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There are three poems I have chosen to help me discuss and write about my thesis 'Life , its problems, the good and the bad of human experience, are major concerns of Simon Armitage's poetry'. They are the Untitled poem "I am very bothered", "Poem" and "It Ain't What You Do, It's What It Does To You". "Poem" is one of Armitage's life problem poems When You don't remember the good things a person has done but the bad things a person has done you remember. This poem has many lines which start with 'and' which is a sort of list of things this person has done. Also he starts off the poem with "And if it snowed and snow covered the drive" which is like the poem is the second part of another poem or he has left out the beginning and got to the important part. There are three verses describing things he did. Mostly everything is good things about him for example "And for his mum he hired a private nurse" apart from the last sentence which describes him doing bad things for example "And twice he lifted 10 quid from her purse" Mother. This made the reader only remember the bad things because it was the last thing the reader remembers about him from the whole paragraph. The last verse is about how people rated him as a bad person who he was only occasionally like everyone else in the world. There was one sarcastic part of the poem when he said "every week he tipped his wage" and soon after said "what he didn't spend he saved" because he would not have nothing to save if he spent half on alcohol. I think Armitage's poems puts in these sarcastic bits and bad or wrong doings spread over the poem so you are al ways reminded he is a bad person but he is clearly an average person but people judge you on all the things you do so you should be careful on what you do. "I am very bothered" is a poem of the bad of human experiences. It's about what you do to try to attract attention which has good and bad consequences. Simon Armitage shows how he feels about his experiences when he looks back on them. He feels very troubled when he remembers a time when he was in school as a child in a science lab. He put a pair of plastic handled scissors over a hot Bunsen burner until it was soft and melting slowly and gave it to a female pupil. When she held it around her fingers he described the scene as "O the unrivalled stench of branded skin as you "¦" meaning it was so bad no other bad smell could compete with it and that it left a mark of dull, dark, black, burnt skin. There was a burnt ring around one of her fingers and one of her thumbs that were marked for life. He described his feelings of this horrific atrocity by saying "Don't believe me if I say that was just my butterfingered way at thirteen, of asking you if you would marry me" butterfingered way meaning not really meaning it, not seriously so he means don't believe be if I said I was only joking when I said will you marry me. Finally, the poem "It Ain't What You Do It's What It does To You" is about human experiences which are mainly good. It starts off with him not have gone to America with hardly anything but then say he has lived with thieves in Manchester which are both bas experiences in the first verse. In the second verse he talks about only one thing he hasn't done which is gone to the quiet, peaceful Taj Mahal "padded through Tag Mahal, barefoot". In the third verse he talks about only one thing he has done. Which is skimmed a flat stones across Black moss on a day so still he could hear every sound which is normally unheard of "hear each set of ripples". In the fourth verse he starts off with him not have sky dived from an aircraft but he says "I held the wobbly head of a boy at a day centre, and stroked his fat hands" which has a really big effect on your life to see someone in a bad state. All these examples shown of things done or things he hasn't done means he is saying our experiences effect our behaviour and ways of thinking and makes us more wiser on the things we do. Like In the final verse he describes the feelings of doing all those things inside of us as a "sense of something else" which I believe it's a feeling so out of this world that you have to do it to find out. All these poems we have studied show that Simon Armitage thinks deeply about humans and how they react to life experiences. Whether life experiences bring problems or happiness we all have to deal with them in the right way. For example from the poem 'Poem' the problem of the man only remembered by the bad points and that man has to deal with that in the right way by defending himself and the people who rate him also have to be careful on what they say about people. We have to try and live through it all without it bringing us down and making us feel miserable. For example 'The untitled poem about him very bothered about the girls burnt fingers we have to deal with the fact that it happened and to let it go and get on with our lives. We also have to make sure we don't make wrong decisions just to make ourselves feel happy and don't care about the others. For example again to the untitled poem Simon should of thought of the consequences and the pain of others but he didn't he was only seeking attention for himself. Now I hope you now know Simon Armitage poems are based on life's good and bad experiences.
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There are three poems I have chosen to help me discuss and write about my thesis 'Life , its problems, the good and the bad of human experience, are major concerns of Simon Armitage's poetry'. They are the Untitled poem "I am very bothered", "Poem" and "It Ain't What You Do, It's What It Does To You". "Poem" is one of Armitage's life problem poems When You don't remember the good things a person has done but the bad things a person has done you remember. This poem has many lines which start with 'and' which is a...
him very bothered about the girls burnt fingers we have to deal with the fact that it happened and to let it go and get on with our lives. We also have to make sure we don't make wrong decisions just to make ourselves feel happy and don't care about the others. For example again to the untitled poem Simon should of thought of the consequences and the pain of others but he didn't he was only seeking attention for himself. Now I hope you now know Simon Armitage poems are based on life's good and bad experiences.

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' The Darkness Out... ' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be more mature and less naïve. Old Mrs Chundle' is a pre-twentieth century tale about a curate who through an encounter with an old woman realises that he did not live up to the good person he had always imagined he had been, and also he feels guilty as a result of his wrong actions. The beginning of 'The Darkness Out There' is a contrast to the title with descriptions of the country and also of the old woman Mrs Rutter. 'Brushing through the grass, polleny summer grass that glinted in the sun.' This is your first impression of the surroundings Sandra travels through and an example of the contrasting descriptions compared to the gloomy title. Sandra has a strong pre-conception of old people being innocent and sweet who deserve to be treated well. 'They were really sweet, the old people.' Her pre-conceptions are down to her innocence of being young and of her naivety too. Sandra's natural assumption is that she assumes she is doing a good job giving up her time for the old people who deserved to be assisted. However as soon as Sandra gets a glimpse of Packer's End the author changes the feeling of the story to dark and gloomy descriptions of the area, 'It was a rank place' for example. This idea of the area given to the readers creates the impression that the 'darkness out there' in this story is Packers End and gives a false illusion or pre-conception that the story is morally and fully based around it. The transition from the pleasant descriptions of the countryside to the of Packer's End is quite blunt with one significant quote 'the light suddenly shutting off the bare wide sky of the field. Packer's End.' This quote is effective because it shows the change in mood and description. It also shows that Packer's End is the darkness out there in Sandra's mind too. You get the impression of Sandra's fear by the comments made like 'she wouldn't go in there for a thousand pounds', which shows you the extent that she would go to in order to avoid approaching it. There are also many descriptions describing Sandra's impressions of fear of the area like ' the greyness you couldn't quite see into the clotted shifting depths of the place.' This quote not only shows Sandra's fears but also describes the 'darkness out there' as if until you look closer you cannot tell what it is. This relates back to the pre-judgemental attitude Sandra has towards Mrs Rutter and Kerry at the start of the story. Sandra is scared of Packer's End because of all the tales that people had told her as a child like the ghostly presence of German aircrew, and recently the story of the girl that was raped and attacked there. Note that after many of the stories are told they end with 'people said'. This suggests that Sandra does not really have an entire mind of her own and that people are influential in her thinking, which is probably why she is still afraid of Packer's End. As a child she was, and still is, afraid of the ghostly place with wolves. But going into her teens it was mainly the Nazi plane and the rape that daunts her because they were more realistic things. Others again influence her on the supposed rape incident too. ' There was this girl, people at school said"¦' This quote gives evidence of her listening to what 'people' told her and she appears to be very gullible, which makes her more naïve of the real life and Packer's End Sandra has an idyllic life as her dream for the future for example travelling to perfect places you can get. 'She would go to places like on travel brochures and run into a blue sea'. As this shows she with other younger people dream of not the real world with financial problems and divorce but a flawless lifestyle where nothing could go wrong. Sandra also dreams of having a perfect home and location and a handsome husband. 'Two children, a boy and a girl. Children with fair and shiny hair like hers and there would be this man"¦' This quote portrays the lifestyle that she would like and shows her assumption that it will happen. However Sandra overlooks any possibility that some of her ideas could become flawed. But on the other hand she does seem to take her future seriously however naïve she may be. Compared to Kerry Stevens' realistic plan for life hers is like a dream because Kerry seems to have his feet firmly on the ground. The writer uses Sandra's ideas of her storybook future to further give evidence of he naivety, and by using comparisons to Kerry's future further shows how much her head appears to be up in the clouds. Kerry Stevens does not make a good impression on Sandra in terms of appearance because he was not the best looking person and the writer shows Sandra's judgemental attitude by her initial opinions of Kerry at a first glance. 'Some people you only have to look at to know they're not up to much.' This quote shows her opinions of not Kerry but also of the way she views other people as well. The way the writer has shown Sandra's judgemental side is to also show a contrast in the story to give evidence of change in her character later on in the story. Sandra has a good view of Mrs Rutter mainly because of the portrayal of the woman being 'really sweet, lots of the old people.' This is her pre-conception before she even sees the old lady. This gives us a good understanding of not only her judging character towards appearances of people but also portrays judgement of personality for the first time also. Sandra thinks that Mrs Rutter is a very nice lady because of her friendly initial welcome to her, which is understandable because not only does the writer make Sandra think this but the reader also, perhaps to deceive us about Mrs Rutter's personality and to make ourselves pre- conceive her character too. 'A creamy smiling pool of a face in which her eyes snapped and darted.' This quote gives the impression of a plump, harmless old woman, which the writer purposely wants us the reader and Sandra to think for the deception that occurs later on in the tale. The writer encourages us, Sandra and Kerry also to feel sympathy towards her because of the fact that she is alone and her husband's death in the war was very tragic. 'He was in one of the first campaigns in Belgium, and he never came back.' The way that Mrs Rutter describes his death creates sympathy naturally and the fact she has been alone for years makes you feel sorry for her further. The writer also creates more sympathy when we learn that she was childless and regrets it because she feels it a loss not to have had any. It is more shocking to learn about what Mrs Rutter did because of the circumstances that her husband died in. You would have thought that considering he was gunned down in the same way as the German that she would have had more sympathy towards the man. However instead of giving him a chance to live, Mrs Rutter's coldness and nastiness allowed him to suffer. At this point we see a change in the story where we the reader, Sandra and Kerry see her in a different perspective to what we initially thought of her apart from Kerry, who had a slight suspicion about of her to begin with. You can at this point refer to another novel, which sends out a particular message about people. In Lord of the Flies written by William Golding the main concept and moral to the story is that whoever we are there is the potential for evil within us all. 'Dot said he wasn't going to last long, good job too, three of them that'll be.' This quote shows how unconcerned they were about an injured man that they could save from death. The writer shows Mrs Rutter's coldness by the way that the old woman narrates her story. Mrs Rutter tells the story in a manner- of- fact way and is not bothered or affected by the events. This makes us disgusted because she does not see how inhumane it was to have done such a thing. 'Tit for tat I said'. This quote gives evidence of Mrs Rutter seeing what they did as revenge or out of bitterness for the German's killing her husband, which may be the motive for her horrific actions. This quote shows us that Mrs Rutter has no feeling of guilt or remorse and by showing us this, the writer makes us feel more horrified of what she and her sister did. 'The boy's spoon clattered to the floor; he did not move.' This quote gives evidence to us of Kerry's stunned reaction to Mrs Rutter in the way that he was so shocked he could not move. He is also sickened by the fact that that Mrs Rutter thinks that it is something normal for a person to do. 'You had this coming to you mate, there's a war on.' 'It was what everyone said in those days.' These quotes show that she thought it was humane and acceptable for anyone to do. She used this expression that people had said to justify her actions, but even though people said this would they have left a helpless man to die? To show that Sandra has changed the writer illustrates the better points of Packer's End to make her realise that it is not a bad place or most importantly 'the darkness out there'. 'Birds sang. There were not, as the girl the girl realised wolves, witches or tigers.' This shows us her realisation that there is nothing to be scared of as she first thought. The writer also by her new view of Packers End shows that she is less naïve of the place and that she has opened her eyes to reality more. Sandra has also grown up in other ways by learning not to pre-judge people as she did with Mrs Rutter and Kerry. She has realised that it is not appearances that matter but what is inside also, with Mrs Rutter perceived as being a sweet woman but revealing to be a cruel hearted and bitter woman. 'You could get people all wrong, she realised with alarm.' This quote gives evidence of her realising how wrong her pre-conceptions have been, and her concern of this shows also that she has grown up because of her recognition of this. The writer also emphasises her changes in character by her recognition also of Kerry Stevens not seeming as bad as he looks. 'He had grown; he had got older and larger. His anger eclipsed his acne"¦' This quote shows Sandra looking at Kerry from a different perspective to the scruffy, dodgy type that she previously thought he was. Sandra overall has discovered that the darkness out there is not Packers End but the cold-heartedness and evil that is present within some people. Referring back to William Golding's point that 'the potential for evil is within us all'; the evil was within the innocent looking Mrs Rutter. As a result of these events and changes in character she has become less naïve about things unlike before, which may change her overall attitudes to life and become more wary of the real world. In 'Old Mrs Chundle' our first real impression of the woman is that she is quite stubborn and a grumpy old lady, and when approached by the Curate she quite unwelcoming. 'A sour look crossed her face'. This quote gives evidence of our initial opinion of her and the writer shows her character to be like this through her actions and expressions rather than through her looks in the 'Darkness out there.' 'I tell 'ee 'tis two pence and no more!' This is an example of this where she seems rude and stubborn through her actions here when talking to the Curate. 'Old Mrs Chundle is a pre-19th century text and is reflected in the language used and the actions of the characters. ' I suppose 'tis the wrong sort, and that ye would sooner have bread and cheese?' This quote shows the different style of language used in the story with 'ye' instead of you and 'tis used instead of it is. Also the actions of the characters in the story reflect the older period when it was written. 'The lunch hour drew on, and he felt hungry. Quite near him was a stone "“built old cottage of respectable and substantial build, he entered and was received by an old woman.' This quote gives evidence of an out of character action in today's society hence showing that this was written pre-19th century. No one today would do that and would instead go to a fast food restaurant or to their own homes for example. There is a contrast in our first impressions that we get of the two old ladies in both stories. Mrs Rutter appears to be a nice, old woman, whilst Mrs Chundle seems to us rather rude. Thomas Hardy has done the same as Penelope Lively in creating a sort of perception for us of a character and then deceives us later in terms of who turns out to be the changed persona and who we pre-conceive. In this case the changed persona is the Curate and our pre-conception is of Mrs Chundle. The Curate seems very shocked at how Mrs Chundle could lie to him and pre-judges her motives for doing this. 'Wicked old woman. What can she think of herself for such deception?' But despite this he still tries to get her to church as a challenge and because its his sort of responsibility. 'I think it was a culpable, unkind thing of you.' This shows the determination of the Curate by confronting her on the matter. Mrs Chundle agrees to attend church firstly because of the trouble that the curate is willing to, with the ear trumpet for her to attend church. After the trumpet failing he comes up with a sound tube system to again enable her to hear the sermon. The writer makes us feel that the Curate is a good man by illustrating the trouble that he went to for Mrs Chundle to attend church. 'At great trouble to himself.' The way that the Curate tries everything to help her, the writer shows that he is quite devoted to helping the woman when no one else has ever attempted to. The writer shows the change in the Curate's character by his ignorance of the old lady in the sermon. He blocks up the tube after her bad smell lingers up the tube towards him. 'Desperately thrusting his thumb into the hole'. This quote shows that the Curate is being very intolerant and has at this point no concern about the old woman, only himself. The Curate is also shown to be self conscious about himself because he has blocked up the pipe probably to avoid further embarrassment towards himself in church. To the Curate's total dismay Mrs Chundle is very overjoyed by her ability to hear clearly. ' I shall come every Sunday morning reg'lar, now, please God.' This shows her new enthusiasm about church, and the writer illustrates this by using strong words in her dialogue for example 'Please God'. After Mrs Chundle attends church regularly the writer shows a transition in the Curate's character. 'I cannot stand this I shall tell her not to come.' This quote shows how rude and inconsiderate he is becoming after his encounters with Mrs Chundle. We also see the Curate setting out to reverse what he had been doing just to stop Mrs Chundle bothering him. He becomes very selfish because he is only considering the consequences of removing the pipe on his part and not hers. For example he simply thinks of no embarrassment at his sermons and no bother, not that the old woman would be unhappy, lonely and not be able to attend something that she enjoys.' I've promised to go and read to her but I shan't go.' The writer also illustrates the Curate to be a very angry man by showing how he puts off a simple task of going to see Mrs Chundle and again does not consider how rude it is towards the old woman. He was described as being 'vexed' about the matter viewing it as an ordeal for himself. He is shown once again by his actions in this story to being a very selfish man and inconsiderate of other people's feelings. The writer builds up the guilt the Curate should feel after Mrs Chundle's death by putting the emphasis on Mrs Chundle's circumstances of death. She became ill partly because perhaps she did not want to let the Curate down after all the trouble that he had went to for her. ' She harried overmuch, and runned up the hill.' 'It upset her heart.' This quote shows the trouble that Mrs Chundle had gone to, to get to church on time so she did not miss the Curate's sermon. The writer also creates the guilt by the way that Mrs Chundle did not assume that he did not come for bad reasons as she said that he was so loyal to her. This creates guilt by the fact that Mrs Chundle thought so well of him. 'You were so staunch and faithful in wishing to do her good.' This quote emphasises how well she thought of him and how loyal she considered the Curate to be, and it also shows that she had no doubt at all that he was being unkind towards her in any way. The writer finally emphasises the point of guilt concerning the will by the words that Mrs Chundle said to the woman as she handed over the will to give to the Curate. 'He's a man in a thousand. He's not ashamed of an old woman"¦' This quote gives evidence that Mrs Chundle considers him very considerate and kind, when told this the Curate must have felt not only guilt but also moved too. This is because of the way that she thought of him so highly. Also the amount of possessions that Mrs Chundle had left the Curate shows a lot. Firstly it made him realise that he was the only friend that she had and did not have much in her life at all. It also shows that he must have meant a lot to her for her to leave him with everything that she owned. 'On opening it he found it to be what she called her will, in which she'd left him her"¦' This quote shows the extent at which she had given him in return for the good ways she had thought that the Curate treated her. The way that Mrs Chundle died and the will for example, are used by the writer to make us assume that the Curate will be guilty, shocked and upset over her death. This is also because of the way that he treated her. However judging by the ending the Curate does not seem very flustered by everything and is very calm apart from a tear in his eye. The writer uses 'like Peter' to compare what the Curate has done with Peter before the death of Christ. The correlation is that they both betrayed Mrs Chundle and Christ, which is effective because Hardy shows the extent of the Curate's unkindness further. 'And as he went his eyes were wet"¦' This quote shows to us that the Curate is moved in some way by what has happened. Although he prays we assume for forgiveness and Mrs Chundle, will he change for the future or does he consider that a prayer of repentance will be good enough and he will no longer feel any more guilt? ' He rose brushed the knees of his trousers, and walked on.' This quote at the end does suggest that now he has prayed for his sins that he can carry on normally, and that the Curate has not really learnt his lesson. At this point we as the reader are expected to be and are very sympathetic towards Mrs Chundle and only contempt towards the Curate. Therefore you can clearly see that again the writer has created a reversal in character feeling, because we liked the Curate at first as he went to all the trouble for Mrs Chundle. However he reversed in to a rude and inconsiderate man. Whereas we initially thought Mrs Chundle was rude but she turned out to be a kind and thoughtful woman. In 'The Darkness Out There' and 'Old Mrs Chundle', both writers have created a good effect of deception where the Sandra and we the reader are surprised in the change in character of Mrs Rutter, Mrs Chundle and the Curate. As a result of the encounters with these two old women, both of the main characters have changed in different ways. During the story the curate changed from being a kind-hearted man to being rude, selfish and ignorant towards Mrs Chundle. The Curate like Sandra was also naïve himself because he could not realise how his bad actions were affecting the old woman. He does change a little because he realises what his duties are as a Curate and in future how far he should take them, like not interfering so much with others. Sandra has changed her view on life by being more realistic about things rather than having her head up in the clouds so much. She is also less naïve about people and has learned not to be so pre-judgemental about people and that looks can be deceiving. The writer shows Sandra's change in character by comparing her views of Packers End before and after she has changed in attitude to emphasise the fact that she has grown up more.   

' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be...

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Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses...Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses in " A View From The Bridge" and how effectively they convey the social context and central themes in the play. In the 1950"s, New York was a diverse cultural "melting pot"; because it was a magnet for immigrants both legitimate and illegal. The myth of "The American Dream" and "The Land Of The Free" had spread all around the world. To the people of those countries hit hardest by the post war recession, such as Italy and Ireland, the stories about America and New York in particular as a place where, if one could only work hard, one would be rewarded with wealth beyond counting, were believed absolutely. Of course, when the immigrants finally arrived at their destination, they often found that the reverse was true and most immigrant communities were extremely poor. At the time within which the play is set, there were great social and cultural changes taking place across the whole of American society. Although World War 2 had ended with America amongst the victors, the Korean War and the threat of global communism made many Americans suspicious of the newest wave of immigrants and conversely, whilst the Americans were experiencing a post war boom, and a freedom to enjoy many luxuries and much more leisure time at this time Hollywood, at least, discovered the concept of "a teenager", a previously unspecified age group; after the austerity of the pre war and war years, as a nation, the fear of communism, a political ideology that works in direct opposition to the capitalism upon which the American economy and therefore it"s wealth, is based which found expression in the witch hunts orchestrated by Senator Macarthy, also led to an upsurge in racism. Racism institutional and otherwise, found it"s expression in the ruthless use of immigrant labour for all the worst paid and unprotected or dirtiest jobs going. It also ensured that the immigrants would be the last people who would be employed before the entire American born men and women. It was into these circumstances that most newly arriving immigrants found themselves. Another cause of potential conflict, between the emerging immigrant communities and the wider "America", was the clash of value systems. The Immigrants often had old-fashioned ideas regarding e.g.: the role of women in society, and the importance of religion etc. The playwright, Arthur Miller, worked in an inner city factory, close to the district of Redhook and it is there that he learned about the Longshoremen, their culture and values, the way they lived and the underlying codes by which they Italian immigrants brought with them from their country of origin, Italy, and more especially Sicily, an Italian Island situated in the Mediterranean, at the foot of Italy all abided. It was here that Miller first heard the stories of the Italian code of honour, and what happens when that code is violated or broken, and he used this information as the basis for his play. "A View from the Bridge" focuses on the plight of the Italian immigrants, living in the mainly Italian community of Redhook, and on one story, that of Eddie and his family. Arthur Miller demonstrates the poverty of this particular Italian Immigrant family, at the beginning of Act 1, in his stage description of the apartment that Eddie, Beatrice and Catherine are living in. The apartment is described as having only three rooms: a kitchen, a bedroom, and a living area. All the drama takes place in the living area and the kitchen and bedroom are not seen. The living area is very bare with little in the way of furniture. The only item which does not fit in is a phonograph, probably the only luxury the family enjoys. The playwright uses the structure of a Greek tragedy, such as those written by Sophocles, Oedipus Rex and Antigone. Originally these plays were only one Act long and women, though sometimes integral to the plot, as a device to move the story along or to shock the audience, they were usually of no major importance. Miller expands the classical role of women, using them so as to include more themes; and also to introduce topical issues of the time, such as the changing status of women in general in the post war period. The post war period found women working on a massive scale; in both industry and in other previously almost totally male preserves, such as banking and finance. The revolution in media technology, with the widespread adoption of television and the emergence of Hollywood as the main player with a global sphere of influence, also impact upon Millers concerns within the play. Miller was married to the actress Marilyn Monroe, a global icon, in 1956, just before writing the play A View from the Bridge. He was also, at this time, subpoenaed to appear before the House un-American Activity Committee, HUAC, the form through which McCarthyism prosecuted various prominent Americans for having in their view, communist sympathies. In "A View From The Bridge", Miller has Beatrice directly challenge Eddie on his sexual conduct: Beatrice: "When am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie?" This interchange shows us that whilst Beatrice is loosing status in the traditional, Italian/Sicilian culture, i.e.: failing to keep her man interested; she is gaining status in the modern era by standing up for herself against her husband, as a thinking feeling person in her own right, with her own needs. Women"s changing role in society isn"t the only theme, which Miller enlarges upon. In the play, Eddie and Marco are the representatives of the old traditional way of thinking, and Catherine and Rodolpho represent the new, modernistic way of thinking and being. Young, dynamic, optimism as opposed to the "blinkered" conservatism of Senator Joe Macarthy and his compatriots of the HUAC.qoute Eddie"s role as the "dinosaur" is further underlined in his attitude to homosexuality: Eddie takes a breath and glances briefly over each shoulder: "The guy ain"t right, Mr Alfieri. The action of glancing over his shoulder is proof that such unacceptable behaviour as homosexuality according to the old code or old world order cannot even be talked about openly, and yet in a Greek society, when the referred o tragedies were written, it was an acceptable, even welcomed way of life. Of course, there is a reference here again to the witch-hunt of McCarthyism in that communists were also referred to as "pinko"s" which is another slang term for homosexuals. The conflicts between Eddie, old world and Catherine, new, are further complicated by Eddie"s almost incestuous infatuation with his niece, e.g.: Eddie: "I don"t see you no more. I come home you"re runnin" around someplace - " An infatuation that Beatrice picks up on e.g.: Beatrice: Look he"ll say anything"¦If it was a prince came here for you it would be no different"¦but you"re a grown woman and you"re in the same house with grown man"¦I told him the same thing already." Here is the basis for the Greek tragedy theme, but it also underlines Millers determination to assert that not everything traditional is necessarily wrong, incest will always be a pre-cursor for tragedy, just as not everything in the new world is necessarily right, the break up of families due to separation, financial or cultural. This could be a plea for America itself to move forward from inward thinking reactions towards modernism and liberalism but not to take things too far and throw the baby out with the bath water, so to speak. Marco another representative of the old world, but a straight and honest man, representing all that is good about the immigrant tradition in America is contrasted both with Eddie, the paranoid jealous, guilty rednecked American and with Rodolpho, the embodiment of the American dream, a liberal hard working, fun loving modern breath of fresh air i.e.: Marco: "If we can stay here a few months"¦Because I could send them his family a little more.." Rodolpho: "Me? Yes, forever! Me, I want to be an American"¦I will buy a motorcycle." Marco: "He dreams, he dreams". In some ways Rodolpho"s ambition is similar to Eddies ambitions for Catherine, for her to get a good job, a nice house a stable and prosperous life e.g.: Eddie: "What job? She"s gonna finish school". But Eddie and Miller also realises that the myth "Everybody could be president" is unrealistic as shown in Arthur Millers play "Death Of A Salesman" Rodolpho as well as the enthusiasm of the young and new also shows the lack of wisdom that experience can bring and Miller shows us this by having him spend all his wages on material things when he knows that his brother Marcos children are starving back in Italy. You can have too much of a good thing and Miller seems to be saying that all capitalism isn't good, just as maybe all communism isn"t bad. This comparison could be one of the reasons that Miller was indighted by the HUAC, and eventually convicted of contempt of Congress, for refusing to name names, however this conviction was subsequently overturned by the U.S. court of appeals. In his life Arthur Miller did not break the code of Omerta silence but he has Eddie break the code and shop his immigrant family to the authorities. The telephone box represents the device which breaks the code, another fairly modern piece of technology for the time and perhaps Miller is also saying that the relentless march of technology isn"t without it"s own problems. Today we could cite the controversy over G.M. foods or embryo research as pieces of scientific progress which some feel "are a bridge too far". Alfieri who features through the play as a sort of narrator , fulfilling the function of a Greek chorus, though an unreliable one because he is emotionally involved: Alfieri: "..You won"t have a friend in the world. even the ones who feel the same will despise you"¦put it out of your mind!" Eddies actions in going against not just his culture and his family or traditions but also in breaking mentally at least the unwritten sexual codes ultimately lead to his demise. Did Miller believe that he would die if he broke the code and named names or did he think that the HUAC would have him executed? There is a pervading sense of fear throughout the play, which perhaps reflects how Americans themselves felt at the height of the cold war. Will the world end tomorrow in a nuclear holocaust? Finally, Eddie is damned. He has lost all status in his community, this is represented by Eddie"s preoccupation with loosing his name: Eddie "Wipin" the neighbourhood with my name like a dirty rag!" When Marco comes to get Eddie, he shouts his name three times Peter in the bible denies Jesus three times; when Miller was asked about this he said it "was a desperate attempt to cry out against non existence". Could this be something to do with the pressure that Miller was under at the time. If the HUAC found him guilty he could be black listed and therefore forced into unemployment, his plays unread, unstaged; himself reduced to poverty, his whole "life" lost. Eddie knows he will die but he wants his identity back before he goes. This is a constant theme of the play, the importance of ones status within society. When Eddy is finally dying the setting is very like a Greek tragedy, from the position of the women actors and stage directions to the way all the protagonists are on the stage. In conclusion, this play is about the driving forces behind the history of the period between the end of the World war 2 and the beginning of the new age of technology and the permissive sixties, such as the status of women, race, immigration, change and culture clash, fear of annihilation, fear of loss of public freedom; but there are also echoes throughout the play of Arthur Millers personal life. The name of the play itself "A View From The Bridge" might be the bridge between the old and new cultures; the distance between the Russians and Americans in ideology; the, sometimes huge gulf between men and women, the struggle for the young to tear off the shackles of the old which bind them. The competition between a material physical reality and a more spiritual reality.   

Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses in " A View From The Bridge" and how effectively they convey the social context and central themes in the play. In the 1950"s, New York was a diverse cultural "melting pot"; because it was a magnet for immigrants both legitimate and illegal....

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Shakespeare wrote Henry V in... Shakespeare wrote Henry V in 1599, at the time of Queen Elizabeth"s reign. Shakespeare tried to portray the monarchy as important and noble people. He did this so that the queen would think well of him as at that time the actors and the use of the theatres would have been financed by important people. At that time there was no one more important that the monarch. The play portrays the war between England and France and Henry"s campaign to gain control of France, which was believed to be rightfully his. The play starts by showing Henry in his youthful state. He had no morals and didn"t take kingship seriously. Then as a reformed man who, after being mocked by the dauphin, sought the blessing of the archbishop over his plans to declare war on France. When he received that blessing he embarked upon planning his attack on France to claim the throne which he believed he was the heir to. This is the idea, which the whole play is centred upon. Henry is shown as the true English man, patriotic, honourable and one who leads by example. He is shown to have all the good qualities a king should have. He encourages his men into what most people would see as an impossible task but by his words and actions persuades his men to defend England"s honour. This is shown in his speech act 4, scene 3 beginning line 18. "If to live, the fewer men, the greater the share of honour." Act 4, scene 3, line 22 In the play several metaphors are used but the one used most frequently is comparing war to a game. For example the gift from the dauphin of a tennis ball and the king"s speech which follows. "When we have matched our rackets to these balls We will in France, by God"s grace, play a set Shall strike his father"s crown, into the hazard." Act 1, Scene 2, lines 261-263 Such metaphors continue throughout and not only is war compared with tennis but also dice. "The confident and over lusty French Do the low rated English play at dice" Act 4, Chorus, lines 17-18 The play shows the different aspects of war. It shows it as a very noble and dignified event, but in other scenes as a devastating unstoppable force. In the first chorus Henry is portrayed as a war-like god figure. "Then should he the warlike Harry Henry appears like himself. Assume the port of Mars, and at his heels Leashed in, like hounds should famine, sword and fire Crouch for employment." Prologue, chorus, lines 5-8 Later on however Henry shows the realities of war the less attractive and enticing part when he reads the long and extensive list of casualties. "This note doth tell me of ten thousand dead That in this field lie slain"¦ Here was a royal fellowship of death!" Act 4, scene 8, lines 77-99 Another metaphor occasionally used throughout the play is comparing war to the extremes of weather conditions. For example war is said to be "arriving like thunder, shaking the earth like an earthquake." The not so noble aspects of battle are never far from the play"s main story or from any of the character"s thoughts. The horror of war is one of the main portrayals of war. Shakespeare does show many of the different aspects but the main two in my opinion are the nobility and the complete opposite, the destructiveness and suffering. The English throughout usually are shown as faultless, but as with most rules there"s an exception. There is the time when the three traitors are found and handed what is presumed to be their death warrants. "Why, what read you there That have so cowarded and chas"d your blood Out of appearance?" Act 2, scene 2, lines 74-76 The second such exception is in Harfleur when Bardolph broke the rules set act 3, scene 4, lines 51-58 by Henry stating that no man should take advantage of his situation. "Fortune is Bardolph"s foe, and frowns on him; For he hath stol"n a pax, and hanged must "a be a damned death! Let gallows gape for dog." Despite these circumstances Henry still manages to overcome the French in an incredible battle and the French are disgraced and defeated. "Reproach and everlasting shame Sit mocking in our plumes"¦" Act 4, Scene 5, lines 9-10 Despite this victory, Henry has no prisoners. As the French slaughtered all of the English luggage boys, Henry ordered all of the prisoners to be put to death. "The French have reinforced their scatter men. Then every soldier kill his prisoners. Give the word through" Act 4, scene 6,lines 36-38 After the battle has drawn to a close, the Duke of Burgundy tells us of the effects of the war on France. Ruined crops and lives, ways of peace lost and lost countryside. Because of these effects on France he pleads for a lasting peace treaty. The treaty is formed when both sides meet at the palace at Troyes. In my opinion Shakespeare very accurately describes and portrays war. He shows us both the good and the bad sides of war and what each of these can do to a person. On the one hand are those whose character is not strong enough to survive, the people for whom the pressure was too much and who turned to war crimes. On the other hand there are those who withstood the mental torment of battle. It portrays war as a fight for the country"s honour and a demonstration of its power, it also shows the nobility and the other, more devastating effects on the soldiers. At the closing of the play there is a glimpse of hope that the peace will last but in the final chorus it states that the peace wasn't as long lived as people hoped. The French regained France in Henry"s son"s reign.   

Shakespeare wrote Henry V in 1599, at the time of Queen Elizabeth"s reign. Shakespeare tried to portray the monarchy as important and noble people. He did this so that the queen would think well of him as at that time the actors and the use of the theatres would...

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