closely and, if in doubt, call a doctor. If the hart stops apply the ABC Airway, Breathing and Circulation signs of life of resuscitation until a normal heartbeat returns or specific medical treatment is given. Task three Hazard & Risk The term "risk" is often confused with "hazard". A high voltage power supply, a sample of radioactive metal, or a toxic chemical may present a hazard, meaning that they present the potential for harm. Concentrated acids, for example, clearly present the hazard to the user of serious burns if they are handled incorrectly. A hazard is something with the potential to cause harm of life e.g. this can be a substance, part of a machine, form of energy, method of work or a situation. Harm includes death, injury, physical or mental ill health, damage to property, loss of production, damage to the environment or any combination of these. Risk is a measure of the likelihood that the harm from a particular hazard will occur, taking into account the possible severity of the harm. The risk is the probability or chance that the hazard posed by the chemical will lead to injury. Thus, concentrated sulphuric acid is a hazardous chemical; because it is very corrosive and reactive. However, provided it is handled in an appropriate way the risks it poses may be small. For the risk to be real: "žÃ The threat must exist. "žÃ There is likely to be magnitude of effect. "žÃ There is potential for occurrence. It is thus evident that hazards are something we can do little about. The hazard posed by a carcinogen, a concentrated acid or an explosive substance is inherent properties of the material. The risks they pose, however, can be and should be! minimised by initially preparing a suitable risk assessment. Risk Assessment is the process of analysing the level of risk, considering those in danger, and evaluating whether hazards are adequately controlled, taking into account any measures already in place and any work practices that may be in force. I have to fill a risk assessment for my Physics experiment. Sample of that risk assessment form as below: Components of Hazards There are number of components to consider in defining hazard: ľ Intrinsic properties of the hazard. ľ The nature of the equipment or from of the material such as vapour, mist, liquid etc. ľ The exposure-effect relationship. ľ The pathways and frequency of use ľ Aspects of worker behaviour the affect exposure to the hazard. ľ Mechanisms of action. Type of Hazards: There are different types of hazards: Chemical hazard: through a variety of action, chemicals can cause damage to health and property. Some of these actions are explosive, flammable, corrosive, oxidation, poisoning, toxicity, and carcinogenicity. Biological Hazard: mainly from infection or allergic reaction. Biological hazards include viruses, bacteria, fungi and other organism. Some biological hazards such as AIDS or hepatitis B are potentially life threatening. Physical hazards: these include noise, radiation such as ionising, electromagnetic or non-ionising, heat, cold, vibration and pressure. Ergonomic hazards, psychological hazards, Lateral water hazards, EM hazards, health hazards etc. Components of Risk; ľ Individual variation in susceptibility. ľ The numbers exposed. ľ The degree of individual risk. ľ The possibility of elimination of a less hazardous substance or process. ľ The possibility of achieving of the hazard. ľ Public opinion and pressure groups. ľ Social responsibility. Perception of Risk: People judge risks differently. Judgments are made on the ease of recall and imagining. For example, the role of the media in bringing risk issues such as AIDS or asbestos to public attention in one exercise of this judgment. While risk analyses will provide some estimate of a risk in numerical terms, presentation of quantitative facts on risk rates often does not work well. Statistical expressions of risk are only one dimension of risk, and these may be irrelevant to lay people who view risk qualitatively. Warning signs represent a hazard level between Caution and Danger. A warning indicates a potentially hazardous situation, which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. All the chemicals in the laboratory must have warning sign and labelled, because without a warning sign or label no one will know is it a corrosive, flammable or other dangerous chemical. To be safe in a laboratory than all chemical must be label and must have a warning sign. Example of some warning sign: A survey carried out in school science laboratory publisher in education in science. The result of that survey most common accident in the laboratory as below: Accident Percentage Chemicals in the eye 23% Chemicals on the body 21% Cuts 20% Burn & scalds 15% Dropping, falling, slipping, lifting, knocking 7% Chemicals in mouth 4% Inhalation 4% Animal bites 3% Explosions 2% Electric shock 1% Most common accidents in laboratory show in the pie chart as below; The result of the survey tell that chemical in the, is the most common, because students does not follow the safety rule. In the safety rule they give everything what student should do when they enter in a laboratory. Before get this result I thought cut will be the height common accident, but in this result show chemical in the eye is the most common accident. This because students don¡¦t understand the important of wear eye protection. They didn¡¦t listen to their teacher. The safest place from accident is science laboratory, because they have rule which you must need to follow. And mostly accident happened in home, because we don¡¦t have any rule in home. That way in the home there are most accident happened. For safe in laboratory they made a safety rule. A sample of a safety rule in science laboratory is below: To be safe in the laboratory we must follow the safety rules and we must have hazards warning sign and label. And minimise the risk we should do risk assessment. Before using a lab first thing to do is make a checklist of the entire item in the lab. Than check these once or twice a year. Safety check is very important because if something wrong in the lab than from safety check we could know about it. Safety check helps us to find out any fault or any thing change we need to do. In your home you also need a checklist, because if any thing stolen from your home police will ask you what the things stolen. In this time you need a checklist. You also need checklist for checking is your all machinery or other things work properly such as your washing machine, freezer etc. so a checklist very important for any particular place.   

Introduction In this assignment I will investigate hazard and prevention. This is three tasks assignment. In task one I will make a checklist and definition of checklist and why we should make a checklist for any place. For task two I have given an A4 sheet with...

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RATES OF REACTION SKILL... RATES OF REACTION SKILL P  There are four factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. These are Temperature, Surface area, concentration and the use of catalysts.  I am going to investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between marble chips and dilute Hydrochloric acid. The chemical reaction for this is : - CaCO3 S + 2HCL aq CaCL2 aq + H2O l + CO2  The factors that affect this reaction are: - Temperature: - In a cold reaction mixture the particles are moving quite SLOWLY "“ the particles will collide with each other less often, with less energy, and less collisions will be successful. If we heat the reaction mixture the particles will move more Quickly "“ the particles will collide with each other more often, with grater energy, and more collisions will be successful. The more the collisions the faster the rate of reaction.The reactant is broken down faster Surface area: - Large particles have a small surface in relation to their volume "“ fewer particles are exposed and available for collision. This means fewer collisions and a slower reaction. Small particles have a large surface area in relation to their volume. "“ More particles are exposed and available for collision. This means more collision and a faster reaction. The reactant is broken down faster Concentration: - In a reaction where one or both reactants are in low concentrations the particles are spread out and will collide with each other less often resulting in fewer collisions. In a reaction where on or both reactions are in high concentrations the particles are crowded close together and will collide with each other more often, resulting in an increased number of successful collisions. The more the collisions the faster the rate of reaction. . The reactant is broken down faster Plan of carrying out investigation  To make this a fair test we tried to keep the weight of the marble in each investigation the same.  With my partner we investigated the factor of concentration.  We were provided with marble chips of masses in the range of 0.3 "“ 0.6g and 2 mol dm ¯ ³  Firstly we set up the apparatus as shown on the next page. For our reaction we used 0.4g of marble chips and 10 cm³ of Hydrochloric acid in our first experiment and 6 cm³ of Hydrochloric acid 4cm³ water in our second experiment. Once everything was ready we started the investigation. To measure the difference between the two experiments we measured Carbon Dioxide levels. This was done using a gas syringe shown in the set-up on the next page. We recorded our results into tables every ten seconds writing down the amount of CO2 in cm ³. We did this experiment as efficiently as possible using equipment such as stop watches to make our results as exact as possible. We also wanted to keep the experiment safe so we wore safety glasses.  One of the most important equipment in the investigations was the gas syringe. After all this equipment allows us the progress of the investigation accurately. The gas syringe is connected to the test tube by an air tight rubber tube. Because the investigation is air tight, when the reactant reacts with the hydrochloric acid it produces the gas Carbon Dioxide, once produced it pushes the syringe forward and we can measure the rate of reaction.  We started the reaction by placing the marble chip in with the hydrochloric acid and covering the test tube with a bung. We realised that the reaction was over by recognising identical reading in three times.  To get the best results from the investigation we must repeat it several times so that we can average the results to ensure good results.   

RATES OF REACTION SKILL P  There are four factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. These are Temperature, Surface area, concentration and the use of catalysts.  I am going to investigate the factors that affect the rate of reaction between marble chips...

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Intro In this experiment I... Intro In this experiment I am going to investigate the reaction of sodium thiosulphate thio and hydrochloric acid. There are four main factors that affect the rate of reaction. Temperature-You would have to have the EXACT temperature. Surface Area particle size - It's hard to do this one as it is a liquid state. Catalysts-Increase the rate of a chemical reaction- Concentration- This is the best way as its fair and a better experiment to do rather than any of the other main factors that affect rate and reaction. I have done a variety of experiments on rates of reactions such as the marble chip and gas syringe experiment which tested the effect on surface area. I have decided that concentration is the best way to measure rates of reaction in this experiment. When sodium thiosulphate reacts with an acid it should go cloudy and I then have to measure how long this reaction takes. In this experiment I am going to investigate the reaction of sodium thiosulphate thio and hydrochloric acid. Hydrochloric Acid Sodium Thiosulphate Sodium Sulphate & Sulphur Na2S2O3 aq Na2 SO3 aq + S s I am going to change the concentration of these experiments, by adding water to the thio to see if this affects the reaction. The total volume of the liquid will stay the same; only the concentration of the thio will vary. Prediction I predict that if I add water to the thio, the reaction will decrease in speed, and this will make the solution less concentrated. It will take longer for the cross to disappear the less concentrated it is. If you half the concentration of thio I think this will double the time of reaction. 2 1 In box number 1. There are fewer particles of acid therefore leading to a less reactive experiment, and in box number 2. There are many more acidic particles more concentration of acid leading to a much more reactive experiment. Collision theory For a reaction to take place, the particles of the substances that are reacting have to collide. If they collide, with enough energy then they will react. The minimum amount of kinetic movement energy that two particles need if they are going to react when they collide is called the activation energy. There are therefore two main ways of increasing the rate of a reaction: Increase the number of collisions The Higher the concentration the more collisions there are the lower the concentration the less collisions there are leading to a less reactive experiment. Increase the amount of movement kinetic energy so that more collisions lead to more reactions. Dilution of Sodium thiosulphate The smallest amount of time shows how fast the reaction took place The Longest amount of time shows how slow the reaction took place * Diagram of Apparatus Safety Issues These are the safety precautions that I have taken during this experiment: To wear Goggles during the pouring of the acids and solutions, as the there's always a risk of getting harmful solutions in your eyes or face. ALWAYS stand and not sit while in contact with acid. Concentrate!!!! When you don't concentrate things go wrong, so put all of your effort into the experiment. Chairs should be tucked in, out the way. All belonging such as bags and books should be cleared away of the experiment. Analysis I've drawn line graphs to show the results of the experiment, it shows that as the concentration is decreased it will take longer for the cross to disappear; this tells me that my prediction was correct. The Graphs Iv drawn are Lines of Best fit graphs as this way is the best way in order to show the results correctly. In my prediction I said that if I add water to the thio, the reaction will decrease in speed, and this will make the solution less concentrated. I said that it will take longer for the cross to disappear the less concentrated it is, I explained that if you half the concentration of thio it will double the time of the reaction. As the more particles there is the more reactive experiment, the fewer particles the less reactive experiment. The more concentrated the quicker the reaction the less concentrated the slower the reaction. When I examine my graphs I can see the same trend and pattern, as each line is best fit. My graphs show a line of best fit, this goes through many of the points of results. The shape is a curve with the largest concentration being 50cm3 and the smallest concentration being 10cm3. In my results the fastest time being"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦ seconds and the slowest time being"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦ seconds on the 1st set. In my quantitative 2nd prediction I said that if I half the concentration the time will double, looking at my results in the 1st experiment I looked at 20cm3 thio & 40cm3 and the times were"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦. Evaluation On my line graph that I drew it shows that some results are odd compared to the other results which I have circled, this may be because of issues with the decontaminated equipment or the wrong measurement of acid and thiosulphate was not the same. Many things went wrong during the experiments and one was; getting the correct amount of solution therefore making it a fair test. Also another thing is that trying to press the STOP button on the stopwatch as sometimes you would press it a few seconds late, and we had to do the experiments again repeatedly to make sure we made the experiments as fair as possible. If I was do to the experiment again I would change a few things, such as I and the few other pupils concentration as we weren't concentrating enough a few times which would ruin the experiment and we would have to do it time and time again. Another point that could also have made the experiment 'unfair' was that the temperature varied which also made a big difference to the experiment as some days it would be colder or hotter than others. There are "¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦"¦ anomalous results on my graphs. They are circled on the graphs If there were no odd results present this would either be because; I carried out the experiment VERY carefully and accurately making sure that I got all the measuring accurate. The possible reason for my results could have been because I didn't measure out the concentration accurate enough, or because I was not concentrating enough on what I was actually doing. What I found very difficult Judging whether or not the cross disappeared, because I had a different person judging each time and their opinion would be different to each others opinion. Making sure the stop watch was turned on and off at the right moment in time, because each second is very important and valuable. Measuring out the liquids because it had to be very accurate. What I need to improve Check the temperature does not change too much as this could change the results. If it's hotter the reactions would be faster and we are not measuring temperature we are measuring concentration. Keeping the same measuring cylinder.   

Intro In this experiment I am going to investigate the reaction of sodium thiosulphate thio and hydrochloric acid. There are four main factors that affect the rate of reaction. Temperature-You would have to have the EXACT temperature. Surface Area particle size - It's hard to do this one as...

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