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War poem comparison
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Instructions: Analyse the poems "France" and "dulce et decorum est" Compare the meanings, themes, attitudes, format and language of the two poems bringing out the similarities and differences between the two poems. Use quotations to support your answers. These two poems were both written in the First World War but at very different times as the mood of the poems change dramatically. E.g. "France" was written in the very early stages of the war where the mood was very optimistic and victorious. "Dulce" was written by a poet that experienced what actually happened in the later stages of...
the war and therefore have different attitudes towards it. Also the last line of each poem has an effect on the whole poem, in "France", "Voices of victory and delight" meaning that it is a privilege to fight, die, and win the war for your country, whereas in "Dulce", "The old lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori", meaning, it is sweet and fitting to for ones country. To me, they both end with almost the same line, with the same approach, very ironic and deep, from the heart.

"Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori"

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The audience first encounters the... The audience first encounters the character of Lady Macbeth in act1, scene 5, while she is reading the letter sent to her by her husband, in the letter Macbeth describes the meeting with of the three witches, and them predicting the fact that he is going to be 'Thane of Cawdor', we can tell from the letter the closeness of relationship, Lady Macbeth and her husband have as he addresses Lady Macbeth as; "my dearest partner of greatness", that thou mightest not lose the dues of rejoicing". From then on in the play, she shows herself to be ambitious, and mentally strong. As soon as she reads the letter, she seems to decide that Macbeth will be the next Scottish King, and fulfil the witches' prophecy, no matter the method. This proves that Lady Macbeth is the driving force behind Duncan's murder. She realises that she must influence Macbeth against his better nature. It seems as though Lady Macbeth, can see her husband's weak points, and can change him, to be whatever she wants him to be. Lady Macbeth makes an impression on Macbeth that is not all good, because even though Macbeth can be ambitious, he is not ruthless enough. We can tell how determined Lady Macbeth is, by the way in which she says; "And chastise with the valour of my tongue All that impedes thee from the golden round" It is as though she is going to persuade Macbeth with her words, and uses her words as a charm. She is startled by this news, and so calls on the evil spirits to change her and lose her femininity. "Come you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here," She is calling on the spirits, to give her murderous thoughts, and make herself have no sympathy for humanity at all, and make her have no human feelings, and wants to lose her femininity. Lady Macbeth is trying to rid her conscience, and empty her mind of remorse and pleads to be filled with 'direst cruelty'. She needs to have power to help her through this time, it seems as though she probably would not be able to cope with the fact that she is trying to get her husband to commit a murder. When calling on the spirits she speaks her thoughts aloud, to the audience, this is known as a soliloquy, an example of this is at the start of her speech, beckoning the evil spirits to come forth she says; "That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan Under my battlements" Macbeth, then arrives home, when he does so, we find out how close Lady Macbeth and Macbeth actually are, she seems to be able to read him like an open book. She is already starting to try and change Macbeth by the way that she says; "To beguile the time, Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue; look like the innocent Flower, but be the serpent under't" Lady Macbeth, is trying to make her husband hide her feelings, she thinks that people can read him like a book, if they can do that, then it is likely that they will find out if Macbeth has killed Duncan, and she does not want that to happen. This also shows how in control Lady Macbeth "You shall put this nights great business into my dispatch", Macbeth seems to have absolute confidence in her ability to plan the murder. Her awareness of his character is shown, in this paragraph. It also shows how deceiving and devious she can be. She is going to take control of the whole situation, and make sure that Macbeth carries out his deeds, but Macbeth seems undecided, he seems to hesitate, at the thought of killing the king he sharply explains "We will speak further". But Lady Macbeth does not hesitated at all, she seem to be anxious to be the Queen, and states how "To alter favour ever is to fear, Leave the rest to me", Even though the male usually takes the stronger approach to everything, in this relationship we can tell that Lady Macbeth is definitely the dominating person, and tells Macbeth exactly what to do, when he hesitates she tells him that he is weaker if he doesn't proceed with her plans. When King Duncan arrives at Macbeth's home, Lady Macbeth has already thought up a plan, to get rid of him. Duncan seems to feel very at home in the Macbeth household at says "This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Unto our gentle senses". Which is quite ironic, because he is just about to get killed in a home, in which he feels so comfortable in. Another ironic part to this play, is when Banquo implies how "The temple-haunting martlet, does approve, By his lov'd mansionary, that the heaven's breath Smells wooingly here". Shakespeare shows us here how ironic this play actually is, and also brings imagery into play. Lady Macbeth treats Duncan as if she is the perfect hostess, and hides all of her feelings, much better than Macbeth; King Duncan brings into play the dramatic irony, throughout the play, when he calls Lady Macbeth "Our honour'd hostess". Which shows how good, an actress Lady Macbeth can be, if she can cover up the fact that she is going to kill King Duncan, then she is surely able to cover up the fact that she has killed him, later on in the play. It is also quite ironic because she could be doing exactly as she had said in this scene; "Look like th' innocent flower, but be the sepent under't". Soon Macbeth starts to feel the guilt that Lady Macbeth has rid of, from herself. We know this, because Macbeth feels that he cannot go through with the murder and says: "We will proceed no further in this business", he seems to be overwhelmed with the fact that he was going to kill the king, and afraid of the consequences. Lady Macbeth who is very sly urges him to continue with the murder. The words that Lady Macbeth gives him are very persuasive. She accuses him of being a coward and makes him think he does not love her; "Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, And live like a coward in thine own esteem" Lady Macbeth knew her husband very well. She understood his strengths and weaknesses, better than her did, and this is why she realises she will need to persuade him to kill Duncan. You can see how Lady Macbeth exploits his weaknesses, with phrases such as; "Art thou a feared To be the same in thine own act and valour As thou art in desire?" Her verbal attack, seems to disturb Macbeth, who then defends himself "I dare do all that may become a man", he is afraid that she is doubting his manhood, and tries to explain to Lady Macbeth, that he is still a man whether he kills king Duncan or not, she then uses this to her advantage, launching a second attack stating that nothing would make her break a pledge to him, she tries to appeal to his sensitive and sympathetic side, even the performance of a repulsive deed-killing of killing her infant. We know this because in Act 1 "“scene 7, line 54 Lady Macbeth explains how: "I have given suck, and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me" Lady Macbeth soon gets the reply, which she had been waiting for, which was "If we should fail"-, this gives us the impression, that Lady Macbeth has one her title, she has won her persuasive battle, and replies to Macbeth "We fail", which shows us the confidence in this scheme, she is portraying the fact that it is going to be inevitable that they are to succeed. Again we find out how much of an actress Lady Macbeth is, by the way that she says that she is going to cover up the fact that they have murdered Duncan, by acting broken hearted, she states how: "Who dares receive it other, As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar Upon his death" As Macbeth wavers, she quickly reveals her plan. Filled with admiration for her spirit he replies "Bring forth men children only". Her only sign of pity is her confession that she would have killed Duncan had he not, as he slept, resembled her father. This is the first sign of weakness that we see when she suggests how "Had he not resembled my father as he slept, I had done't" In act2, scene 2-Lady Macbeth has prepared for the murder and waits for Macbeth. In the beginning of Scene2, she has different moods. "That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold" She sounds bold and courageous when she says that. The next line she says is "What hath quench them hath given me fire, Hark! Peace", a noise form outside startles her. She realises it is a bird shrieking. We then see Lady Macbeth's first sign of nerves, as she realises what her consequences could lead to, when Macbeth hears noises, everything seems to be exaggerated, the sound of owls, and crickets seems to distract them, as they feel paranoid that they are being watched and are going to be found out. "It was the owl that shrieked, the fatal bellman, which gives the stern'st good night" she says as she is relieved. Immediately after the murder, Lady Macbeth seems to feel no immediate guilt after the death, no remorse, just satisfaction that her husband is going to become king-that is, if she can keep him from making everyone suspect them. Whilst Macbeth is filled with guilt and horror at his actions, she shows her fortitude and her reason in calming him down, she utters these ironic words: "These deeds must not be thought of' After these ways, so it will make us mad" Even after the horror of the deed, which shakes Macbeth's soul, it is her strength, which brings him to his senses. There is then, a second reference to madness coming from Lady Macbeth saying "You do unbend your noble strength to think so brainsickly of things" This is quite an ironic situation. Later she sees that Macbeth has brought back the daggers. Lady Macbeth takes the daggers and puts them back in Duncan's room. She says "Infirm of purpose, give me the daggers". She seems to have no fear of the situation but there seems to be some sort of nervousness in her. Macbeth's wife returns with blood stains all over hands. She points out that they both have bloodstained hands by saying, "My hands are of your colour, but I shame, to wear a heart so white". She makes Macbeth feel that they are both equally to blame for the murder of Duncan. Lady Macbeth is trying to straighten out Macbeth, although he is still quite fearful. She tries to make Macbeth feel reassured and that Macbeth can justify to what he has just done. Lady Macbeth, once again brings irony into play, when she says; "A little water, clears us of this deed", its as though she is saying that she believes that if she washes the blood away, then the guilt will wash away along with the memories, and she thinks that she can wash away all of her problems. This is the last that we see of Lady Macbeth until act2-scene3. In this scene Macduff is appalled by Duncan's death, Lady Macbeth is told of Duncan's death, but says "What, in our house?" She seems puzzled but not at all shocked. After a while, Macbeth has killed the guards assumed of killing the king. Macbeth, then starts to tell of his feelings for what has happened, to the others. Macbeth seems to be over compensating for the fact that he has nothing to do with this, so he acts as though he feels sympathetic towards King Duncan. He says "who could refrain, That had a heart to love, and in that heart Courage to make's love known" Lady Macbeth has now fainted, and is taken for treatment. She fainted to distract the attention away from Macbeth, so that people are more likely to notice her, rather than Macbeth, and also this shows how much of a good actress she is. Then in Act 3, scene 2- Lady Macbeth deals with Macbeth's mood of depression. Macbeth believes that they have only "Scorched the snake, Not killed it ". He cannot stop thinking about the murder, but Lady Macbeth urges him, to put his past behind him, she does not know that Macbeth has a plot to kill banquo.This shows us how their relationship is deteriorating, they started off in the beginning where, they would tell each other everything and the relationship was loving and caring. But now Macbeth is keeping secrets from Lady Macbeth, it is as though they no longer have trust in one another. This is where we first start to see their relationship start to crumble. Banquo has now been murdered, because Macbeth suspects him of foul play, and they are having a formal banquet, Lady Macbeth and her husband are both concerned about making this banquet as impressive as possible. During the banquet, Macbeth is told of the death of Banquo. This banquet is plays an important part in the novel, it shows us that it is important for people to know their place, so that disorder can be avoided, but the chaos that follows is symbolic of the disorder of Macbeth's rein. Macbeth is now fearing what is going to happen if anyone finds out about the death of Banquo, he seems to be in shock, and without Lady Macbeth he cannot seem to think straight, or stop himself from worrying about matters, which shows how much of an impact Lady Macbeth had on him, and how she supported him so much. Macbeth also hears of Fleance's escape, and is more paranoid, Macbeth turns his attention to the banquet. Lady Macbeth tells her husband "My royal lord, you do not give the cheer". She is telling Macbeth to please his people as a good host should. While Macbeth is talking, he sees Banquo's ghost in his seat. His reaction startles his guests so; Lady Macbeth once again makes excuses for her husband. "Sit, worthy friends, my lord is often thus, and hath been from his youth" are words that Lady Macbeth explains Macbeth's actions. The ghost reappears again and Macbeth's outburst causes his guests to wonder. Lady Macbeth then urges the guests to leave. She fears Macbeth will say too much. Lady Macbeth then tells everyone " A kind good night to all". After the banquet, Lady Macbeth is very quiet, she seems tired, and drained, Macbeth says to his wife "I am in blood Stepp'd in so far, that, should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go o'er". Macbeth is admitting that he has had Banquo killed, and he has killed Duncan, and he is saying that there is no turning back. This is the last time that we see Lady Macbeth in control of herself or of events, she seems worn out, and instead of chastising Macbeth, she only comments that he lacks sleep, she says "You lack the season of all natures, sleep". This scene is like a turning point in the play, it is the last time we also see that Macbeth's conscience is troubling him. We haven't seen Lady Macbeth since Act3 and it is now act5, and her mask is revealed, when she sleep walks, she reveals her anxiety and guilt. She reveals her hidden secrets to the gentlewoman, and she then called a doctor to find out why she was having these extraordinary sleep walking dreams. Lady Macbeth speaks, of references concerning Duncan. Lady Macbeth re-inacts the murder scene, she's still loyal to Macbeth, and only in the banquet did she tell him off. She refers to her hand and says "Out damned spot, out I say!". She seems haunted by the guilt. The doctor tells the gentlewoman that she needs divine help, rather than a doctor, and to keep a close eye, on Lady Macbeth. Her madness increases, her guilt becoming overpowering. The words, "what, will these hands ne'er be clean?" expresses this dreadful guilt. Her ramblings makes the doctor aware of what has happened she says "I tell you again, Banquo's buried, he cannot come out on's grave" When she commits suicide Macbeth hears her cry and states "I have almost forgot the taste of fear the time has been, my senses would have cool'd To hear a night-shriek!" This shows us how the roles of Lady Macbeth and her husband have reversed, Macbeth is no longer guilty, where as he was in the first place and Lady Macbeth was the strong one, that supported the relationship, and told Macbeth what to do, but the guilt soon caught up with her and drove her to insanity. Where as it had been Macbeth that had nearly been driven to insanity earlier on in the play, during the time when the death of Banquo occurred. Macbeth, fought through the hard parts of the guilt that were over powering. Throughout the play Lady Macbeth shows a front to all people, she is acting it is all just to cover up the fact of how decieveing and insecure she is. For example when she was playing the "Honour'd hostess", she was deceiving the public, in order to be deceiving, and also when they had the banquet, Lady Macbeth made a cover for Macbeth, just so that nothing would happen to her lifestyle as being Queen. In the end we are shown that Macbeth is really the stronger person, mentally and physically.  

The audience first encounters the character of Lady Macbeth in act1, scene 5, while she is reading the letter sent to her by her husband, in the letter Macbeth describes the meeting with of the three witches, and them predicting the fact that he is going to be 'Thane...

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Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses...Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses in " A View From The Bridge" and how effectively they convey the social context and central themes in the play. In the 1950"s, New York was a diverse cultural "melting pot"; because it was a magnet for immigrants both legitimate and illegal. The myth of "The American Dream" and "The Land Of The Free" had spread all around the world. To the people of those countries hit hardest by the post war recession, such as Italy and Ireland, the stories about America and New York in particular as a place where, if one could only work hard, one would be rewarded with wealth beyond counting, were believed absolutely. Of course, when the immigrants finally arrived at their destination, they often found that the reverse was true and most immigrant communities were extremely poor. At the time within which the play is set, there were great social and cultural changes taking place across the whole of American society. Although World War 2 had ended with America amongst the victors, the Korean War and the threat of global communism made many Americans suspicious of the newest wave of immigrants and conversely, whilst the Americans were experiencing a post war boom, and a freedom to enjoy many luxuries and much more leisure time at this time Hollywood, at least, discovered the concept of "a teenager", a previously unspecified age group; after the austerity of the pre war and war years, as a nation, the fear of communism, a political ideology that works in direct opposition to the capitalism upon which the American economy and therefore it"s wealth, is based which found expression in the witch hunts orchestrated by Senator Macarthy, also led to an upsurge in racism. Racism institutional and otherwise, found it"s expression in the ruthless use of immigrant labour for all the worst paid and unprotected or dirtiest jobs going. It also ensured that the immigrants would be the last people who would be employed before the entire American born men and women. It was into these circumstances that most newly arriving immigrants found themselves. Another cause of potential conflict, between the emerging immigrant communities and the wider "America", was the clash of value systems. The Immigrants often had old-fashioned ideas regarding e.g.: the role of women in society, and the importance of religion etc. The playwright, Arthur Miller, worked in an inner city factory, close to the district of Redhook and it is there that he learned about the Longshoremen, their culture and values, the way they lived and the underlying codes by which they Italian immigrants brought with them from their country of origin, Italy, and more especially Sicily, an Italian Island situated in the Mediterranean, at the foot of Italy all abided. It was here that Miller first heard the stories of the Italian code of honour, and what happens when that code is violated or broken, and he used this information as the basis for his play. "A View from the Bridge" focuses on the plight of the Italian immigrants, living in the mainly Italian community of Redhook, and on one story, that of Eddie and his family. Arthur Miller demonstrates the poverty of this particular Italian Immigrant family, at the beginning of Act 1, in his stage description of the apartment that Eddie, Beatrice and Catherine are living in. The apartment is described as having only three rooms: a kitchen, a bedroom, and a living area. All the drama takes place in the living area and the kitchen and bedroom are not seen. The living area is very bare with little in the way of furniture. The only item which does not fit in is a phonograph, probably the only luxury the family enjoys. The playwright uses the structure of a Greek tragedy, such as those written by Sophocles, Oedipus Rex and Antigone. Originally these plays were only one Act long and women, though sometimes integral to the plot, as a device to move the story along or to shock the audience, they were usually of no major importance. Miller expands the classical role of women, using them so as to include more themes; and also to introduce topical issues of the time, such as the changing status of women in general in the post war period. The post war period found women working on a massive scale; in both industry and in other previously almost totally male preserves, such as banking and finance. The revolution in media technology, with the widespread adoption of television and the emergence of Hollywood as the main player with a global sphere of influence, also impact upon Millers concerns within the play. Miller was married to the actress Marilyn Monroe, a global icon, in 1956, just before writing the play A View from the Bridge. He was also, at this time, subpoenaed to appear before the House un-American Activity Committee, HUAC, the form through which McCarthyism prosecuted various prominent Americans for having in their view, communist sympathies. In "A View From The Bridge", Miller has Beatrice directly challenge Eddie on his sexual conduct: Beatrice: "When am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie?" This interchange shows us that whilst Beatrice is loosing status in the traditional, Italian/Sicilian culture, i.e.: failing to keep her man interested; she is gaining status in the modern era by standing up for herself against her husband, as a thinking feeling person in her own right, with her own needs. Women"s changing role in society isn"t the only theme, which Miller enlarges upon. In the play, Eddie and Marco are the representatives of the old traditional way of thinking, and Catherine and Rodolpho represent the new, modernistic way of thinking and being. Young, dynamic, optimism as opposed to the "blinkered" conservatism of Senator Joe Macarthy and his compatriots of the HUAC.qoute Eddie"s role as the "dinosaur" is further underlined in his attitude to homosexuality: Eddie takes a breath and glances briefly over each shoulder: "The guy ain"t right, Mr Alfieri. The action of glancing over his shoulder is proof that such unacceptable behaviour as homosexuality according to the old code or old world order cannot even be talked about openly, and yet in a Greek society, when the referred o tragedies were written, it was an acceptable, even welcomed way of life. Of course, there is a reference here again to the witch-hunt of McCarthyism in that communists were also referred to as "pinko"s" which is another slang term for homosexuals. The conflicts between Eddie, old world and Catherine, new, are further complicated by Eddie"s almost incestuous infatuation with his niece, e.g.: Eddie: "I don"t see you no more. I come home you"re runnin" around someplace - " An infatuation that Beatrice picks up on e.g.: Beatrice: Look he"ll say anything"¦If it was a prince came here for you it would be no different"¦but you"re a grown woman and you"re in the same house with grown man"¦I told him the same thing already." Here is the basis for the Greek tragedy theme, but it also underlines Millers determination to assert that not everything traditional is necessarily wrong, incest will always be a pre-cursor for tragedy, just as not everything in the new world is necessarily right, the break up of families due to separation, financial or cultural. This could be a plea for America itself to move forward from inward thinking reactions towards modernism and liberalism but not to take things too far and throw the baby out with the bath water, so to speak. Marco another representative of the old world, but a straight and honest man, representing all that is good about the immigrant tradition in America is contrasted both with Eddie, the paranoid jealous, guilty rednecked American and with Rodolpho, the embodiment of the American dream, a liberal hard working, fun loving modern breath of fresh air i.e.: Marco: "If we can stay here a few months"¦Because I could send them his family a little more.." Rodolpho: "Me? Yes, forever! Me, I want to be an American"¦I will buy a motorcycle." Marco: "He dreams, he dreams". In some ways Rodolpho"s ambition is similar to Eddies ambitions for Catherine, for her to get a good job, a nice house a stable and prosperous life e.g.: Eddie: "What job? She"s gonna finish school". But Eddie and Miller also realises that the myth "Everybody could be president" is unrealistic as shown in Arthur Millers play "Death Of A Salesman" Rodolpho as well as the enthusiasm of the young and new also shows the lack of wisdom that experience can bring and Miller shows us this by having him spend all his wages on material things when he knows that his brother Marcos children are starving back in Italy. You can have too much of a good thing and Miller seems to be saying that all capitalism isn't good, just as maybe all communism isn"t bad. This comparison could be one of the reasons that Miller was indighted by the HUAC, and eventually convicted of contempt of Congress, for refusing to name names, however this conviction was subsequently overturned by the U.S. court of appeals. In his life Arthur Miller did not break the code of Omerta silence but he has Eddie break the code and shop his immigrant family to the authorities. The telephone box represents the device which breaks the code, another fairly modern piece of technology for the time and perhaps Miller is also saying that the relentless march of technology isn"t without it"s own problems. Today we could cite the controversy over G.M. foods or embryo research as pieces of scientific progress which some feel "are a bridge too far". Alfieri who features through the play as a sort of narrator , fulfilling the function of a Greek chorus, though an unreliable one because he is emotionally involved: Alfieri: "..You won"t have a friend in the world. even the ones who feel the same will despise you"¦put it out of your mind!" Eddies actions in going against not just his culture and his family or traditions but also in breaking mentally at least the unwritten sexual codes ultimately lead to his demise. Did Miller believe that he would die if he broke the code and named names or did he think that the HUAC would have him executed? There is a pervading sense of fear throughout the play, which perhaps reflects how Americans themselves felt at the height of the cold war. Will the world end tomorrow in a nuclear holocaust? Finally, Eddie is damned. He has lost all status in his community, this is represented by Eddie"s preoccupation with loosing his name: Eddie "Wipin" the neighbourhood with my name like a dirty rag!" When Marco comes to get Eddie, he shouts his name three times Peter in the bible denies Jesus three times; when Miller was asked about this he said it "was a desperate attempt to cry out against non existence". Could this be something to do with the pressure that Miller was under at the time. If the HUAC found him guilty he could be black listed and therefore forced into unemployment, his plays unread, unstaged; himself reduced to poverty, his whole "life" lost. Eddie knows he will die but he wants his identity back before he goes. This is a constant theme of the play, the importance of ones status within society. When Eddy is finally dying the setting is very like a Greek tragedy, from the position of the women actors and stage directions to the way all the protagonists are on the stage. In conclusion, this play is about the driving forces behind the history of the period between the end of the World war 2 and the beginning of the new age of technology and the permissive sixties, such as the status of women, race, immigration, change and culture clash, fear of annihilation, fear of loss of public freedom; but there are also echoes throughout the play of Arthur Millers personal life. The name of the play itself "A View From The Bridge" might be the bridge between the old and new cultures; the distance between the Russians and Americans in ideology; the, sometimes huge gulf between men and women, the struggle for the young to tear off the shackles of the old which bind them. The competition between a material physical reality and a more spiritual reality.   

Examine the dramatic techniques Miller uses in " A View From The Bridge" and how effectively they convey the social context and central themes in the play. In the 1950"s, New York was a diverse cultural "melting pot"; because it was a magnet for immigrants both legitimate and illegal....

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The selection we were given... The selection we were given contained the works of only three people. In my opinion though, these were some of the most influential people of their time. This is either because they were rich and famous, or because they brought a sense of stark reality into their poetry and songs. Bruce Springsteen and Bob Dylan are both prolific musicians who are very highly respected and whose views on war helped to influence a generation of people. Adrian Mitchell however, was more of an unknown. He wrote starkly, revealing poetry about the war and his views also helped to turn the tide of American pro-war sympathy. Together, these three men saw the War in an unsavory way. They saw it as an evil and useless act of power and aggression. However, they were part of a minority of people. Luckily, they had status, money, and most of all they had gained the public's trust and respect. Adrian Mitchell responded to the war in a fashion that was as subtle as the war was violent. Mitchell wrote scathing pieces of poetry that often were set to famous tunes and songs. He parodied the war in such a way that it reached everyone. If you heard his poems once, set to music, every time you heard the proper song, you would remember about the little known poet who disputes the war. Mitchell was a very clever man. He subtly got his ideas into the human mind, and he formatted them in such a way that they would be triggered periodically and would remind you of the truth. He very sublimely redirected people's attitudes toward the war. He changed them from pro-war to anti-war. He is a model on how to achieve change without resorting to violence or open demonstrations: simply, by attacking people from within. You cannot hide from your own mind. Once his ideas took root, you were constantly reminded and it sickened you to think that those poor people in Vietnam went through all that shit. Mitchell used a very inventive way to imbed his ideas into the populace's mind. You can almost say that he put a virus in our brains. Mitchell saw the war as nothing more than a senseless show of violence. In "Norman Morrison", he shows very explicitly how the Vietnamese were treated and uses the example of a Quaker as the protagonist. "Norman Morrison set himself on fire outside the Pentagon". The Quaker martyrs himself in front of the Pentagon, the building that is at the center of the war. Quakers are morally opposed to war, so this may not have been the best type of person to use in his poem, as his view of the war is not surprising. However, his actions are incredibly strange and are motivated by a deeply seated need to show his disapproval of the war. The Quaker shows his disdain of the Pentagon's decision to continue the war. Therefore, he does what only a person who is deeply devoted to peace can do. He sacrifices himself in the name of peace. He becomes the first Vietnamese on American soil. "He simply burned away clothes"¦ put on a new skin of flame, and became Vietnamese". He has essentially left behind his American past and he takes on a new identity, Vietnamese. All of Mitchell's other poems are as poignant and meaningful as this one. Although his other poems are not as vivid and lurid in their descriptions of the suffering of the Vietnamese, they assail the mind in different and equally potent ways. Mitchell uses repetition as a way for us to remember what he writes, and so, when we think of Vietnam, an embedded phrase which we have read many times comes back to us. Mitchell uses a psychological manner to get through to us. He does not try to convince that he is right by standing in our faces and shouting. Instead, he enters by the back door of our mind and takes us by surprise. We are left completely unprepared for his hidden message and meaning. Many more conflicts could be solved more easily through this peaceable type of brainwashing. Bob Dylan was another great figure of his time. He was a great influence as a singer and celebrity. Bob Dylan wrote "All Along the Watchtower" and Jimi Hendrix sang it. Hendrix played an active part in the Vietnam War as he was in the 101st airborne division, "The Cavalry". All Along the Watchtower is used to show the true feelings that soldiers had. The soldiers believed that they were being screwed over by the politicians and they connected and bonded with the first line of the song. "There must be some way out of here". All the soldiers felt this. They picked up on this and it helped them feel some hope because, for many of them, there had been no hope. The fact that Hendrix played it though, inspired many of the soldiers out there. Michael Horr was especially pleased with Hendrix's song, so much that he said, "Jimi Hendrix is my main man! He has definitely got his shit together". As a combination, Dylan and Hendrix scored with this song. This showed the world that they did not advocate the war. They were just trying to bring some hope and reassurance to the soldiers out in Vietnam who longed for their motherland. I believe that Dylan played a sort of humanitarian role as he calmed the frustrated soldiers out there by showing them that he too felt their grief and anger at incompetent officials. "No reason to get excited"¦there are many here among us that feel that life is but a joke". Life was a joke because of Generals and Commanding Officers who were in it just for personal gain. They really screwed the American people and soldiers over. In the end, many died because of ineptitude on the big bosses' parts. "But you and I, we've been through that, and this is not our fate". Bruce Springsteen can be unequivocally named as the most misinterpreted man of his time. People and Presidents alike misunderstood his famed song "Born in the USA". His song is one about the tragedy of war. It is not, as Ronald Reagan thought, a patriotic song that commends America. It shows that all those soldiers who survived the war were not treated to a hero's welcome. They were unwanted and despised; after all, they didn't win the war, did they? Springsteen was condemning the way people were picked to go to war. It wasn't free choice. If they had committed a minor crime, they had a choice, jail, or war. It was out of the frying pan and into the fire for all those poor souls. Springsteen shows how the Vietnamese had been dehumanized in the Americans' eyes. They were no longer Vietnamese, they were the "yellow men". After being disenheartened, many of these soldiers were looking forward to coming home. However, nobody wanted them. Springsteen tried to show the whole nation how these men felt. Of course, the fatheads at the top didn't listen to the song, they assumed that it had something nice to say, and they adopted it and used it in a presidential campaign. It must have been so rare back then to criticize your own government's approach to the war. "Had a brother at Khe Sahn"¦there still there, he's all gone". Many soldiers had friends and relatives that fought and died in the war. They may have even fought at Khe Sahn, the bloodiest battle of the war. All these soldiers put their heart and feeble hope into the war. They were welcomed back home as bums. There weren't any jobs for them. They were veterans, but unsuccessful veterans. Nobody wanted anything to do with them. Springsteen was trying to make this abundantly clear to a nation of ingrates. Had they stayed a bit longer, they would have won. So, they shouldn't blame these poor soldiers for failing, they should blame themselves. The fact that Springsteen incorporated this into a song shows how strongly he felt about it. He sent his message out across the radio waves for everyone to hear and to understand. He tried to convince the people in the only way he knew how, by singing. Overall, all these three men had the same views regarding the war. They thought that it was evil and misrepresented. It was unfair to those who fought in it and was hardly a glorious thing to come home from. Mitchell, Dylan, and Springsteen, all tried their best to make a nation understand and see this.   

The selection we were given contained the works of only three people. In my opinion though, these were some of the most influential people of their time. This is either because they were rich and famous, or because they brought a sense of stark reality into their poetry and...

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In this essay I will attempt...In this essay I will attempt to compare and contrast the poem "Meeting at Night" by Robert Browning with "Resolution and Independence" by William Wordsworth. I shall begin by analysing the poems and looking for three similarities and differences, which will make me decide my final conclusion. The simplest similarity that links these two poems is that they are both about nature. Meeting at Night gives the impression of secrecy and darkness that goes together with the night and the morning suggests the revelation which light brings that prevents them getting together. In Resolution and Independence Wordsworth describes the nature more briefly and accurately. The language Wordsworth has used has a great effect on our senses. For example, in the first line 'There was a roaring in the wind all night' Here the use of metaphor 'roaring in the wind' used by Wordsworth relies on our sense of hearing to enable us to experience this image fully. An image however is not necessarily only a visual image; the image can be created by the poet"s use of different senses and qualities. Both of the poems also change from negative to positive. In the first verse of Meeting at Night, Browning emphasizes a man's desperate and brave quest for romantic pleasure, which is prevented with obstacles and doubt. Also in the poem "Meeting At Night," a powerfully romantic mood is built almost entirely by the use of images, which practically involve all of our senses. Only in the language of the third and fourth lines there is a hint of a metaphor used, which describes similarities between waves and living creatures: 'And startled little waves that leap In fiery ringlets from their sleep,' The use of personification that gives personal qualities to the waves builds on the emotional description of nature and makes us more involved in the poem. It also helps us to relate to the description very easily. In Resolution and Independence, we are given a scene of the countryside that was stormy the previous night, but has cleared up through the morning and now proves to be a cheerful day. Both poems use traditional poetic techniques well. In Meeting at Night, Browning uses alliteration in the line, 'Then a mile of warm, sea "“ scented beach;' The use of alliteration is used to create specific sound effects. For example, the repetition of the 's' sound echoes as being read which will improve the emotional effect the poet is trying to achieve. By describing it to us using alliteration, the poet helps us hear as well as picture the scene he wishes to create. Personally this technique made me draw more attention to particular words. In Resolution and Independence in the language of the fifth line there is a hint of assonance used, 'Over his own sweet voice the Stock "“ dove broods;' The assonance is in the repetition of the "o" sound it is long and lasting and it also creates a brilliant effect by occurring in the slow and deliberate part of the poem. Resolution and Independence also uses iambic pentameter which is an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one more thoughtfully than Meeting at Night e.g. 'There was a roaring in the wind all night' The underlined words are all stressed syllables, which make the poem easy to understand and it also results in a clear structure. On the other hand these two poems have variety of differences. Meeting at Night has detailed narrative structure with a beginning, middle and end, but Resolution and Independence has little narrative structure but is more descriptive and accurate. The structure of Meeting at Night is clear and an important contributor to the overall effect it has on us. The way Browning slowly builds up the tension throughout the poem helps us create a feeling of real excitement and mystery. In the poem the narrative structure is revealed through a series of images and ideas, which gradually develop the feeling and the meaning. Personally Meeting at Night has engaged me to read on to find out what happens next. It also creates suspense and tension by moving from negative to positive. The metre gives us meaning far more clearly and thoughtfully in Resolution and Independence. For example, in line 1, 'There was a roaring in the wind all night' The image is wild, rough and casual. But as the story gradually develops the image starts to appear normal. Usually syllables that rhyme are stressed e.g. night"“bright, floods"“ woods. Boring or common syllables are rarely stressed e.g. was, a, in etc. The thoughtful use of Iambic pentameter in Resolution and Independence makes the poem for us as readers far easier and straightforward. Wordsworth's use of imagery makes us relate this poem to the environment we are living in, which makes this poem more realistic and true. Resolution and Independence also involves animals, unlike Meeting at Night, which is more about human beings and their struggles. Personally, I believe Wordsworth highlights the needs and struggles of animals and not just humans. Also there is the use of onomatopoeia in Resolution and Independence; 'roaring' a word that imitates natural sound, so that sound reflects sense making the poem more exciting. In Meeting at Night Browning takes advantage of poetic techniques such as onomatopoeia and repeats this technique repeatedly throughout the poem which creates a desired effect. I personally believe the two poets are using different approaches to express the same emotion, which are the passion, feeling and love of nature. They also use similar ideas and images but far more differently. Both of these poets have chosen their words carefully, each word is there for a purpose. Both of these poems contain words that have their own special pleasant sounds for example 'slushy' and 'roaring'. I think the easiest way a poet can create a brilliant image is through the use of metaphor, simile and personification. Effective imagery almost etches itself on our mind as readers and can be a very persuasive, acting to engage us strongly in the writing.   

In this essay I will attempt to compare and contrast the poem "Meeting at Night" by Robert Browning with "Resolution and Independence" by William Wordsworth. I shall begin by analysing the poems and looking for three similarities and differences, which will make me decide my final conclusion. The simplest...

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