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War poem comparison
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Instructions: Analyse the poems "France" and "dulce et decorum est" Compare the meanings, themes, attitudes, format and language of the two poems bringing out the similarities and differences between the two poems. Use quotations to support your answers. These two poems were both written in the First World War but at very different times as the mood of the poems change dramatically. E.g. "France" was written in the very early stages of the war where the mood was very optimistic and victorious. "Dulce" was written by a poet that experienced what actually happened in the later stages of...
the war and therefore have different attitudes towards it. Also the last line of each poem has an effect on the whole poem, in "France", "Voices of victory and delight" meaning that it is a privilege to fight, die, and win the war for your country, whereas in "Dulce", "The old lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori", meaning, it is sweet and fitting to for ones country. To me, they both end with almost the same line, with the same approach, very ironic and deep, from the heart.

"Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori"

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'The Landlady' is a short story...'The Landlady' is a short story by Roald Dahl. It is about a naive young businessman who goes to stay in a bed and breakfast. The man knows little about the landlady's desire to poison and stuff him. 'The Red Room' is also a short story about an ordinary man who goes to a spooky castle to resolve his curiosity and find out about a ghost. He later discovers that there is no ghost within the Red Room, but only fear, which turns out to be much worse than he ever expected. 'The Red Room' is written in a typically Gothic style, due to it being written in 1896. H.G. Wells typifies the story with a setting of an old, isolated castle with very Gothic-like features, "along the passage"¦come to a door and through that is a spiral staircase". Within the castle there are numerous old mysterious characters that appear to quite senile and odd. The story ends with a situation of terror and violence, which is also a typical Gothic tradition in stories from this period, "a heavy blow at last upon my forehead, a horrible sensation of falling that lasted an age". 'The Landlady' in contrast, was written in 1960.One suggestion of this date, is Billy Weaver's train journey in the first paragraph. Another is the clothes that Billy wears, typical for that period of time, "He was wearing a new navy-blue overcoat, a new brown trilby hat, and a new brown suit". In 'The Red Room', the narrative viewpoint is from the first person in this case, the man who goes to visit the castle is telling the story. This has a great effect on the reader, as it makes him/her feel much closer to the action and gives a feeling of loneliness, which is crucial to the story. 'The Landlady' has an omniscient narrator. This makes the reader feel much more as though they are having a story told to them and not actually there at the scene. This also has advantages, in the way that it allows the narrator to pick out Billy's naive actions and comment on them. However, if it were a first person narrative this would not be possible. The bed and breakfast in 'The Landlady' is a very cosy little house, with nice furniture and a warm atmosphere, "On the carpet in front of the fire, a pretty little dachshund was curled up asleep"¦the room was filled with pleasant furniture"¦a big sofa and several plump armchairs". The author uses a small dog in this particular "curled up asleep" state, to show the cosiness and peacefulness of the bed and breakfast. 'The Red Room is set in Lorraine Castle, a very old, spooky and mysterious castle. The castle is full of cold, dark, candle-lit passageways, "the candle was well alight, and then I shut them in and walked down the chilly, echoing passage". The fact that it is an "echoing passage", adds suspense to the story, as fear is often associated with hearing voices and echoes pick up small sounds and amplify them greatly. The castle is candle-lit; this is another typical Gothic feature of the castle. Candles are often an unreliable source of light, therefore representing potential darkness. The red room itself also has a dark feel, "large shadowy room, with its shadowy window bays". Shadows are also typically Gothic. This quote adds suspense to the story, because it makes the reader wonder what is inside the room as the darkness gives a sense of mystery. The landlady's first appearance gives the reader an impression of a very nice, but slightly odd person, "It's all ready for you, my dear". The landlady answers this to Billy's inquiry about a room to stay in. The landlady's politeness is effective in putting her across as a very nice person, but in contrary, the fact that she is expecting him makes her seem very odd and unusual. Billy's naivety causes him to mistake the landlady's oddness for kindness, it is easy to see how she could be perceived as a nice normal lady, but some things that she says are very out of the ordinary, "I stuff all my little pets myself when they pass away". Billy's failure to realise the landlady's oddness creates suspense, as the reader can see clearly that something is not right, but Billy just sees the landlady as a very nice person. The writer has maintained the three old people's anonymity throughout the story, in order to create a sense of mystery about the characters, "the man with the withered arm" and "the old lady". The old people's actions are very slow and deliberate, "she swayed her head slowly from side to side". This makes the old people seem wise and knowledgeable about the situation, as they never have a second opinion and seem sure about what they are saying; the "man with the withered arm" repeats, "It's your own choosing four times on the opening page. "The Red Room" was written in 1896. An example of its old fashioned language is the use of word inversions, "Eight-and-twenty". "The Landlady" was written in 1960, and when the same number is used in this story it is said "twenty-eight", which is evidence of its much more modern style. Another example is the long Latinate sentences used in the story, "He supported himself by a single crutch, his eyes were covered by a shade, and his lower lip, half averted, hung pale and pink from his decaying yellow teeth". A lot of commas are used to break the sentence up. The long sentences allow the writer to add a lot of detail and description to the point he is putting across. The story's old-fashioned style is obviously due to the date when it was written. I think the writer expanded on the long Latinate sentences and some of the old-fashioned words to add Gothic effect to the story. In contrast, "The Landlady" is written in a much more modern style, again due to its date; the sentences are generally a lot shorter, "He had never been to Bath before". Although the story is fairly modern, it is not completely up to date. Evidence of it being written in the 1960s is Billy's clothes, "a new brown trilby hat". Trilby hats were typical for that period. Roald Dahl uses the "trilby hat" near the beginning of the story to give the reader an idea of the period the story is set in. Similes are used in "The Landlady" to create a slightly edgy and wary atmosphere, "His skin was just like a baby's". When the landlady compares one of her previous visitor's skin to this, it causes the reader to wonder why she would have been touching her visitor's skin. The writer also used similes to illustrate the landlady's actions and personality, "this dame was like a jack-in-the-box". Dahl compares the landlady to a "jack-in-the-box", as jack-in-the-boxes are sometimes scarily instantaneous, as was the landlady when she answered the door, "It made him jump". Roald Dahl uses metaphors in the story, "it isn't very often I have the pleasure of taking a visitor into my little nest". He builds up apprehension and suspense in the reader's mind by using this metaphor. For example, when the landlady describes her house as a "little nest" it makes the reader wonder what part Billy is going to play in the landlady's "nest"; will he be the prey or the Landlady's cared for baby? In "The Red Room", H.G Wells personifies the shadows to emphasise the feeling that the man is not alone in the Red Room, "my candle flared and made the shadows cower and quiver". The fact that the shadows "cower" and "quiver" shows just how strongly the feeling of fear surrounds the room, as even inanimate things are scared and trembling to the narrator. The writer also uses metaphors to put a feeling of life in objects, "My candle was a little tongue of flame". This helps to create an ethereal atmosphere. He goes on to say, "it left an ocean of mystery and suggestion beyond its island of light". This suggests that the candle is the only thing that can be seen in the room and the surrounding darkness is left unfamiliar and deep like an "ocean". The strange characters in both stories cause the reader to ask questions in their mind about what influence they will have on the outcome of the story. The description of the characters builds up nervousness and suspense in the reader's mind. Throughout "The Red Room", the atmosphere of the castle gradually builds up suspense. The author uses a combination of shadows, candles and spooky corridors in the castle to create a suspenseful atmosphere. In the Bed and Breakfast in "The Landlady", there are numerous clues that build up suspense. The stuffed animals, the fantastically cheap Bed and Breakfast and the guest-book which had mysteriously only been signed by Mr Mulholland and Mr Temple. The structures of the stories are obviously main suspense factors. In the "The Landlady" the author brings the story to a climax by using Billy's inability to recall where he heard the names Mulholland and Temple before. The reader knows that these two men have been murdered, kidnapped or something similar, as the landlady is trying to disrupt Billy's thoughts by asking him questions, "Milk?" and "sugar?". The reader is urging Billy to remember so he doesn't drink the poisoned tea and realises the landlady is trying to murder him. The structure of "The Red Room" is similar, in the way that it is brought to a climax when the man is in the Red Room. The candles start to go out one by one, which gradually builds up suspense, and then suddenly the climax is reached when the man screams. In my opinion, "The Landlady" is the most suspenseful out of the two stories. "The Red Room" is quite predictable in its outcome, because at the beginning of the story there are so many clues that it is going to be a supernatural story, "It will take a very tangible ghost to frighten me" and "spiritual terrors". Also, the myths surrounding the Red Room at the beginning of the story are a sign of the slightly paranormal ending. On the other hand, "The Landlady" does not give many clues as to the outcome of the story and all is kept undisclosed until very late on. This has a very suspenseful effect, as the reader is left guessing upon the conclusion.  

'The Landlady' is a short story by Roald Dahl. It is about a naive young businessman who goes to stay in a bed and breakfast. The man knows little about the landlady's desire to poison and stuff him. 'The Red Room' is also a short story about an ordinary man...

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Dulce Et Decorum est, written... Dulce Et Decorum est, written by Wilfred Owen is a very realistic and brutal poem about the First World War. In his poem he describes the terrible conditions of which many Soldiers had to live, fight and for many soldiers die in. This contrasts greatly with the poem The Soldier written by Rupert Brooke. The Soldier is a very passionate patriotic poem about The First World War. The Soldier was written at the beginning of The First World War, whilst the whole Country was full with enthusiasm and with a patriotic feel. Although Rupert Brooke wrote about the War, he himself never made it there as he died on the journey there. This again may be another reason for his enthusiasm, as he had never experienced the grim and harsh reality of War. Dulce Et Decorum est was written towards the very end of the War, where most of the Country was tired and bitter of fighting. Wilfred Owen, the writer of Dulce Et Decorum est, had fought in the War and had experienced the horrific conditions of War. This is maybe the reason he decided to use the highly ironic title Dulce Et Decorum Est, which is a famous line created by the well-known academic Horace. It means it is sweet and fitting to fight for your country. This has a great contrast to the poems tone and content. The content of both of these poems has great relevance to the First World War. The Soldier has great means of pride, patriotism and religious content: "In hearts at peace, under an English heaven". By concentrating on these elements, Rupert Brooke creates a very different poem to Dulce Et Decorum est. In the first stanza he writes of how if he were to die in war, a corner of a foreign field will be "for ever England." This is very patoratic as it shows the reader, that he has no fear. He follows by decribing England as a beautiful land full of freedom, "Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam." This again is very patoratic as it shows the readers,potential soldiers, that England is something worth fighting for. He starts his next stanza by describing his own psyical and mental fight for his country, "And think, this heart, all evil shed away." This shows how he is not jut fighting for his Country he is also fighting a mental battle within himself. He follows by describing himself as a "pulse in the eternal mind." Which shows he is well aware he is only a very small piece of a large plan.It could also mean he is in pulse with God and that he believes God is backing them.This gives the reader great confidence as it shows that if God is backing them they must be in the right and therefore they will win.He then finishes the poem by using strong passionate personification to describe England, "Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day."This is another form of patronism as it gives the reader great pride for England. In Wilfred Owen's poem his point of view on the War is very different. He writes about treacherous events vividly which causes very clear images: "Gas! Gas"¦yelling out and stumbling". This vivid explanation causes a very clear disturbing picture, which makes the reader think of those who fought for their Country and those who died doing it. This therefore sends the reader a very different view of war. He starts Dulce Et Decorum est by describing the shocking state of which all soldiers were in and the horrific condition which they lived and fought in, "Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge." He then describes a vivid gas attack by using strong description and imagary, "Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! "“ An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling, And flound"ring like a man in fire or lime." This is very penetrating as the strong imagary make you imagine the shocking conditions and the sudden attack. This therefore makes the prospect of the war a reality. His last stanza starts by describing the attack effect of the gas attack, "His hanging face, like a devil"s sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs." This is very frightening for the reader as you can vividly imagine it. It would also be frightening if you had family or friends in the war as it is very easy to imagine the horrific death happening to one of them. In the final stanza, Owen enforces that, should readers see what he has seen, the government would cease to send young men to war, all the while instilling visions of glory in their heads. No longer would they tell them the old lie, "Dulce Et Decorum est." The language used in The Soldier has many different descriptive techniques. Rupert Brooke decides to use personification to describe England: "Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day". This effect echances the certain theme of patronism around the poem, this is because the reader thinks of England as a woman and therefore something worth fighting for. He also uses a few examples of alliteration which is very promanent in old English poems. Alliterations has a gratifying effect on the sound, which gives a reinforcement to stresses, and can also serve as a subtle connection or emphasis of key words in a line, "And laughter, learnt of friends; and geltleness". Dulce et Decorum est also includes very clever and effective descriptive words which creates imminant images. He uses imagery in his poem so he is albe to create a picture in the readers mind which is needed to feel the full force of the poem "Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge." He also uses repetition, which is very effective and therefore creates a certain feel for the poem, "Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!" The tone of The Soldier is very different to the one of Dulce et Decorum as it has very different content. The Soldier has a very uplifting tone this is acheived by using patroatic and romantic content. It is also very optimistic as it ideailized England, this is very unrealistic. On the other hand the tone of Dulce et decorum est is very realistic as is it shows the true, depressing facts of war. Both of the poems impact the reader greatly as they are both written about the same topic,War.The Soldiers impacts the reader by showing a patoratic romantic view of the war. This impacts the reader as it shows great courage and the strong proud atmosphere which was drilled into everyone.On the other hand Dulce Et Decorum Est was written towards the very end of the War and impacts the reader by describing the horrific death of a soldier after being attacked by a gas bomb.This impacts the reader greatly as Wilfred Owen uses many strong language tecniques to create a vivid image. Although both poems are very much about World War One, they are both very different. The Soldier was written during the beggining of the war when the whole country was full with patronism and belief. This is the reason for its upbeat tone and optimism. It is full with religious and patroatic content which is created using strong personiication and descriptions.Dulce Et Decorum est was written towards the end of the War,this is the reason for its very harsh realistic view on the war. Wilfred Owen writes about the shocking conditions and how a fellow soldier died whilst he stood their helpless. He uses strong imagary to create vivid images in the readers mind.   

Dulce Et Decorum est, written by Wilfred Owen is a very realistic and brutal poem about the First World War. In his poem he describes the terrible conditions of which many Soldiers had to live, fight and for many soldiers die in. This contrasts greatly with the poem The...

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Charles Dickens was born in... Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe. At the age of twelve Dickens was taken out of school in London, and put to work in a filthy warehouse where he had to stick labels on bottles of boot-black. He was uprooted at the warehouse and was utterly lonely as his father, mother and five siblings were placed in a debtors' prison where John Charles Charles Dickens father worked as a clerk. Dickens suppressed this episode for much of his adult life, acknowledging it only in his fiction. It is revisited too, in Great Expectations, when the "stupid, clumsy labouring boy" Pip goes to London to escape the indignities of the smithy work, only to find himself increasingly implicated in substrate of crime and deprivation, which seem to make his London experience an extended symbolic brooding on the taint first encountered by Dickens himself in the Blacking Warehouse. The setting of Great Expectations is during Victorian England. This is a very important time when many changes were happening in society. The Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th centuries greatly transformed society and the work ethics. This novel is also, to a certain extent, an autobiography of Charles Dickens' life. Great Expectations was certainly one of Charles Dickens greatest critical and popular successes. The story is told as a first person narrative with the main character, Pip, explaining his life and times. Great Expectations is both an absorbing mystery as well as a morality tale. It centers around the story of "Pip" Phillip Pirrip. Pip is a man that all through his young life tries to better himself because he is ashamed of who he is, and where he came from. When fortune falls in his lap, Pip is forced to realize that money does not make you happy, and that it cannot buy what he wants most, Estella's love. Pip is a poor village boy, his expectations of wealth, and his development through life after an early meeting with the escaped convict Magwich, who he treats kindly despite his fear. Pip's unpleasant sister and her humorous and friendly blacksmith husband, Joe, bring him up. Young Pip is then introduced to Miss Havisham, a now aging woman who has given up on life after being jilted at the altar, and also meets her adopted daughter Estella. Estella is a beautiful girl but seems an empty shell of a person. Cruelly, Miss Havisham has brought up Estella to revenge her own pain and so as Pip falls in love with her she is made to torture him in romance. Aspiring to be a gentleman despite his humble beginnings, Pip seems to achieve the impossible by receiving a fund of wealth from an unknown source and being sent to London with a lawyer, Jaggers. He is employed but eventually loses everything and his love, Estella, marries another. Pip soon learns that his benefactor is Magwich and his future existence is based upon outgrowing the great expectations and returning to Joe. Eventually Pip is reunited with Estella. In Great Expectations, Dickens is interested in what it means to be a gentleman. He explores this theme through three characters, Pip, Joe and Magwich. All three characters are not of a high social position. The social classes in England at this time were immensely divided between the upper class and the working class, which is what Pip, Joe and Magwich belonged to. Joe and Pip lived in the bustling and dirty city of London rather than the calm and scarcely populated countryside. The novel also clearly shows the strict rules and expectations that governed people in the different classes, especially the higher classes. People from the working class were not supposed to mix with people of the higher classes and the rules they had to live by were strict. Pip is the main character and also the narrator of the story. The very first time we see Pip he is a very small boy and he is in a graveyard. He tells us that he is looking at the graves of his mother, father, brothers and sisters. He goes on to indicate that he never even saw them but forms his impressions of them from their gravestones. Pip is then approached by an escaped convict, Magwich, and is very frightened by this encounter. Dickens describes this fear very accurately. Pip risks his own punishment by stealing food and equipment to help the convict, however, Pip also tells Magwich that he hopes he enjoys the food. This shows signs of kindness and generosity which are both gentlemanly traits. Pip"s life at home is far from ideal. It is Christmas Eve but the only way Pip appears to observe this is by stirring the pudding all evening until his arm aches. His sister continuously threatens him and Joe with her stick and with tar-water. Pip belongs to a home of very low social class shown by the dialect and lack of education in his home. By the end of Chapter 7, Pip is about to be dragged off to play at Miss Havisham"s. When arriving at Miss Havisham's Satis House Pip meets a young girl who turns out to be Estella, Miss Havisham's adopted daughter. Pip sees her and instantly falls in love with her looks, however later on when talks to Estella he learns that Estella's personality is not as pretty as her looks, and that infact she is a cold "“ hearted young girl. Pip is then introduced to Miss Havisham, who asks him what he thinks of Estella. Pip protects Estella's feelings by whispering into Miss Havisham's ear as to what he really thinks of Estella, this is another gentlemanly trait, this shows Pip's etiquette. Pip shows gentlemanly traits further on in the story when he is much older. Pip helps Magwich escape from London and tells Magwich that he is going to go with him. However, Magwich and Pip get caught and Magwich ends up being locked up in jail and is sentenced to death. Pip show a gentlemanly trait throughout all of this episode and stays with Magwich till his end. Another character which shows signs of being a true gentleman is Joe, who shows various different gentlemanly traits throughout the story. Joe Gargery is married to Pip's sister, Mrs Joe, making him Pip's brother-in-law. However, due to the age difference between them and the fact that Pip is an orphan, Joe is more like a father to Pip, and calls him his own son, which shows that he is genuinely fond of Pip. Pip describes Joe as "a mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish, dear fellow". Pip sister treats Joe almost as badly as she treats Pip himself and Pip claims that he treats Joe as a "larger species of child" and as no more than Pip's equal. However, Joe's care and concern for Pip shows the importance of their relationship during Pip's unhappy childhood. Apart from his strong relationship with Pip, Joe leads an unhappy life as a poor blacksmith who repeatedly gets threatened by his wife, Mrs Joe. Mrs Joe is a tyrannical sister and mother figure, Mrs. Joe raised Pip from the time his parents died when he was a baby until her accident. Abusive and prone to rampages of her temper, she appeared in the beginning to be an almost uncaring but authoritative figure. Being the good hearted man Joe is, he would never hit back at his wife and always tries to protect Pip from her, this is a gentlemanly trait. Joe also stands up for his abusing wife when Orlick is rude to her. When Joe learns that Pip helped the convict, Magwich, by giving him some food and equipment, Joe say that he would not want to see the convict starve, rather than lose his temper with Pip. When Pip gets an apprenticeship and goes to London, Joe goes to visit him. Joe wears his Sunday best, however uncomfortable, just so he doesn't let Pip down. When Joe meets Pip he calls him "Mr Pip", even though Pip is younger than him, he does this to show respect. He also wears his Sunday best when he goes to see Miss Havisham. Further on in the story, Joe helps Pip by paying his debts with the savings he was going to use to marry Biddy. He also cares for Pip when he becomes ill, even though Pip has not been good to him. The third character to show gentlemanly traits is Magwich. A convict and Pip's benefactor, at different times in the story Magwich is both villain and hero. After the loss of his daughter, Magwich develops affection for the young boy who brings him food, brandy, and a file. Wanting the boy to be all he couldn't be, he devotes his life to making money and giving it to the boy to be a gentleman. Magwich risks his own life so he can see Pip. Magwich shows gentlemanly traits through various different parts throughout the story. When Pip brings Magwich some food and equipment, Magwich thanks him. Magwich works hard and lives a rough life so that he can save enough money to make Pip a gentleman. Also, Magwich doesn't blame Pip when his escape goes wrong, towards the end of the story.   

Charles Dickens was born in 1812, he lived during a time of great social change in Europe. At the age of twelve Dickens was taken out of school in London, and put to work in a filthy warehouse where he had to stick labels on bottles of boot-black. He...

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