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War poem comparison
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Instructions: Analyse the poems "France" and "dulce et decorum est" Compare the meanings, themes, attitudes, format and language of the two poems bringing out the similarities and differences between the two poems. Use quotations to support your answers. These two poems were both written in the First World War but at very different times as the mood of the poems change dramatically. E.g. "France" was written in the very early stages of the war where the mood was very optimistic and victorious. "Dulce" was written by a poet that experienced what actually happened in the later stages of...
the war and therefore have different attitudes towards it. Also the last line of each poem has an effect on the whole poem, in "France", "Voices of victory and delight" meaning that it is a privilege to fight, die, and win the war for your country, whereas in "Dulce", "The old lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori", meaning, it is sweet and fitting to for ones country. To me, they both end with almost the same line, with the same approach, very ironic and deep, from the heart.

"Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori"

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We are analysing a number of...We are analysing a number of different sonnets. We will be analysing sonnet 18, 130, 55 by William Shakespeare and 'Strugnells sonnet' by Wendy Cope. Imagery is the 'picture' that is created in a readers mind when reading a piece of writing. In both of the sonnets 18/130 the imagery deployed is Nature. The writer uses nature imagery to define his subject to the reader. For example in 18, the imagery is very positive towards the lover. He uses words such as 'Thou art more lovely and more temperate'. He aims to flatter the lover through creating a very positive impression. But in 130 it is the total opposite. Negative comments are made towards the mistress from the very first line e.g. 'My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun'. This is parallelism because in both of the opening lines of 18 and 130 the imagery of sun is deployed. In 18 it is deployed to flatter the lover. But in 130 it is used to show the real person the mistress is. In the opening of 130 it says 'My Mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun'. The imagery in 18 is based around a summer's day which is used in the opening line, unlike in 130 which is disparate. The thematic connections in 130 are much looser, but the majority is connected as natural objects. But something unusual is used in 130. 'wires' is used towards the end of the first quatrain. This is a man-made object and is unusually used in a sonnet deploying imagery of nature. The word 'wires' is now an archaic term that has changed meaning since the 1600's. It used to mean a strand of gold to form a necklace. Some of the imagery used in 130 was thought to be unfashionable in the 1600's. For example in the sonnet his mistress has dark skin instead of pale which was fashionable in the 1600's. It is as if the mistress' looks are unfashionable "“ e.g. 'But no such roses see I in her cheeks'. Nowadays most people prefer tanned skin over pale skin. 130 is very negative throughout the sonnet. He implies that his mistress has very dull eyes and also uses the possessive word 'my' when talking about his mistress implying that he owns her. In the opening line of 18 a rhetorical question is used 'Shall I compare thee to a summers day?' and in the opening line of 130, a simile is used 'My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun'. These are two different rhetorical devices used in the Sonnets. 18 and 130 are two very different poems. 18 uses positive lexis to 'compare thee to a summer's day'. In the second line Shakespeare writes 'more lovely' and 'more temperate'. This is further use of parallelism. Then in the first line of the second quatrain an extremity 'too' is used. The use of all these words, shows how positive this poem is, Unlike 130 which uses negative terms to describe the mistress. In the last two lines of the opening quatrain parallelism is used. A unique sentence structure, in only two lines throughout the sonnet, is used. The lines both start with 'If' conditionals and the things it says are still negative linking in with the rest of the sonnet. Towards the end of 130, there is a change in the sonnet. The writer says 'I love to hear her speak'. This line may change the whole meaning of the sonnet. If the mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun it doesn't mean that they are black does it? In most sonnets, the features iambic pentameter and alternate end-rhyme are used. The end rhyme pattern is also used in both of the sonnets. A B A B C D C D E G E G F F In both 18/130 alternate end-rhyme is used. But in 130 the end-rhyme is used to show the negative features of the Mistress. For example 'My Mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun"¦' 'If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun'. It comes as a surprise to the reader because they usually stereotype sonnets as being love poems. So this would come as a shock because it goes against the expectations of sonnets. Both the poems use iambic pentameter, but something unusual is used in one line of 130. In line 13 of 130 11 syllables are used. The reader may not notice this, but it is used for a reason. It is used to emphasise an idea that the 'voice' has that the Mistress may not be like all the other women but she is 'rare'. She is not ugly but is unique and special. Towards the end of 18 monosyllables are used to emphasize the importance of the couplet. The couplet means that as long as people read 18 it will 'live' forever. 'So long lives this and this gives life to thee'. The conclusion I give is that 18 uses the Sonnet tradition to show the pure qualities of his lover through hyperbole. But when this concept is used in 130 the mistress seems unattractive. The sonnet tradition as a whole can be summed up in two points. 1. The main theme is love, but they all have different ways of expressing this love. 2. The sonnet will be immortalised All of the sonnets we are analysing show signs of the first point, but in 18 and 55 they are expressed more clearly. Also in sonnets 18 and 55 the second point is emphasised throughout. But in 130 and Strugnells, it is suggested that a traditional sonnet is an ineffective love poem. In sonnet 130, when Shakespeare writes using the sonnet tradition, the Mistress seems hideous. 'My Mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;' Sonnets 18 and 55 are said to be the archetypal sonnets. This is because they both express the one of the two points very clearly. another concept is used to say that the poem will last so long it will immortalize the lover. Sonnet 55 shows the second point throughout the poem with very strong imagery. 'Not marble nor the gilded monuments / Of princes shall outlive this powr'ful rhyme,' 'That wear this world out to the ending doom/So, till the judgment that yourself arise'. Stone was said to be everlasting. The voice is saying that the Sonnet will last longer than stone and will even last till judgement day- the end of the world. Strugnells sonnet is a parody of sonnet 55. This can be proven by direct echoes of sonnet 55 in the first 3 words of Strugnells sonnet. SS'Not only marble'/55'Not marble nor'. Strugnells sonnet is saying that sonnets don't last forever. In fact they don't even last longer than 'the plastic toys/From cornflake packets,' 'I cannot immortalise you"¦' Although this is the point of view of the imaginary writer Wendy Cope has invented Strugnell it seems ironic because he has wrote a sonnet based on a 400 year old sonnet. In a way it is true because modern day we don't accept hyperbole. If a man was trying to impress a woman he wouldn't go up to her and recite sonnet 18 because she would probably laugh in his face. Nowadays love is feelings are expressed differently than the era of courtly love in which Shakespeare's sonnets were wrote.   

We are analysing a number of different sonnets. We will be analysing sonnet 18, 130, 55 by William Shakespeare and 'Strugnells sonnet' by Wendy Cope. Imagery is the 'picture' that is created in a readers mind when reading a piece of writing. In both of the sonnets 18/130 the imagery...

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Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses...Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses in " A View From The Bridge" and how effectively they convey the social context and central themes in the play. In the 1950"s, New York was a diverse cultural "melting pot"; because it was a magnet for immigrants both legitimate and illegal. The myth of "The American Dream" and "The Land Of The Free" had spread all around the world. To the people of those countries hit hardest by the post war recession, such as Italy and Ireland, the stories about America and New York in particular as a place where, if one could only work hard, one would be rewarded with wealth beyond counting, were believed absolutely. Of course, when the immigrants finally arrived at their destination, they often found that the reverse was true and most immigrant communities were extremely poor. At the time within which the play is set, there were great social and cultural changes taking place across the whole of American society. Although World War 2 had ended with America amongst the victors, the Korean War and the threat of global communism made many Americans suspicious of the newest wave of immigrants and conversely, whilst the Americans were experiencing a post war boom, and a freedom to enjoy many luxuries and much more leisure time at this time Hollywood, at least, discovered the concept of "a teenager", a previously unspecified age group; after the austerity of the pre war and war years, as a nation, the fear of communism, a political ideology that works in direct opposition to the capitalism upon which the American economy and therefore it"s wealth, is based which found expression in the witch hunts orchestrated by Senator Macarthy, also led to an upsurge in racism. Racism institutional and otherwise, found it"s expression in the ruthless use of immigrant labour for all the worst paid and unprotected or dirtiest jobs going. It also ensured that the immigrants would be the last people who would be employed before the entire American born men and women. It was into these circumstances that most newly arriving immigrants found themselves. Another cause of potential conflict, between the emerging immigrant communities and the wider "America", was the clash of value systems. The Immigrants often had old-fashioned ideas regarding e.g.: the role of women in society, and the importance of religion etc. The playwright, Arthur Miller, worked in an inner city factory, close to the district of Redhook and it is there that he learned about the Longshoremen, their culture and values, the way they lived and the underlying codes by which they Italian immigrants brought with them from their country of origin, Italy, and more especially Sicily, an Italian Island situated in the Mediterranean, at the foot of Italy all abided. It was here that Miller first heard the stories of the Italian code of honour, and what happens when that code is violated or broken, and he used this information as the basis for his play. "A View from the Bridge" focuses on the plight of the Italian immigrants, living in the mainly Italian community of Redhook, and on one story, that of Eddie and his family. Arthur Miller demonstrates the poverty of this particular Italian Immigrant family, at the beginning of Act 1, in his stage description of the apartment that Eddie, Beatrice and Catherine are living in. The apartment is described as having only three rooms: a kitchen, a bedroom, and a living area. All the drama takes place in the living area and the kitchen and bedroom are not seen. The living area is very bare with little in the way of furniture. The only item which does not fit in is a phonograph, probably the only luxury the family enjoys. The playwright uses the structure of a Greek tragedy, such as those written by Sophocles, Oedipus Rex and Antigone. Originally these plays were only one Act long and women, though sometimes integral to the plot, as a device to move the story along or to shock the audience, they were usually of no major importance. Miller expands the classical role of women, using them so as to include more themes; and also to introduce topical issues of the time, such as the changing status of women in general in the post war period. The post war period found women working on a massive scale; in both industry and in other previously almost totally male preserves, such as banking and finance. The revolution in media technology, with the widespread adoption of television and the emergence of Hollywood as the main player with a global sphere of influence, also impact upon Millers concerns within the play. Miller was married to the actress Marilyn Monroe, a global icon, in 1956, just before writing the play A View from the Bridge. He was also, at this time, subpoenaed to appear before the House un-American Activity Committee, HUAC, the form through which McCarthyism prosecuted various prominent Americans for having in their view, communist sympathies. In "A View From The Bridge", Miller has Beatrice directly challenge Eddie on his sexual conduct: Beatrice: "When am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie?" This interchange shows us that whilst Beatrice is loosing status in the traditional, Italian/Sicilian culture, i.e.: failing to keep her man interested; she is gaining status in the modern era by standing up for herself against her husband, as a thinking feeling person in her own right, with her own needs. Women"s changing role in society isn"t the only theme, which Miller enlarges upon. In the play, Eddie and Marco are the representatives of the old traditional way of thinking, and Catherine and Rodolpho represent the new, modernistic way of thinking and being. Young, dynamic, optimism as opposed to the "blinkered" conservatism of Senator Joe Macarthy and his compatriots of the HUAC.qoute Eddie"s role as the "dinosaur" is further underlined in his attitude to homosexuality: Eddie takes a breath and glances briefly over each shoulder: "The guy ain"t right, Mr Alfieri. The action of glancing over his shoulder is proof that such unacceptable behaviour as homosexuality according to the old code or old world order cannot even be talked about openly, and yet in a Greek society, when the referred o tragedies were written, it was an acceptable, even welcomed way of life. Of course, there is a reference here again to the witch-hunt of McCarthyism in that communists were also referred to as "pinko"s" which is another slang term for homosexuals. The conflicts between Eddie, old world and Catherine, new, are further complicated by Eddie"s almost incestuous infatuation with his niece, e.g.: Eddie: "I don"t see you no more. I come home you"re runnin" around someplace - " An infatuation that Beatrice picks up on e.g.: Beatrice: Look he"ll say anything"¦If it was a prince came here for you it would be no different"¦but you"re a grown woman and you"re in the same house with grown man"¦I told him the same thing already." Here is the basis for the Greek tragedy theme, but it also underlines Millers determination to assert that not everything traditional is necessarily wrong, incest will always be a pre-cursor for tragedy, just as not everything in the new world is necessarily right, the break up of families due to separation, financial or cultural. This could be a plea for America itself to move forward from inward thinking reactions towards modernism and liberalism but not to take things too far and throw the baby out with the bath water, so to speak. Marco another representative of the old world, but a straight and honest man, representing all that is good about the immigrant tradition in America is contrasted both with Eddie, the paranoid jealous, guilty rednecked American and with Rodolpho, the embodiment of the American dream, a liberal hard working, fun loving modern breath of fresh air i.e.: Marco: "If we can stay here a few months"¦Because I could send them his family a little more.." Rodolpho: "Me? Yes, forever! Me, I want to be an American"¦I will buy a motorcycle." Marco: "He dreams, he dreams". In some ways Rodolpho"s ambition is similar to Eddies ambitions for Catherine, for her to get a good job, a nice house a stable and prosperous life e.g.: Eddie: "What job? She"s gonna finish school". But Eddie and Miller also realises that the myth "Everybody could be president" is unrealistic as shown in Arthur Millers play "Death Of A Salesman" Rodolpho as well as the enthusiasm of the young and new also shows the lack of wisdom that experience can bring and Miller shows us this by having him spend all his wages on material things when he knows that his brother Marcos children are starving back in Italy. You can have too much of a good thing and Miller seems to be saying that all capitalism isn't good, just as maybe all communism isn"t bad. This comparison could be one of the reasons that Miller was indighted by the HUAC, and eventually convicted of contempt of Congress, for refusing to name names, however this conviction was subsequently overturned by the U.S. court of appeals. In his life Arthur Miller did not break the code of Omerta silence but he has Eddie break the code and shop his immigrant family to the authorities. The telephone box represents the device which breaks the code, another fairly modern piece of technology for the time and perhaps Miller is also saying that the relentless march of technology isn"t without it"s own problems. Today we could cite the controversy over G.M. foods or embryo research as pieces of scientific progress which some feel "are a bridge too far". Alfieri who features through the play as a sort of narrator , fulfilling the function of a Greek chorus, though an unreliable one because he is emotionally involved: Alfieri: "..You won"t have a friend in the world. even the ones who feel the same will despise you"¦put it out of your mind!" Eddies actions in going against not just his culture and his family or traditions but also in breaking mentally at least the unwritten sexual codes ultimately lead to his demise. Did Miller believe that he would die if he broke the code and named names or did he think that the HUAC would have him executed? There is a pervading sense of fear throughout the play, which perhaps reflects how Americans themselves felt at the height of the cold war. Will the world end tomorrow in a nuclear holocaust? Finally, Eddie is damned. He has lost all status in his community, this is represented by Eddie"s preoccupation with loosing his name: Eddie "Wipin" the neighbourhood with my name like a dirty rag!" When Marco comes to get Eddie, he shouts his name three times Peter in the bible denies Jesus three times; when Miller was asked about this he said it "was a desperate attempt to cry out against non existence". Could this be something to do with the pressure that Miller was under at the time. If the HUAC found him guilty he could be black listed and therefore forced into unemployment, his plays unread, unstaged; himself reduced to poverty, his whole "life" lost. Eddie knows he will die but he wants his identity back before he goes. This is a constant theme of the play, the importance of ones status within society. When Eddy is finally dying the setting is very like a Greek tragedy, from the position of the women actors and stage directions to the way all the protagonists are on the stage. In conclusion, this play is about the driving forces behind the history of the period between the end of the World war 2 and the beginning of the new age of technology and the permissive sixties, such as the status of women, race, immigration, change and culture clash, fear of annihilation, fear of loss of public freedom; but there are also echoes throughout the play of Arthur Millers personal life. The name of the play itself "A View From The Bridge" might be the bridge between the old and new cultures; the distance between the Russians and Americans in ideology; the, sometimes huge gulf between men and women, the struggle for the young to tear off the shackles of the old which bind them. The competition between a material physical reality and a more spiritual reality.   

Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses in " A View From The Bridge" and how effectively they convey the social context and central themes in the play. In the 1950"s, New York was a diverse cultural "melting pot"; because it was a magnet for immigrants both legitimate and illegal....

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Mercutio is a unique... Mercutio is a unique character in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. His relationships within the play being a 'kinsman to the prince and friend of Romeo' give him a curious involvement, as he is both concerned with Romeo's defence, and yet is detached from it as he is not a Montague and therefore is not actually part of the feud. He is able to stand apart from the conflict and rivalry between the two families and so is allowed overview Romeo's life in an unemotional way, giving him sound, wise advice like an elder brother. His other role in the play is to provide vulgar humour and bring the first part of the play to life. So that when Mercutio dies the humour dies as well. His death shows that humour can have no part in the final stages of the play. Although Mercutio's character is short lived his role in the play is much bigger, as his protectiveness over Romeo causes the tragedy. His death triggers off a sequence of tragic events, which ends with the death of the lovers. If Mercutio had not been killed then Romeo would not have been forced to avenge his friends death, he would not have been banished and therefore from seeing Juliet. Mercutio's other role in the play is to have contrasting ideas than that of the main character, so that Romeo's attitudes and behaviour can be emphasised. For example Mercutio's bawdy phrases and expressions of love opposes Romeo's innocent romantic love. Mercutio's essential love of fighting opposes Romeo's unwillingness to fight unless his tolerance is pushed, Mercutio's lively witty mockery of everything around him opposes Romeo's quiet courtesy and consideration and finally Mercutio's cynical view of people opposes Romeo's innocent belief in others. He is also important as a device for Shakespeare to express his own feelings and views of Elizabethan society. To get the audience to see the wrongs present in the world. Mercutio first appears rather late in the play in Act1 Scene4 when we have already met most of the main characters. He appears with Romeo and friends in a street carrying masks and torches about to gatecrash the Capulets' party. His opening words and actions are very revealing of his character and his role in the play, 'Nay gentle Romeo, we must have you dance,' Here Shakespeare shows Mercutio's concern and intense loyalty towards Romeo. He wants Romeo to dance at the party and enjoy himself. Mercutio does not seem to like the melancholy Romeo, and so wishes him to have fun, be merry and in good spirits, he does not want to see his friend sad or unhappy and so shows interest in his well being. We can see his importance as a friend wanting to protect Romeo from unhappiness. We can see from the very first words spoken by Romeo to Mercutio of the type of character he is, '"¦you have dancing shoes With nimble soles, I have a soul of lead So stakes me to the ground I cannot move.' Mercutio is described as being active, agile, and lively. Although Romeo is describing Mercutio's soles on shoes as being 'nimble', he is actually punning and therefore referring to Mercutio's spiritual soul and character. Here we also see an antithesis between Romeo and Mercutio. Romeo who has a soul of 'lead' so is heavy and earthbound, and Mercutio, who is light and free-minded. We are also able to see the first contrast between Mercutio and Romeo, as Mercutio is lively and able to dance because he does not have the burden of love, whereas Romeo is moody and miserable. Here Mercutio is used as a device to highlight Romeo's feelings. Mercutio's attitude to Romeo's lovesick infatuation is not very sympathetic, he is teasing and mocking Romeo's attitude towards his love for Rosaline, and believes he should part with this infatuation and 'borrow cupid's wings and soar with them'. He believes Romeo being a lover should dance with other girls. Here we see that Mercutio cannot understand the full concept of love. He thinks that one girl can be regarded as another. He believes that Romeo should no longer linger on his unreturned love and dance with other girls. This is the first of many references in which Mercutio's attitude of love will be essential in highlighting Romeo's genuine love. Mercutio bursts onto the scene with lively and bawdy wit, he mocks love with bawdy expressions, therefore continuing the theme of highlighting Romeo's attitudes to love, 'And to sink in it should you burden love; Too great oppression for a tender thing.' Mercutio uses rude words with double meanings to express his view of love, as 'oppression' has the meaning of being pressed down. It seems that the concept of romantic love amuses him. He says 'Prick love for pricking, and you beat love down.' Here again he uses a bawdy pun on 'prick' and 'beat love down' meaning give love back as good as you get and you will defeat it. Elizabethans admired word play and punning and throughout the play the young men including Mercutio are important, in showing their wit to keep the audience amused. Mercutio's sense of humour appeals to us, his jesting about everything even his fatal wound, which kills him. Mercutio acting like an elder brother advises Romeo to take charge in controlling his own life, 'If love be rough with you, be rough with love.' From this speech we see the attitude Mercutio takes to life. He is his own person, and will not let anyone or anything take control of his life; he lives life to the full, is lively and well expressed. His words are important, as it seems that Romeo takes it to heart, because love is rough with Romeo and Juliet. It conquers their minds and will and they can think of nothing but being together. They are hurt and torn apart because of this love and so they are rough back to it, killing themselves to be together. Mercutio's importance as an elder brother who advises Romeo is stressed here as Romeo takes charge of death; he controls his life in the end like Mercutio advised. We can also see another characteristic of Mercutio in this scene. He appears to not care about his appearance, 'Give me a case to put my visage in. A visor for a visor. What care I'. He is asking for a mask to put his face in, a visor for a face that is already ugly, therefore saying that his face is already hideous enough not to need a mask. Mercutio does not care what people think of him, he is an individual who does not need people to love him for his beauty but for his wit and so makes fun of himself. He does not believe in external, on the surface appearances but believes real beauty lies in a person's mind. We also see Mercutio commenting on himself on the way to the party, when he says they are wasting their time, 'come, we burn daylight.' This shows that Mercutio never likes to waste time. He lives every second to the full. When Mercutio plunges into the Queen Mab speech we see other characteristics of him; he steals the limelight from Romeo who wants to tell the audience about his dream and dominates the stage with a very long speech made up of colourful, sensual language. It demonstrates his fiery explosiveness and wild imagination, 'her wagon-spokes made of long spinners' legs', he conjures up this 'nonsensical fantasy', as an example of his love to perform in front of others, have people around him enchanted and enthralled with his words running out in an uncontrollable flow. Once again his imaginative language contrasts that of melancholy Romeo. He loves to hear himself talk as Romeo describes him to the nurse 'A gentleman nurse, that loves to hear himself talk; and will speak more in a minute than he will stand in a month.' Romeo is telling the audience as the Queen Mab speech shows that, Mercutio is a man of words rather than actions. However that is not so, Mercutio through his actions is killed. Another purpose of Mercutio's Queen Mab speech is a way for Shakespeare to express his own views upon the selfish, dishonest flaws in human kind. While delivering his speech Mercutio seems angry at his society and through satirical commentary conveys his cynicism of the world. Mercutio describes Queen Mab as the 'fairies midwife' who is responsible for the dreams of humans. As Mercutio puts together the image of Queen Mab flying through the air in a wagon we receive a revolting picture. For example the 'cover' is made from grasshoppers wings, likewise for the riding-whip made of 'crickets bones'. Maybe this is to show the uneasiness and sickening disgust of Mercutio. The disgust he feels towards Queen Mab by describing her carriage as being made up from horrible insect parts. To show how she tears up reality as the animals are torn apart to make her carriage and grants people what they desire when they do not deserve it. Mercutio goes on to criticise society's superstitions, lifestyle and the way they behave towards other people, 'Pricked from the lazy finger of a maid,' He is referring to worms being pricked out, as worms are supposed to breed in the finger ends of lazy maids. Mercutio is saying that these people do not have the right to call anyone lazy especially their servants. For it is they who are lazy, employing people to do their work, they are hypocrites. God gave them hands and legs to use but just because they happen to have the money they do not use them. They live a life of luxury while watching people do their 'dirty work'. From line 71 Mercutio comments sarcastically that most people dream of selfish things, that courtiers 'dream on curtsies straight' so they may get more money by doing insufficient deeds that anyone could do. Lawyers who 'straight dreams on fees,' are not happy with their status, the amount of money they already get. Instead they are greedy and want more. Ladies who dream 'straight on kisses' although their breaths are 'tainted' with unpleasant smells. They should not eat all those sweets and still expect to be kissed. These ladies cannot give up something less sweets for what they desire as they are spoilt. Courtiers who dream of 'smelling out a suit,' once again they are willing to take money off others to do a job that is unnecessary. They are taking advantage of their position to gain more money. Mercutio even goes as far as to criticise parson's who are 'supposedly' devoted to God yet dream of another 'benefice'. Soldiers who dream of cutting 'foreign throats', and when awake get scared so swear 'a prayer or two and sleep again.' These soldiers dream of killing men, God's human beings with high quality swords, yet they turn to God when they need help. However abusing the prayers by 'swearing' them out as swearing has become so natural, they cannot pray. Here Mercutio is questioning how these people can have murder on their consciences, he is criticising soldiers who are meant to fight for reason and truth, kill if necessary but dream of gaining glory by abusing their profession. Mercutio in line 92 describes Queen Mab as a 'hag' who presses on maids as they sleep and 'learns them first to bear'. Here Mercutio's bawdy references return. He calls Queen Mab a fairy form of hag for giving girls erotic dreams. The imagery used in this speech is disgusting, and so shows Mercutio's disgust with the world. Mercutio's character is very important at present, as he is the only character who will speak out and express his feelings, therefore acting as an instrument to provide satirical commentary. Romeo interrupts Mercutio and cuts his speech short, 'Peace, peace, Mercutio, peace. Thou talk'st of nothing.' It seems that Romeo is trying to calm Mercutio down from his anger, his 'pent-up disgust', and his cynical, depressive streak. It seems that Mercutio's intelligence causes him to be unfulfilled and restless, as he is dissatisfied with ordinary affairs of men. Here Shakespeare portrays another contrast between Mercutio and Romeo in the way that Romeo does not share the same cynicism as Mercutio but rather thinks his speech is trivial. His belief that people always act selfishly highlights Romeo's innocent belief in others. Maybe Shakespeare is using Mercutio to highlight Elizabethan ignorance of human kind in the way that Romeo thinks Mercutio's speech is 'nothing'. Mercutio however carries on, changing his tone to more serious poetry, as conveyed through lines 100-104, maybe as a sign of an unintentional prophesy of Romeo's wavering love for icy Rosaline to the warm welcoming Juliet, 'turning his side to the dew dropping south.' His speech was supposed to cheer Romeo up but rather than diminish his foreboding has deepened it. Maybe Mercutio himself without realising it has foreseen his own death, the ultimate dreamless sleep and so his speech being essential in changing the mood of the play and preparing the audience of what is to come, the brutal, cruelness of reality. In Act 2 Scene 1 Mercutio mocks Romeo's previous love of Rosaline, as they do not know about his new love Juliet. Mercutio continues to tease Romeo about his lovelorn state throughout the remainder of the scene. He pretends, bursting with high spirits to be a conjurer or magician. Thus making Romeo appear by uttering a spell based on Rosaline's beauty, 'I conjure thee by Rosaline's"¦scarlet lip"¦quivering thigh.' Mercutio speaks about love as well as the human body in physical and bawdy terms. His spell is full of sexual innuendo; he is actually making a mockery of love as he jumps from one outrageous indecency to another. Mercutio is particularly bawdy in lines 23-6 and in his next speech, ''Now will he sit under a medlar tree, And wish his mistress were that kind of fruit,' Here Mercutio uses rude Elizabethan slang as a 'medlar tree' bore small brown apples, which were meant to resemble the female sexual organ. Through this Shakespeare is again showing the main features of Mercutio's character, his mocking vulgar humour, his exuberant love of words. However we also see his rude jokes, sexual innuendo and altogether profane view of love oppose the 'holy love' that Romeo spoke of. He cannot accept love as pure and passionate. Shakespeare uses this scene to set Mercutio's idea of love against Romeo's transformed and purified version. At the beginning of Act2 Scene 2 Romeo discharges Mercutio's bawdiness, 'he jests at scars that never felt a wound,' interpreting as 'a man who has never been wounded by love cannot understand its pains'. In Act 2 Scene 4, which is set in the street, we see Mercutio once again as he mocks Tybalt. He ridicules new fashion, the Italian style of fencing and Tybalt who is most skilled in this new fashion of duelling, 'He fights as you sing prick-song, keeps time, distance, and proportion,' Meaning he fights in rhythm as if to music, keeping time, distance and balance. He comments on Tybalt's speaking in the latest fashion, which affects all the expressions and 'mannerisms of speech,' and he proceeds to imitate him, 'By Jesu, a very good blade"¦whore!' He refers to these 'fashion-mongers' as 'strange flies' who buzz about and waste their energy, they are so specific about seeming modern that they 'cannot sit at ease on the old bench' meaning that they complain about everything old. Once again Mercutio shows his anger and criticism towards young men who are excessively concerned with fashion 'no matter how stupid each new trend may be'. Mercutio is an individual who does not slavishly follow fashion and likens fancy speech, manners and fencing with falseness and shallowness. For although Tybalt may appear to be a gentleman on the surface, he does not behave like one, for gentlemen do not look to start fights. Shakespeare is showing that characters like Tybalt are only skin deep, they have no depth, Mercutio in contrast is always himself, he does not disguise his feelings, his personality, his character with trying to be something else. Theses speeches suggest that Elizabethan society was obsessed with money, fashion, manners and all that is superficial. In this scene we actually see for the first time Mercutio lost for words. Mercutio greets Romeo with a bout of bawdy punning and we see Romeo joining in as they both battle it out verbally, ending with Mercutio saying 'come between us good Benvolio, my wits faints?' Romeo matches Mercutio's teasing with his own jokes and puns. Maybe Mercutio likes to be in the company of witty and lively conversation such as Romeo's at present, as it stimulates him. He is so happy that Romeo is more 'sociable'. Delighted that Romeo is rid of his melancholy love sickness, they battle in ridiculous nonsensical puns, he does not have the tolerance for any mans groaning for love as he believes it like fashion and fencing to be full of pretence. Here Shakespeare is preparing us for a different kind of duelling for later on, which will end first in Mercutio's then Tybalt's death. Shakespeare is showing that words can be used to battle, but actions result in death. Both Mercutio and Benvolio are delighted in Romeo's change in character from love sickness because they think he is out of love, when he is actually very deeply in it. The nurse's arrival leads to more banter and teasing, this creates a different atmosphere from the one immediately before it and contrasts with the next. Here Shakespeare has the young men talk not in a flowing blank verse, but in an energetic, bright prose. It is 'full of snappy wisecracks' 'No hare sir, unless a hare sir in a lenten pie, that is something stale and hoar ere it be spent.' Here Mercutio's jokes are about hares, which he purposely and punning confuses with whores. He mockingly describes Juliet's nurse as dry and old, a prostitute, grey haired and a whore who is used up. Mercutio is teasing the nurse bawdily and the nurse pretends to be outraged by it, 'I pray you sir, what saucy merchant was that.' This is the only time throughout the play that Mercutio and the nurse actually meet. They are parallel characters, both are bawdy, talkative, and think of life and it's pleasures 'purely in physical terms'. The nurse's coarse dialogue between her and the witty lads emphasises the constant feuding between the two families. Act 3 Scene 1 is important in studying Mercutio as his death triggers off a series of tragic events, inevitable disasters, which result in the deaths of the lovers. The death of Mercutio is to a great extent responsible for the death of Tybalt, Romeo's banishment and not being able to see Juliet. If Romeo were allowed to stay in Verona he would have known the scheme of Juliet's pretence death to get out of marrying Paris and therefore would have no reason to kill himself. Both of them could have lived happily together 'alls well ends well', however this scene acts as a pivotal turning point where the signs of a comical or love play are diminished. Mercutio, the major source of comedy is lost and the play goes from a comedy to a tragedy. This scene is the climax, it marks the final appearance of Mercutio where after the attention of the audience can be focused on Romeo and Juliet, and captures the highest, memorable part of him; it sums up his character preparing the audience to lose him altogether. Firstly Shakespeare again conveys Mercutio's showman, exhibitionist side when he replies to Benvolio's urging to withdraw to a private place as 'all eyes gaze on us', 'Men's eyes were made to look, and let them gaze. I will not budge for no man's pleasure, I.' Once again Mercutio the natural born performer, he enjoys being the centre of attention and giving people something to see where he can display his humour and wit. We see that he does not care about what people think of him. He is his own man and will 'budge for no man's pleasure'. Secondly we see his physical protectiveness toward Romeo as he steps in front of him and defends Romeo's and the Montague's honour by saying that he wants 'nothing but one of' Tybalt's 'nine lives.' Here we see Mercutio's courage and his genuine love and loyalty for Romeo as a friend. Thirdly we see Mercutio's stubbornness and strong-willed mind as he refuses to back down even after Romeo urges him to stop, 'Gentlemen"¦forbear this outrage. "¦the Prince expressly hath Forbid this bandying in Verona streets.' This shows that Mercutio despises Tybalt so much that he is prepares to be put to death for fighting in the streets than have Tybalt gain satisfaction out of the yielding of Romeo from a fight. We also see Mercutio's disrespect and mockery towards Tybalt because he is shallow, and not genuine. He is a poser who looks down on Romeo because he is a Montague; he is prejudiced, which causes Mercutio to not be able to restrain his feelings and attitude because of sheer hatred towards him. Finally we see again Mercutio's quick-witted humour, 'And but one word with one of us? Couple it with something, make it a word and a blow' Here Mercutio is deliberately provocative and aggressive. Everything that Tybalt says he turns around, twists and tears apart. In the opening lines of Act 3 Scene 1 we can see some notification of what will happen later in the scene. The first three lines set the mood of the scene as Benvolio tries to persuade Mercutio to 'retire' as the 'day is hot', therefore people are likely to be more quarrelsome. He is warning Mercutio that there is bound to be a fight. This tension and apprehension is communicated to the audience as Benvolio prepares us for a 'brawl'. However Mercutio disregards what anyone says or does and embarks on a speech, which is likened to himself rather than Benvolio. This speech is the typical not bothered, spoiling for a fight, reckless Mercutio. He goes off at a tangent and turns on poor, hapless Benvolio. However this speech is ironic as Mercutio is talking more about himself. Mercutio has so much energy that it has to find a release, which he does by selecting a topic to give a lecture on. Because at present he does not have a target, he picks on Benvolio who takes the full blast of his behaviour. He teases Benvolio by inventing a tough, hard man who is ready to fight, who is violent and a show off. He launches into a tirade and accuses Benvolio of quarrelling with someone for no reason because his head is 'as full of quarrels as an egg is full of meat,' this is an ironic statement as Mercutio is the quarrelsome one. Shakespeare uses a simile to get the audience to imagine Mercutio full of words, imagery and humour. He has so much to say, express his feelings and attitudes that his head is crammed, as an egg is crammed with meat. He is the one who is 'hot tempered' and will pick a fight over nothing. Benvolio unintentionally forecasts Mercutio's death by saying 'truly that such a man could not survive as much as an hour and a quarter.' This is an example of Mercutio's twisted humour; he has nothing better to do so invents a fictitious character of Benvolio. This speech is important in an effort to express Mercutio's restlessness and edginess so that the audience can see he will willingly accept a fight. When Tybalt arrives on stage the characteristics of Mercutio that the audience know and love are emphasised as we see the actions and words exchanged with Juliet's cousin. Tybalt is stolid, unimaginative, lacking in humour, and stony faced. Mercutio contrasts his character so much, that the audience immediately hate him when he appears on the scene. There is an exchange of insults between Mercutio and Tybalt. The combination of opposing ideas in sentences is an example of Mercutio's quick wit, 'Could you not take some occasion without giving?' the antithesis in that sentence being 'give' and 'take', meaning that can Tybalt not seize the opportunity without one having to give him it. Mercutio is describing himself, his quick wit and intelligence enables himself to mock anything he desires whether words or actions. He therefore seizes the opportunity to mock Tybalt by punning on the word 'consort', Tybalt tells him that he 'consortest' with Romeo, meaning that he is a friend who goes along with him, like a companion. But then Mercutio twists it around and replies 'consort? What dost thou make us minstrels?' meaning musicians in a band, servants of Romeo, a low life. He then puns on Tybalt's words again when Romeo arrives on the scene, when Tybalt say's 'here comes my man', meaning the one he is after. However Mercutio twists it around and replies, 'But I'll be hanged sir, if he wear your livery. Marry go before to field, he'll be your follower; Your worship in that sense may call him man.' Mercutio discredits Tybalt's words, he is saying that he will be 'hanged' if Romeo would ever wear his livery; therefore Romeo is not his servant. When you would say 'my man' you would be referring to your servant and Mercutio is saying that Romeo never ever in his life would become Tybalt's servant, he would rather die. Mercutio then says 'go ahead to the field where he will fight you or be your servant'. He sarcastically refers to Tybalt as 'your worship'. The audience is able to see in this scene Mercutio and Tybalt fencing verbally. We are able to see Mercutio tear Tybalt's words and make a mockery of him in front of everyone. Tybalt is so superficial that he has nothing inside of him, he has no words to match Mercutio like Romeo has, he can learn his fancy duelling and manners from a book, but he cannot learn to match anyone like Mercutio verbally. Mercutio challenges Tybalt to fight because he is the only person who is more willing minded to fight than Tybalt. Also because he cannot believe that Romeo would withdraw from a fight and so allow someone like Tybalt who he hates so much, be able to mock his friend's cowardice. He can hardly believe that Romeo would do this, as he does not know that Romeo will not fight because Tybalt is now his cousin as he has married Juliet, 'O calm, dishonourable, vile submission!' Mercutio is astonished at the calm way Romeo surrenders to insult, he is disgusted at Romeo's shameful yielding and so prepares himself to stand up for his friend's honour. So with 'Alla stoccata' he starts defending the Montague's honour. He replies this sarcastically as it is a stroke you would learn in fencing, to show Tybalt that he thinks all this fancy duelling as a travesty, a farce. He answers wittingly to Tybalt's challenge, all his insults revolving around the imagery of a cat because of Tybalt's name, 'rat catcher', 'king of cats', 'nine lives', this is ironic as Mercutio describes his fatal wound as a 'scratch' from Tybalt. Although physically it was Romeo's fault that Mercutio got injured, Mercutio himself is actually to blame for his own death. Shakespeare gives Mercutio these dying speeches to reflect what we know of him, as even though he is in pain, he humours us at a critical moment. Mercutio's dying language is full of humour. He tells a series of jokes about death and wounds, even at death he does not show the feelings and emotions that matter like love. He is not dramatic about his own death and does not show that he is scared to die; he does not want his friends to see him behave differently. He puns on 'grave man' saying that he will be grave - meaning not happy, as he will be making no more jokes because he will be dead in his grave. This shows his courage and bravery in coping with a wound. His bitterness and cynicism is emphasised when he shouts three times 'a plague on both your houses'. This is a high point of the speech and turns out to be prophetic. We can see there is resentment and anger in his face, his tone changes to a more serious tone as he fences at the feuding families and scolds Romeo for coming between them to allow Tybalt to strike the blow. He cannot believe that a man who learnt fencing by the book won over him, one who fights with passion, emotion and natural skill. Mercutio's death is of a piece with the way he lived his life, as it represents his courage and nobleness. His very bitter jokes and loyalty to Romeo gain our admiration, as he is not involved in the feud. However we see an unexpected seriousness in his voice when he curses the two families, 'a plague on both your houses,' and we see his dying wish fulfilled, as in the final scene of the play the prince declares, 'See what a scourge is laid upon your hate, That heaven finds means to kill your joys with love!' Mercutio's death fits in with the way he lived his life, as we admire the performance he puts on even at his death. Mercutio can be compared to a shooting star that is hurled in the first part of the play. He lights up the first two acts as a star lights up the night sky, his death portraying the light extinguished as the play and the star go down hill from thereon to a final tragedy, the play becomes biter and no longer light hearted. The death of Mercutio's character was important for Shakespeare as he distracted the audience from the main plot. If he were still present in the play the audience would be wondering what comical thing he would do or say next. He had to be removed from the play so that the audience would be able to see the clear storyline and feel the cruel, ruthlessness of the lovers' deaths. Although Mercutio's death is very moving and sad, Shakespeare ensures that Mercutio's death does not have the same effect on the audience as the lovers' deaths, by adding humour even when Mercutio is dying. Also Shakespeare would have had him carried offstage to die hidden from the audience. Mercutio is the only character within the play "Romeo and Juliet" who demonstrates the characteristics of being individual. Therefore he is extremely significant in the play as his actions and speeches can be constantly used as a device for Shakespeare's views of Elizabethan society, highlighting attitudes and providing amusement for the audience. However Shakespeare uses Mercutio most importantly to point out the moral of the play, the foolishness of the feud.   

Mercutio is a unique character in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. His relationships within the play being a 'kinsman to the prince and friend of Romeo' give him a curious involvement, as he is both concerned with Romeo's defence, and yet is detached from it as he is not...

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When World War One broke... When World War One broke out in 1914 Britain had only a small professional army. It needed a large one very quickly. In order to solve this problem the government would introduce conscription in 1916. However, before the introduction of conscription the government would put a tremendous amount of social pressure onto the young men of Britain to volunteer to join the army. The government began a massive recruitment drive, with posters, leaflets, recruitment offices in every town and stirring speeches by government ministers. Not only this many newspapers would include poems written as a means of shaming men into joining the army. For example, the poem "Fall In" by Harold Begbie would make those who did not join the army feel ashamed. Also, the women would put further pressure on men to join the army. The idea that the women would want the men after they came back from war was common. During this time young the young men of Britain were put under a lot of pressure to join the army. The recruitment campaign was highly successful as by 1916 over 2 million had enlisted. At this time the people of Britain were ignorant and inexperienced about war. To most the war seemed like an adventure or almost like a "game". The use of propaganda only served to increase this impression. Government produced propaganda would make people dismiss reality and the truth, instead opting to believe what the government wanted them to believe. Whilst in reality World War One was a highly dangerous and horrific experience. As well as this many young men thought the war would be over by Christmas and that they would be seen as heroes when they defeated the enemy and came home. In hindsight we can see how delusional people were, manipulated into dismissing the truth. Wilfred Owen was one of the most recognised war poets during the war. Owen's poems would illustrate the true dangers of war with the focus being on the young men who had been almost forced to join the army. Owen's style of writing was in contrast with those of Harold Begbie and Jessie Pope. Begbie and Pope would write poems playing upon the concerns of young men and glorifying the war. It was partially Owen's dislike for Pope and Begbie that drove his poems as well as his need to record his first-hand experiences. The poem "Fall In" by Harold Begbie immediately tries to convince the reader to join the army. The title "Fall In" seems threatening and acts as a command almost telling the reader to join the army. Furthermore, the opening line of the poem immediately shows the main topic that runs through the poem: "What will you lack, sonny, what will you lack" Here we learn through the use of the word "sonny" that the implied reader is a young man, most likely still unsure about signing up. Not only this the repetition of the word "sonny" throughout creates a sense of threatening insistency. As a rhetorical question the poetic voice manages to make the reader think whilst the repetition of "what will you lack" further emphasises the question. After the initial rhetorical question managing to grab the reader's attention Begbie goes on to prey upon one of their immediate concerns: "When the girls line up the street, Shouting their love to the lads come back" Here Begbie straight away focuses on one of the main concerns of the implied reader: appearing unmanly in front of women. Begbie is suggesting that by joining the army the implied reader would be instantly recognised as a hero. Not only this the girls would show their love and appreciation for them, revelling in their glory. This image of girls "shouting their love" would powerfully encourage the implied reader to consider going to war. We can also see Begbie's lack of knowledge and ignorance about the true horrors of war as he seems to believe that it would be an advantageous opportunity for young men. Begbie later preys upon different concerns that the implied reader might have: "And England's call is God's!" Here Begbie plays upon the idea of patriotism with his reference to "England". With many men joining their respective countries' armies Begbie could be suggesting that it would be your duty as a citizen of England to sign up. To further convince the implied reader Begbie mentions that "England's call is God's". This would indicate that God is with England and therefore by signing up you would be siding with God. Also, the implied reader could interpret this as suggesting that God would be with them throughout the war serving as a protector. Begbie later changes tactics as he tries to connect with the implied reader choosing to use more colloquial language: "The pub and the betting odds" With the implied reader being a young, inexperienced, somewhat immature young men this use of colloquial language here would relate to them on a personal level. With the mention of a "pub" and "betting odds" the implied reader might relate to these socially specific details, consequently making them warm to Begbie. With the introduction of the second stanza in "Fall in" Begbie adopts a more serious voice: "Will you say it was naught to you if France Stood up to her foe or bunked? But where will you look when they give you the glance That tells you they know you funked?" The indication here is that those who do not join the army will be betraying their country and fellow citizens. Moreover, the further use of rhetorical questions serves to make the reader ask themselves the question as well as making them feel more involved in the poem. In the penultimate stanza Begbie suggests that there is still time for the implied reader to redeem himself with the announcement: "Or say- I was not with the first to go, but I went, thank god, I went? Here it seems that Begbie is assuming the role of the implied reader to further connect with them whilst simultaneously bolstering the impression that they should volunteer. Also, Begbie is communicating the idea that there is still time to prove yourself and volunteer. Moreover, the mention of "god" again indicates the religious aspect of the war, maybe suggesting that by volunteering you will be siding with God. Finally, in the last stanza Begbie, possibly to serve his own ends, asks the rhetorical question: "It is nought to you if your country fall, and right is smashed by wrong?" With the use of this rhetorical question Begbie hopes to arouse the reader's emotions and immediately rush to volunteer. Begbie was not the only poet who wrote poems encouraging young men to volunteer. Jessie Pope is another poet who wrote poems of this nature. Pope's poem "Who's for the game?" is very similar to "Fall in" as they both communicate the same message in an attempt to encourage young men to volunteer. The title "Who's for the game?" gives us a good indication of how Pope views the war. By suggesting that war is little more than a contest we can conclude that Pope lacks knowledge about war and is unaware of the true horrors that occur. It is this thinking that enraged Owen and would influence his later work. "Who's for the game?" and "Fall in" are similar in many ways. For instance, like in "Fall in "there are many rhetorical questions found in "Who's for the game?": "Who's for the game, the biggest that's played, The red crashing game of a fight," Here Pope uses many references alluding to war as a game. It could be that Pope is attempting to make the war sound more welcoming to further convince the implied reader to volunteer. As well as this the tone throughout "Who's for the game?" is very upbeat and energised serving to make the reader feel more enthusiastic about the idea of volunteering. Also, the vocabulary and lexis seen here is very brash and confident to increase the impression that war is an adventure. Throughout this poem there are many direct rhetorical questions asked which would create a dialogue between the reader and the poetic voice. Consequently this makes it a lot more stirring and effective at influencing the intended audience whilst simultaneously almost forcing the reader to ask himself whether or not he should go to war. Moreover, Pope continues to show her ignorance to the true nature of war, presenting it as little more than a play: "Who'll give his country a hand? Who wants a turn to himself in the show?" Here Pope preys upon the implied reader's fears of being ostracised. The suggestion is that if you do not go to war then you will be letting your country and your peers down. This is very similar to Fall in where Begbie preyed upon the implied readers fears of appearing unmanly to women. In continuation of this, Pope goes on to focus on the sense of patriotism one would have if they were to volunteer: "Who knows it won't be a picnic-not much- "¦Who would much rather come back with a crutch" Here Pope is recognising that one could get injured in war. However, Pope then suggests that it would be a sign of honour to "come back with a crutch". As well as this Pope compares war to a "picnic". This idea that war is fun shows Popes ignorance to the dangers of war. Furthermore, in a more disturbing aspect, it could be that Pope is trying to manipulate these young men into going to war. In the last stanza Pope again focuses on the patriotic aspect of war: "Your country is up to her neck in a fight, And she's looking and calling for you." The suggestion here to the implied reader is that their country is "looking" and "calling" for them. Writings like this would have put a tremendous amount of pressure on young men. Also, with all the other methods of persuasion that they would have been subjected to these men would have been almost forced into volunteering. In conclusion, it is clear to see that the poets Begbie and Pope were unaware of the true horrors of war as they attempted to manipulate young men into volunteering and consequently signing their lives away. It is these views expressed by Begbie and Pope that would have influenced the work of Wilfred Owen. Wilfred Owen was one of the most recognised war poets during the war. Influenced by the poems of propagandists such as Begbie and Pope, Owen would write about the true dangers of war with the focus being on the young men who had been almost forced to join the army. One of Owen's most recognised poems is "Disabled: a victim of war". In this poem Owen communicates the effects of war as he assumes the role of a young man who has just returned from war after being severely injured. Whilst in other poems the life of a soldier is generalised here we are given access to an individual sole person. Consequently we are able to sympathise more as we are presented with one man's experience. Furthermore, as this poem is written in the free indirect style it allows the reader a unique access to the young man's thoughts and memories. For instance, we are given a sense of his pain: "He sat in a wheeled chair, waiting for dark, And shivering in his ghastly suit of grey." Here we are presented with a grim indication of this young man's current situation. The mention that he "sat in a wheeled chair" augments his sense of pain and disability. However, a real sense of sympathy is experienced when we realise that it was the work of propagandists such as Begbie and Pope that manipulated men like him into volunteering. It is very likely that this man signed up to prove his potency but now he has ended up totally dependant and rendered impotent. Also, the suggestion that he was "waiting for dark" could show that the night is his only source of comfort as when it's dark he can sleep and experience no pain. Another way of looking at this is that night is a metaphorical symbol of death. He is now at a point where he views death as his only escape from this pain and therefore finds himself ultimately just waiting to die. This stresses the horrors of war by giving us a individual example to help us to sympathize and empathise. Furthermore, the description of him "shivering" shows how all energy has been drained from him, making him seem more vulnerable. Also, the mention of him as a "ghastly suit of grey" suggests that he is barely alive; he is only left with a conscience. Not only this the alliteration present here creates a sense of a desperate sigh almost as if he is disgusted with himself. The sense of pain the man is experiencing is continued: "Legless, sewn short at elbow." The syntax of the sentence here is designed to deliberately delay the detail of "legless", thus highlighting its graphic horror on the reader. As well as this the mention that he was "sewn short at elbow" indicates how he has been dehumanised as now he is made to sound like a piece of clothing. Whilst at the start we were an observer we are now given full access to his feelings and emotions making it far more evocative. This sense of pathos experienced by the reader is further increases with a reminder of what he used to have: "Voices of boys rang suddenly like a hymn, Voices of play and pleasure after day." The "voices of boys" only serve to remind him what he will never be able to experience again: joy, pleasure and energy. The mention of a "hymn" arouses the sense of religion. It could be that he feels he has been forsaken by God and now he doesn't even have his religion to give him hope. In the second stanza it seems as if we are going into his positive memories: "When glow-lamps budded in the light blue trees, And girls glanced lovelier as the air grew dim." Each stanza is separated by asterisks creating the impression that the man is drifting in and out of consciousness. With the introduction of the second stanza it seems that we are drifting into positive memories with of "light blue trees" creating a peaceful mood. Moreover, the mention of "girls" indicates a sense of lost romance. However, this sense of calm is immediately lost with a sudden volta: "In the old times, before he threw away his knees." There is a visceral sense of shock here as the mood dramatically changes. Whilst he was at peace reminiscing on his past memories of joy, he is now suddenly reminded of his current situation. He has now become aware that he will never be able to experience joy again: "Now he will never feel again how slim Girl's waists are, or how warm their subtle hands;" It seems he is aware that he will never know the joy of love and friendship again. His desire for physical love makes the reader sympathise even more. As the poem moves into the third stanza it segues into another positive memory. However, these constant reminders of what he used to have ultimately only pain him more. Yet he still looks desperately from some memory to salve his pain: "He's lost his colour very far from here, Poured it down shell-holes till the veins ran dry." This phantasmagorical image of "shell holes" shows how he has lost all of his dreams and hopes bolstering his sense of pain. Not only this it intensifies the sense of regret and anger at himself for being influenced by propaganda. It is almost as if war has drained him of everything. In the fourth stanza there seems to be an indirect attack on Pope: "After the matches, carried shoulder high. It was after football, when he'd drunk a peg." This could be interpreted as an attack on Pope. Here Owen is indicating that this man will never be able to play football again due to his injuries suffered at war. Whereas in "Who's for the game?" Pope, in an attempt to convince young men to volunteer, compared war to a team game. Furthermore, in "Fall in" and "who's for the game?" there was an indication that those you did volunteer would experience a heroic welcome when they returned. However, in "Disabled" the returning soldier does not receive this response: "Some cheered him home, but not as crowds cheer Goal. Only a solemn man who brought him fruits." Owen is again satirizing Pope and her poem "Who's for the game?" with the suggestion that he would have been given more praise for scoring a goal than going to war. This is highly ironic since Pope compared war to a game in "Who's for the game?" As the poem ends Owen gives one final indication of this man's pain: "How cold and late it is! Why don't they come And put him into bed? Why don't they come?" The repetition here of the question "Why don't they come" augments his sense of pain and suffering whilst indicating his longing for an end to his nightmarish existence. Owen has cleverly focused on an individual person rather than a faceless mass to make it easier for the audience to sympathise and empathise. Thus, Owen stresses the horrors of war through his description of one man's life after the war. Another of Owen's most recognized poems is "Dulce et Decorum est" which translated means sweet and fitting it is. This title is not meant to be taken seriously as in the poem Owen adopts an angry, bitter tone to talk about the horrors of war. Straight away Owen stresses the horrors of war with his description of these young men: "Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through Sludge." Here we learn about the soldier's wretched condition as they return to the Front. The use of similes comparing these soldiers to "beggars" and "hags" is very powerful considering they were young men. There is a suggestion that they have been reduced to old weak women. This shows the appalling conditions that soldiers experienced in the war. Owen is trying to communicate to the reader the true effect that war can have on people through his vivid description of these men returning to the front. In continuation of this, Owen carries on to bolster this impression of their hardships: "But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots." Here we can see how mentally and physically drained they are as they "limped on". Furthermore, they seem to have lost their senses as they are now "lame", "blind", and "deaf". This powerfully communicates their distress and wretched condition. As well as this they are dehumanised with the mention that they are "blood-shod". They have now reached a state of pain and suffering that they are no longer recognized as humans. With the introduction of the second stanza Owen focuses on one man who could not get his gas helmet on in time: "Gas! Gas! Quickly, boys! "“ An ecstasy of fumbling "¦And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime"¦ Dim, through the misty panes and thick green light, As under a green sea, I saw him drowning." Here Owen allows the reader to see through the eyes of a soldier. Consequently we are able to empathise with this soldier on a personal level as we can experience what is happening from the first person. We are seeing the true horrors of war through this one soldier's perspective rather than the ideas presented by such propagandists as Begbie and Pope. The description is very surreal and chaotic due to the powerful visual and aural imagery present. Owen uses a powerful underwater metaphor to compare the soldier succumbing to poison gas with drowning. This metaphor helps the reader to vividly picture the scene consequently making it far more effective. Also, the mention of a "green sea" suggests the soldier's helplessness and pain as he dies. Moreover, the unforgiving horrors of war can be seen with the mention that he was "flound'ring like a man in fire". This simile indicates the pain he was experiencing as he died and further stresses the horrors of war. In the third stanza Owen looks back from a new perspective at what has just happened to his friend: "In all my dreams, before my helpless sight, He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning." The commas used here serve as a pause prolonging the sentence making it seem more saddening. Another way of looking at this is that the pauses are meant to be sighs, expressed by Owen as he watches in horrors as his friend dies before him, knowing there is nothing he can do save him. In the fourth stanza Owen attacks those people at home who uphold the war's continuance unaware of its realities: "If in some smothering dreams you too could pace "¦ And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin; Owen is suggesting here that if those people who are ignorant to the horror of war could experience his own "smothering dreams", which replicate in small measure the victim's sufferings, then maybe they would change their perceptions. The "you" whom Owen addresses could imply people in general but it more likely it applies to the propagandist poets who influenced his work. The sufferings that are experienced at war are described in sickening detail by Owen to shock the reader. The verbs "writhing" and "hanging" denote an especially virulent kind of pain. Whilst the simile comparing his face to a "devils sick of sin" indicates that he has somewhat experienced hell on earth in the form of war. Thus we can see how Owen stresses the horrors of war through his vivid description of one man's sufferings at war. Owen ends this poem with a somewhat angered bitter line that represents his attitude to the propagandists: "The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro Patria mori." This translates to "the old lie: sweet and fitting it is to die for one's country". We can see just how disgusted Owen was by the propagandists in this poem. Therefore, we can see just how Owen stresses the horrors of war through his vivid and descriptive writing about soldiers in the war. The main purpose of "Dulce et Decorum Est" was to make people aware of the true nature of war. Similarly, "Disabled" also attempts to communicate the horrors of war. Both these poems were influenced by the works of propagandists such as Begbie and Pope who wrote poems unaware of what war was really like with the intention of manipulating young men into volunteering.   

When World War One broke out in 1914 Britain had only a small professional army. It needed a large one very quickly. In order to solve this problem the government would introduce conscription in 1916. However, before the introduction of conscription the government would put a tremendous amount of...

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