Related Keywords

No Related Keywords

Register NowHow It Works Need Essay Need Essay
War poem comparison
0 User(s) Rated!
Words: 741 Views: 264 Comments: 0
Instructions: Analyse the poems "France" and "dulce et decorum est" Compare the meanings, themes, attitudes, format and language of the two poems bringing out the similarities and differences between the two poems. Use quotations to support your answers. These two poems were both written in the First World War but at very different times as the mood of the poems change dramatically. E.g. "France" was written in the very early stages of the war where the mood was very optimistic and victorious. "Dulce" was written by a poet that experienced what actually happened in the later stages of...
the war and therefore have different attitudes towards it. Also the last line of each poem has an effect on the whole poem, in "France", "Voices of victory and delight" meaning that it is a privilege to fight, die, and win the war for your country, whereas in "Dulce", "The old lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori", meaning, it is sweet and fitting to for ones country. To me, they both end with almost the same line, with the same approach, very ironic and deep, from the heart.

"Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori"

Become A Member Become a member to continue reading this essay orLoginLogin
View Comments Add Comment

During this thrilling scene Antonio's life...During this thrilling scene Antonio's life is under threat. Shylock has made a bond with Antonio "“ he has lent him 3,000 ducats and will take a pound if flesh if he fails to pay him back. Antonio did this for friends love, Bassanio wanted to woo the rich Portia of Belmont. Antonio initially thought the bond was in jest however, Shylock vowed revenge and stock to his bond. To identify with a character means to empathise with their situation. On the other hand, if an audience is alienated by a character, this means that their behaviour is controversial or abnormal. This next paragraph is all about anti-Semitism. Anti-Semitism means being racially prejudiced towards Jews, the majority of anti-Semitists are Christians. Christians are like this because they believe that Jews are responsibility for the death of Christ, the story goes that some Jews and Romans were discussing what to do with Jesus and a Jew said to hang him. And from then on Christians have been treating Jews like there second. Antonio has an extra reason to hate Jews, that is that Jews lend money with interest and Antonio does not think that this is right and they don't treat there customers honestly. Jew were treated as lower class citizens in Venice because they are forces to where bright red hats when they go out in pubic, also Christians could spit, kick do anything they wanted to the Jews but they can't do anything back, also Jews can't join the army or work in any part of the court; "O, be thou damn'd, inexorable dog!" here Gratiano is calling Shylock a dog. A modern audience would find racism like this unbelievable and totally unacceptable, this is because there has been many protests regarding racial discrimination, their have been many famous protests but probably the most famous is the speech of Martin Luther King, this famous speech was delivered in 1963 to more than 200,000 civil-rights marchers at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. the speech was called I have a dream, this is how it goes; "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by their content of their character." Nowadays if you were anywhere near as raciest as people are in the Merchant of Venice you could be put in prison or just get beat up and stabbed. In the Merchant of Venice Jews are spoke to as if they are lower than Christians, and they are oven called names, for example when Gratiano says to Shylock; "O, be thou damn'd, inexorable dog!" Gratiano is calling Shylock a dog, this shows that Gratiano thinks that all Jews are below him and he truly hates all Jews. Portia also speaks poorly to Jews. E.g. when she is dressed up as a male lawyer she says; "Art thou contented, Jew?" The fact that she does not call him his real name Shylock but she calls him Jew, she is kind of putting him into a different group to her, a lower group than her. The Duke also is very rude to all Jews, like when he says; "we all expect a gentle answer Jew." He is also calling shylock a Jew instead of his real name. Most Christians call Jews not by their real name but they call them Jew. Most of the Christians in Venice would like it if all of the Jews converted into Christians. They want to convert them because they think that if they don't they will be dammed for live in hell when they die. A modern day audience would not tolerate someone trying to change there religion, even though religion is not such a big thing now. People still belong to religion but they are not so rigid on all the rules. When this play was set nearly everyone was religions and tried their bet to obey all the rules. At the time that this play is set the low-courts were very different to nowadays. In act four, shylock is arguing with the Duke to recognise his bond, but in the Dukes mind he knows that he must give justice to Shylock's bond. He knows this because if he doesn't allow this bond to be fulfilled than he will be breaking his bond, and if he breaks one bond than everyone will want him to break their bond. Shylock knows this and he says; "if you deny, let the danger light/ upon your charter and the city's freedom." This shows that he know that if he denies his bond than the hole community will fall to pieces. Scene four is very dramatic, there are lots of things that make it more dramatic. The main thing is that all the judges are wearing really nice cloths, and the fact that Shylock is in front of them and is surrounded by Christians all shouting at him. Also when he pulls a big knife out of his coat, and then he sharpens it in front of everyone. And then he gets a set of scales out as well, this is dramatic because it is very visual and you can kind of imagine a lump of human flesh on the scale. When he does this it truly makes you think that he is going through with his bond, followed by Antonio being tied to a chair and fainting. All of these points add to making the scene dramatic. An audience might get annoyed in the trial scene; this is because the court takes so long to make judgment. The court scene may be not that different to nowadays in some ways. All the court goes silent when someone is talking most of the time, and they have a jury and a lawyer. But on the other hand some scenes may totally outrage and surprise an audience, like when Portia says to Shylock; "you must cut this flesh from off his breast; the law allows it, and the court awards it." When she says this it will certainly shock an audience this is because nowadays the law will never allow someone to harm someone else, no matter what bond or promise they have made, but when the Merchant of Venice was set if you made a bond there is no going back on it. A modern day audience might not find the fact that Portia dressing up as a man and pretending to be a lawyer in the trial scene so shocking. But back when this play was set it was totally outrageous. This is because women were not allowed to work in a court, but not only that there is the fact that no one knew who Portia was not even her husband. But most shocking of all is the horrible test that Portia puts Bassanio thought, I think this is totally unbelievable, she actually asks him for his ring; "I'll take this ring from you." She is asking her husband for his wedding ring which she made him promise never to give away. In some ways the way in which the court was run is very different to nowadays. For one the defendant or defendants are a lot less formal, they can just give evidence or speech when ever they want too. Also the fact that the audience in the court shout a lot, nowadays it has to be completely silent. And there is really only one lawyer for the whole court, he or she has to both defend and accuse the defendant. Portia delays pouncing the sentence in the trial scene, I think she does this because she is testing Bassanio to see what he would do if he though that he is going to die. I think another reason for Portia delaying the sentence is so that she could get Shylocks hopes up, and make him think that he has won and he can get his pound of flesh, then totally crush all of his hopes. In the trial scene shylock sharpens his knife in front of the whole court, not only does this make the court think that he is willing to go though with the bond. But its makes the audience think that he is really looking forward to cutting the flesh off of Bassanio. The audience will not like this because they will think that Shylock is sick and really likes cutting someone's skin. In a way Antonio passes the final judgment on Shylock, I think that he had right intensions by forcing Shylock to become a Christian, I think this because Antonio thinks that all Jews go to hell, so by changing him into a Christian he is saving Shylock. Also he allows Shylock to keep half of his weave until he dies. I think that this is a very kind sentence considering that Shylock would have killed him if he had a chance. This next paragraph will be based on feminism and what effect it has on a modern day audience. First I would like to talk about the reasons that Portia dressed up as a man in the trail scene, the main reason that she did this is women where not allowed to work in the court when this play was set. This is because women were thought to be the weaker sex and not as smart or strong as men. Nowadays women are treated the same as men, this is because their have been many protests and strikes where women refuse to work for the amount of money that they are getting paid, they also made a stand agents the government and their employers. Portia proves that she is a fully qualified lawyer in many ways; one of these is the fact that she comes from a man call Bellario, and he is a very important man in the law courts, this gives the impression and it makes Portia look like a very good lawyer. Also Portia uses a lot of "law talk" when she is speaking to the court, for example when she says "There is no power in Venice / can alter a decree established." This makes the rest of the court think that she is very experienced and knows what she is talking about. I don't think that a modern day audience would take Portia's disguise seriously. I think this because it is very easy to that the lawyer is Portia, and no one notices who she is not even her husband. I think this is done on purpose to make the scene slightly funny. Portia tries to make shylock to relent by making a speech on page 70 act 4 scene 1; it starts on about line 181 and ends on about line 203. The main meaning of the speech is to say how can Shylock expect mercy to Jews if he doesn't show mercy to Christians. At the start of the speech Portia says "The quality of mercy is not strain'd." This means that revenge just leads to more revenge. This speech has a big effect on the court, it makes them think that she is sorry for what ever might have happened to Shylock and that he should just put it behind him. Portia is very aggravated with Bassanio's expressed love for Antonio, for example when she says: "Your wife would give little thanks for that," while she is dressed as a male lawyer. She would like to make a more dramatic response but she holds back, because she knows that if she says something more she will reveal her true identity. When Portia tests her husband, I think she had a good reason to do so. The main reason is the fact that her husband lied about being rich. He pretended to be rich so that he could enter the competition to try and win so that Portia will have to marry him. At the end of the play Bassanio is even more indebted to his wife because he gave his wedding ring away. I would suggest that a modern audience would be sympathetic with Jessica when she runs away with Lorenzo because she has been told exactly what to do by her farther: "Do as I bid you; shut that doors after you". Also the fact that she loved her father but she hated the fact that he is so vengeful and the fact that he thinks that it is a war going on between Christians and Jews, and she is very peaceful. However some people might not be so sympathetic with her because she stole a large amount of Shylock's fortune including her mothers ring; parents who are overprotective of their own children would relate to Shylock. Portia is less traditional than Jessica for a number of reasons. I first is the fact that she is much more independent then a average woman in Shakespeare day. For example she is in control of her own fortune. Also when she asks Bassanio for the ring she says: "I'll die for't, but some woman had the ring." She is accusing him of having an affair, even though she tricked him to give her the ring. I suggest that Jessica gets more of the audience's sympathy because of this. Friendship is very important in the play. There are a lot of reasons why Antonio lends Bassanio money. The first impression that an audience gets is that they are just very good friends. But by act 4 scene 1 Antonio is putting his life on the line and Antonio might think of him as more that just a friend. I think that Antonio is slightly in love with Bassanio. He says: "Let his deservings and my love withal / Be valu'd 'gainst my wife's commandement." He is persuading Antonio to part with his ring. This shows that Antonio wants to valued as highly as Portia by Bassanio. I think that Antonio's behaviour is threatening their marriage whether he means to or not. Portia is right to expect additional loyalty from Bassanio than Antonio. I assume this because Portia and Bassanio are wedded and that is a much stronger connection than friends, despite the fact that Bassanio and Antonio have been good friends for a very long time. I don't think that this play is anti-Semitic; I think this because at the end of the trial scene Bassanio lets Shylock keep half of his money even though Shylock was just about to kill him. The play does have anti-Semitic moments and people in it, the main issue in the play is anti-Semitic people. I think that the play does teach tolerance, almost all people can relate to a situation like these e.g. black and white, rich and poor, old and young or different religions.   

During this thrilling scene Antonio's life is under threat. Shylock has made a bond with Antonio – he has lent him 3,000 ducats and will take a pound if flesh if he fails to pay him back. Antonio did this for friends love, Bassanio wanted to woo the rich Portia...

Words: 2494 View(s): 410 Comment(s): 0
The Crucible is a play based...The Crucible is a play based on a true story set in the 17th century, about a closely-knit community in Salem, Massachusetts which from the accusations of girl "“ Abigail Williams "“ led to a witch hunt all over the town which ended up having over half of the town hung and the other half set free because they agreed when they were called witches but 'wanted to repent their sins'. Arthur Miller wrote Crucible in the mid 20th century as a parallel to the 'witch hunt' against communists and people with left wing views led by senator McCarthy in the 1950s. This involved making anyone with anything near to communist views made unemployable so that America wasn't 'taken over' by communism. Because this play very strongly conveyed Miller's views about McCarthyism at that time it was not able to be performed in theatres in America when it was first ready as any educated member of the audience could unravel the parallels that Miller made. In any play there are three things that can be determined by the play write apart from the script: the stage directions, the set, and the lighting. Miller has given directions very specifically on all three of these so that the play looks near to exactly as he first envisioned it to be and to keep the tension in the play working as it should. Throughout the play there are times where there is a lot of tension, uncertainty and drama. This helps to "suspend the belief" of the audience and keep them interested in the play. The main contributor to this build up is John Proctor whose quirky remarks and strange choices lead to the whole play becoming a bigger drama than any audience might have first thought. From even before the play has started John Proctor made a choice that was thought of to be very taboo "“ having an affair with Abigail. In the play, Abigail is 16. Although quite a young age to be running off with a middle-aged man was not as young as the real documents told: she was really 12, but in the 1950's the audience, no matter how educated would not have been able to cope with the story line of a 12 year old girl going and sleeping with a middle aged man so the dramatist changed the age to 16. After this early and disgraceful choice he continues to push the boundaries by choosing not to go to church. Since this was a Puritan and Quaker community the thought of not going to church would make many people cry blasphemy. But Proctor had a good reason, which was that he hated the way the Reverend Parris ran the ceremony. Not going set him aside as rouge and because of this conflict Proctor had with religion he increased the tension, as this is how the majority of tension is created in a play. He next makes a big decision to end his relationship with Abigail so to try to patch up his marriage and to try to start over. But Abigail doesn't take to this very well and accuses Proctor's wife of being a witch. Being his wife, the drama can thrive on the conflict within John and the conflicts he has focusing on this topic with both Abigail and Elizabeth. The conflict due to the now unrequited love of Abigail towards John led her to be more cunning and in her determination, comes a greater factor of tension and uncertainty into what she will do next. The decision that really increases the uncertainty is the decision Elizabeth "“ John's wife "“ makes to protect her husband over telling the truth. John previously said to the Danforth "she have never lied". Therefore when asked whether John had an affair with Abigail "“ earlier making it obvious that she knew of it "“ the audience expects her to say yes because she had never lied in her life, but to make the tension climax Miller makes her say no, which to an audience that had never seen the play before would shock, and enthral them at the same time. The main tension and drama building decision made by John Proctor is in Act 4: after being put in jail for not admitting to being a witch when accused, Danforth comes to see John, to supposedly set him free. All John has to do to be freed and not go to be hung on that very same day is to sign a piece of paper that says he admits to being a witch. Despite being advised by the comforting and wise Reverend Hail, he will not give Danforth the signed document. "But it's my name!" He makes a conscious decision to keep his self-respect, which is what a 'hero' in most stories and plays tries to achieve. By giving them the sheet of paper he would have signed his life away to a lie, this was something he could not do. Even after his wife forgave him for everything he did and apologised for everything she did to make him feel bad and then told him "whatever you will do it is a good man that does it" which would mean to her that she wouldn't care if he gave in to them. Despite all of this he puts all he can into maintaining his dignity and not giving in. He only told the truth and because he kept his name, even though he was hung he leaves the play having the audience on his side. Along with the choices there are some very subtle things that Miller uses to add to the atmosphere of the play. Firstly the language used predominantly in the play is colloquial language of the 17th century Quakers. This makes the characters much more realistic as the language they use is common with where they are and of the time. It also helps to show just how familiar everyone is with everyone living in Salem and that because of this anyone could be accused next. All Abigail needed to do was figuratively pull a name out of a hat, and accuse that person. But this type of language is not used in all parts. In the courtroom scene 3 the language changes to a much more formal version of this same dialect, mainly because of the presence of the judges who lived in another town and were unknown by the majority of people. Therefore the tension can build up more easily but since it is in a courtroom the people are unable to take the step onwards to climax this tension and so it just increases throughout the scene. Using the technique of conflict, Miller successfully created a drama with unexpected plot twists and betrayal that needed a basis of a true story to help it along with making believable characters and a believable witch hunt. Being a great contributor to the excitement that the play bring John Proctor is an essential character who drives the tension, drama and uncertainty in the play and when doing what is the right thing, he shows the audience that any person can change. He is just one example of a great character changing his morals.   

The Crucible is a play based on a true story set in the 17th century, about a closely-knit community in Salem, Massachusetts which from the accusations of girl – Abigail Williams – led to a witch hunt all over the town which ended up having over half of the town...

Words: 1228 View(s): 474 Comment(s): 0
' The Darkness Out... ' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be more mature and less naïve. Old Mrs Chundle' is a pre-twentieth century tale about a curate who through an encounter with an old woman realises that he did not live up to the good person he had always imagined he had been, and also he feels guilty as a result of his wrong actions. The beginning of 'The Darkness Out There' is a contrast to the title with descriptions of the country and also of the old woman Mrs Rutter. 'Brushing through the grass, polleny summer grass that glinted in the sun.' This is your first impression of the surroundings Sandra travels through and an example of the contrasting descriptions compared to the gloomy title. Sandra has a strong pre-conception of old people being innocent and sweet who deserve to be treated well. 'They were really sweet, the old people.' Her pre-conceptions are down to her innocence of being young and of her naivety too. Sandra's natural assumption is that she assumes she is doing a good job giving up her time for the old people who deserved to be assisted. However as soon as Sandra gets a glimpse of Packer's End the author changes the feeling of the story to dark and gloomy descriptions of the area, 'It was a rank place' for example. This idea of the area given to the readers creates the impression that the 'darkness out there' in this story is Packers End and gives a false illusion or pre-conception that the story is morally and fully based around it. The transition from the pleasant descriptions of the countryside to the of Packer's End is quite blunt with one significant quote 'the light suddenly shutting off the bare wide sky of the field. Packer's End.' This quote is effective because it shows the change in mood and description. It also shows that Packer's End is the darkness out there in Sandra's mind too. You get the impression of Sandra's fear by the comments made like 'she wouldn't go in there for a thousand pounds', which shows you the extent that she would go to in order to avoid approaching it. There are also many descriptions describing Sandra's impressions of fear of the area like ' the greyness you couldn't quite see into the clotted shifting depths of the place.' This quote not only shows Sandra's fears but also describes the 'darkness out there' as if until you look closer you cannot tell what it is. This relates back to the pre-judgemental attitude Sandra has towards Mrs Rutter and Kerry at the start of the story. Sandra is scared of Packer's End because of all the tales that people had told her as a child like the ghostly presence of German aircrew, and recently the story of the girl that was raped and attacked there. Note that after many of the stories are told they end with 'people said'. This suggests that Sandra does not really have an entire mind of her own and that people are influential in her thinking, which is probably why she is still afraid of Packer's End. As a child she was, and still is, afraid of the ghostly place with wolves. But going into her teens it was mainly the Nazi plane and the rape that daunts her because they were more realistic things. Others again influence her on the supposed rape incident too. ' There was this girl, people at school said"¦' This quote gives evidence of her listening to what 'people' told her and she appears to be very gullible, which makes her more naïve of the real life and Packer's End Sandra has an idyllic life as her dream for the future for example travelling to perfect places you can get. 'She would go to places like on travel brochures and run into a blue sea'. As this shows she with other younger people dream of not the real world with financial problems and divorce but a flawless lifestyle where nothing could go wrong. Sandra also dreams of having a perfect home and location and a handsome husband. 'Two children, a boy and a girl. Children with fair and shiny hair like hers and there would be this man"¦' This quote portrays the lifestyle that she would like and shows her assumption that it will happen. However Sandra overlooks any possibility that some of her ideas could become flawed. But on the other hand she does seem to take her future seriously however naïve she may be. Compared to Kerry Stevens' realistic plan for life hers is like a dream because Kerry seems to have his feet firmly on the ground. The writer uses Sandra's ideas of her storybook future to further give evidence of he naivety, and by using comparisons to Kerry's future further shows how much her head appears to be up in the clouds. Kerry Stevens does not make a good impression on Sandra in terms of appearance because he was not the best looking person and the writer shows Sandra's judgemental attitude by her initial opinions of Kerry at a first glance. 'Some people you only have to look at to know they're not up to much.' This quote shows her opinions of not Kerry but also of the way she views other people as well. The way the writer has shown Sandra's judgemental side is to also show a contrast in the story to give evidence of change in her character later on in the story. Sandra has a good view of Mrs Rutter mainly because of the portrayal of the woman being 'really sweet, lots of the old people.' This is her pre-conception before she even sees the old lady. This gives us a good understanding of not only her judging character towards appearances of people but also portrays judgement of personality for the first time also. Sandra thinks that Mrs Rutter is a very nice lady because of her friendly initial welcome to her, which is understandable because not only does the writer make Sandra think this but the reader also, perhaps to deceive us about Mrs Rutter's personality and to make ourselves pre- conceive her character too. 'A creamy smiling pool of a face in which her eyes snapped and darted.' This quote gives the impression of a plump, harmless old woman, which the writer purposely wants us the reader and Sandra to think for the deception that occurs later on in the tale. The writer encourages us, Sandra and Kerry also to feel sympathy towards her because of the fact that she is alone and her husband's death in the war was very tragic. 'He was in one of the first campaigns in Belgium, and he never came back.' The way that Mrs Rutter describes his death creates sympathy naturally and the fact she has been alone for years makes you feel sorry for her further. The writer also creates more sympathy when we learn that she was childless and regrets it because she feels it a loss not to have had any. It is more shocking to learn about what Mrs Rutter did because of the circumstances that her husband died in. You would have thought that considering he was gunned down in the same way as the German that she would have had more sympathy towards the man. However instead of giving him a chance to live, Mrs Rutter's coldness and nastiness allowed him to suffer. At this point we see a change in the story where we the reader, Sandra and Kerry see her in a different perspective to what we initially thought of her apart from Kerry, who had a slight suspicion about of her to begin with. You can at this point refer to another novel, which sends out a particular message about people. In Lord of the Flies written by William Golding the main concept and moral to the story is that whoever we are there is the potential for evil within us all. 'Dot said he wasn't going to last long, good job too, three of them that'll be.' This quote shows how unconcerned they were about an injured man that they could save from death. The writer shows Mrs Rutter's coldness by the way that the old woman narrates her story. Mrs Rutter tells the story in a manner- of- fact way and is not bothered or affected by the events. This makes us disgusted because she does not see how inhumane it was to have done such a thing. 'Tit for tat I said'. This quote gives evidence of Mrs Rutter seeing what they did as revenge or out of bitterness for the German's killing her husband, which may be the motive for her horrific actions. This quote shows us that Mrs Rutter has no feeling of guilt or remorse and by showing us this, the writer makes us feel more horrified of what she and her sister did. 'The boy's spoon clattered to the floor; he did not move.' This quote gives evidence to us of Kerry's stunned reaction to Mrs Rutter in the way that he was so shocked he could not move. He is also sickened by the fact that that Mrs Rutter thinks that it is something normal for a person to do. 'You had this coming to you mate, there's a war on.' 'It was what everyone said in those days.' These quotes show that she thought it was humane and acceptable for anyone to do. She used this expression that people had said to justify her actions, but even though people said this would they have left a helpless man to die? To show that Sandra has changed the writer illustrates the better points of Packer's End to make her realise that it is not a bad place or most importantly 'the darkness out there'. 'Birds sang. There were not, as the girl the girl realised wolves, witches or tigers.' This shows us her realisation that there is nothing to be scared of as she first thought. The writer also by her new view of Packers End shows that she is less naïve of the place and that she has opened her eyes to reality more. Sandra has also grown up in other ways by learning not to pre-judge people as she did with Mrs Rutter and Kerry. She has realised that it is not appearances that matter but what is inside also, with Mrs Rutter perceived as being a sweet woman but revealing to be a cruel hearted and bitter woman. 'You could get people all wrong, she realised with alarm.' This quote gives evidence of her realising how wrong her pre-conceptions have been, and her concern of this shows also that she has grown up because of her recognition of this. The writer also emphasises her changes in character by her recognition also of Kerry Stevens not seeming as bad as he looks. 'He had grown; he had got older and larger. His anger eclipsed his acne"¦' This quote shows Sandra looking at Kerry from a different perspective to the scruffy, dodgy type that she previously thought he was. Sandra overall has discovered that the darkness out there is not Packers End but the cold-heartedness and evil that is present within some people. Referring back to William Golding's point that 'the potential for evil is within us all'; the evil was within the innocent looking Mrs Rutter. As a result of these events and changes in character she has become less naïve about things unlike before, which may change her overall attitudes to life and become more wary of the real world. In 'Old Mrs Chundle' our first real impression of the woman is that she is quite stubborn and a grumpy old lady, and when approached by the Curate she quite unwelcoming. 'A sour look crossed her face'. This quote gives evidence of our initial opinion of her and the writer shows her character to be like this through her actions and expressions rather than through her looks in the 'Darkness out there.' 'I tell 'ee 'tis two pence and no more!' This is an example of this where she seems rude and stubborn through her actions here when talking to the Curate. 'Old Mrs Chundle is a pre-19th century text and is reflected in the language used and the actions of the characters. ' I suppose 'tis the wrong sort, and that ye would sooner have bread and cheese?' This quote shows the different style of language used in the story with 'ye' instead of you and 'tis used instead of it is. Also the actions of the characters in the story reflect the older period when it was written. 'The lunch hour drew on, and he felt hungry. Quite near him was a stone "“built old cottage of respectable and substantial build, he entered and was received by an old woman.' This quote gives evidence of an out of character action in today's society hence showing that this was written pre-19th century. No one today would do that and would instead go to a fast food restaurant or to their own homes for example. There is a contrast in our first impressions that we get of the two old ladies in both stories. Mrs Rutter appears to be a nice, old woman, whilst Mrs Chundle seems to us rather rude. Thomas Hardy has done the same as Penelope Lively in creating a sort of perception for us of a character and then deceives us later in terms of who turns out to be the changed persona and who we pre-conceive. In this case the changed persona is the Curate and our pre-conception is of Mrs Chundle. The Curate seems very shocked at how Mrs Chundle could lie to him and pre-judges her motives for doing this. 'Wicked old woman. What can she think of herself for such deception?' But despite this he still tries to get her to church as a challenge and because its his sort of responsibility. 'I think it was a culpable, unkind thing of you.' This shows the determination of the Curate by confronting her on the matter. Mrs Chundle agrees to attend church firstly because of the trouble that the curate is willing to, with the ear trumpet for her to attend church. After the trumpet failing he comes up with a sound tube system to again enable her to hear the sermon. The writer makes us feel that the Curate is a good man by illustrating the trouble that he went to for Mrs Chundle to attend church. 'At great trouble to himself.' The way that the Curate tries everything to help her, the writer shows that he is quite devoted to helping the woman when no one else has ever attempted to. The writer shows the change in the Curate's character by his ignorance of the old lady in the sermon. He blocks up the tube after her bad smell lingers up the tube towards him. 'Desperately thrusting his thumb into the hole'. This quote shows that the Curate is being very intolerant and has at this point no concern about the old woman, only himself. The Curate is also shown to be self conscious about himself because he has blocked up the pipe probably to avoid further embarrassment towards himself in church. To the Curate's total dismay Mrs Chundle is very overjoyed by her ability to hear clearly. ' I shall come every Sunday morning reg'lar, now, please God.' This shows her new enthusiasm about church, and the writer illustrates this by using strong words in her dialogue for example 'Please God'. After Mrs Chundle attends church regularly the writer shows a transition in the Curate's character. 'I cannot stand this I shall tell her not to come.' This quote shows how rude and inconsiderate he is becoming after his encounters with Mrs Chundle. We also see the Curate setting out to reverse what he had been doing just to stop Mrs Chundle bothering him. He becomes very selfish because he is only considering the consequences of removing the pipe on his part and not hers. For example he simply thinks of no embarrassment at his sermons and no bother, not that the old woman would be unhappy, lonely and not be able to attend something that she enjoys.' I've promised to go and read to her but I shan't go.' The writer also illustrates the Curate to be a very angry man by showing how he puts off a simple task of going to see Mrs Chundle and again does not consider how rude it is towards the old woman. He was described as being 'vexed' about the matter viewing it as an ordeal for himself. He is shown once again by his actions in this story to being a very selfish man and inconsiderate of other people's feelings. The writer builds up the guilt the Curate should feel after Mrs Chundle's death by putting the emphasis on Mrs Chundle's circumstances of death. She became ill partly because perhaps she did not want to let the Curate down after all the trouble that he had went to for her. ' She harried overmuch, and runned up the hill.' 'It upset her heart.' This quote shows the trouble that Mrs Chundle had gone to, to get to church on time so she did not miss the Curate's sermon. The writer also creates the guilt by the way that Mrs Chundle did not assume that he did not come for bad reasons as she said that he was so loyal to her. This creates guilt by the fact that Mrs Chundle thought so well of him. 'You were so staunch and faithful in wishing to do her good.' This quote emphasises how well she thought of him and how loyal she considered the Curate to be, and it also shows that she had no doubt at all that he was being unkind towards her in any way. The writer finally emphasises the point of guilt concerning the will by the words that Mrs Chundle said to the woman as she handed over the will to give to the Curate. 'He's a man in a thousand. He's not ashamed of an old woman"¦' This quote gives evidence that Mrs Chundle considers him very considerate and kind, when told this the Curate must have felt not only guilt but also moved too. This is because of the way that she thought of him so highly. Also the amount of possessions that Mrs Chundle had left the Curate shows a lot. Firstly it made him realise that he was the only friend that she had and did not have much in her life at all. It also shows that he must have meant a lot to her for her to leave him with everything that she owned. 'On opening it he found it to be what she called her will, in which she'd left him her"¦' This quote shows the extent at which she had given him in return for the good ways she had thought that the Curate treated her. The way that Mrs Chundle died and the will for example, are used by the writer to make us assume that the Curate will be guilty, shocked and upset over her death. This is also because of the way that he treated her. However judging by the ending the Curate does not seem very flustered by everything and is very calm apart from a tear in his eye. The writer uses 'like Peter' to compare what the Curate has done with Peter before the death of Christ. The correlation is that they both betrayed Mrs Chundle and Christ, which is effective because Hardy shows the extent of the Curate's unkindness further. 'And as he went his eyes were wet"¦' This quote shows to us that the Curate is moved in some way by what has happened. Although he prays we assume for forgiveness and Mrs Chundle, will he change for the future or does he consider that a prayer of repentance will be good enough and he will no longer feel any more guilt? ' He rose brushed the knees of his trousers, and walked on.' This quote at the end does suggest that now he has prayed for his sins that he can carry on normally, and that the Curate has not really learnt his lesson. At this point we as the reader are expected to be and are very sympathetic towards Mrs Chundle and only contempt towards the Curate. Therefore you can clearly see that again the writer has created a reversal in character feeling, because we liked the Curate at first as he went to all the trouble for Mrs Chundle. However he reversed in to a rude and inconsiderate man. Whereas we initially thought Mrs Chundle was rude but she turned out to be a kind and thoughtful woman. In 'The Darkness Out There' and 'Old Mrs Chundle', both writers have created a good effect of deception where the Sandra and we the reader are surprised in the change in character of Mrs Rutter, Mrs Chundle and the Curate. As a result of the encounters with these two old women, both of the main characters have changed in different ways. During the story the curate changed from being a kind-hearted man to being rude, selfish and ignorant towards Mrs Chundle. The Curate like Sandra was also naïve himself because he could not realise how his bad actions were affecting the old woman. He does change a little because he realises what his duties are as a Curate and in future how far he should take them, like not interfering so much with others. Sandra has changed her view on life by being more realistic about things rather than having her head up in the clouds so much. She is also less naïve about people and has learned not to be so pre-judgemental about people and that looks can be deceiving. The writer shows Sandra's change in character by comparing her views of Packers End before and after she has changed in attitude to emphasise the fact that she has grown up more.   

' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be...

Words: 3846 View(s): 2829 Comment(s): 0