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Topic: Hunting with Dogs Running for your life, but yet knowing deep inside you that you're going to be ripped limb from limb. The last thing you hear is your screams for help and the sound of cheering by a group of humans. The last thing you see is your killer's face covered in your blood. Some people call this morally wrong act of cruelty a 'sport'. It is turning into a more common 'sport' around the country and it needs to stop"¦not for the distant future, but NOW! Reports and tests show that 96.9% of animals hunted and then killed by dogs die a slow painful death due to their atrocious injuries. The other 3.1% of animals killed by dogs die from exhaustion and die more quickly from its injuries. Either way the hunted animal dies from the effects of being hunted. Surely this has to stop? "Why" do you say? Well 'why' do hunting packs only hunt foxes, deer's, hares and minks? I'll tell you why, its because these animals don't defend themselves against the hounds. They aren't strong enough to attack back. They just run, run as far as they can go, until the hounds catch up and kill them. Easy targets. More animals hunted in one go. Quick and 'effective' games. If this isn't cruelty to animals, then I don't know and can't see, what is! RSPCA, CPHA and LACS are the most highly praised organisations that try to prevent these hunting games from carrying on. They try to their highest ability to try and ban hunting with dogs, but sadly the government and the House of Lords are too strong and believe this morally wrong blood sport is perfectly 'normal'. They say the sport can go ahead because it keeps control over the numbers of Foxes, Deer's, Hares and Minks. However, studies show that the number of those animals doesn't need controlling and could decrease at alarming rates in the near future. If they thought this sport helps keep control and that it's the only way, well they're wrong! Scientists show that the only rightful way to keep control over the numbers of animals is not to hunt them with dogs but to shoot them with a type of tranquilliser which would cause the animal to die a quiet, non painful death. This is kind to the animal without the outrage of a bloodthirsty dog ripping them limb from limb. Are the government and the House of Lords being stubborn? Scared to face up to the situation and the blood sports team members? Among the supporters of hunting there is a fear that if it is banned there will be a severe shortage of jobs in rural areas. However I feel that this argument does not stand up in today's modern world with its very low overall unemployment rates. In addition to this the rapid increase in opportunities for working at home coupled with the advances in computer technology and the associated training courses available make it easier to replace any lost jobs. "Hunting is natural. Humans have been hunting since the moment we were created, so why stop now?" says Mr Robert Burns, a farmer from Somerset. Everybody aggress initially we were barbaric in nature but surely we're suppose to have progressively become more civilised. Or have we? Picture the scene: You're looking for food for your loved one and your 4 children. You hear a noise, which you've heard before, but you carry on hunting for food for your family. Then suddenly out of the bushes jump 15 hounds, thirsty for blood, your blood. You run until you can run no more; you collapse. Fighting for your breath, you try to get up but before you know it you're being ripped apart. You're dead. Your body is covered in blood and taken away by a human on a horse. Your skin to make clothes. Your flesh to be eaten by your killers. Your bones crushed to mark various items. Your family is left to starve. Your family is dead. But worse the, perpetrators revel in it. The question we need to ask is, who are the real animals, the Foxes, Deer's, Hares and Minks, or US? Let us make positive steps to change this situation by getting the law changed to ban hunting with dogs.
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Topic: Hunting with Dogs Running for your life, but yet knowing deep inside you that you're going to be ripped limb from limb. The last thing you hear is your screams for help and the sound of cheering by a group of humans. The last thing you see is your killer's face covered in your blood. Some people call this morally wrong act of cruelty a 'sport'. It is turning into a more common 'sport' around the country and it needs to stop…not for the distant future, but NOW! Reports and tests show that 96.9% of animals hunted...
know it you're being ripped apart. You're dead. Your body is covered in blood and taken away by a human on a horse. Your skin to make clothes. Your flesh to be eaten by your killers. Your bones crushed to mark various items. Your family is left to starve. Your family is dead. But worse the, perpetrators revel in it.

The question we need to ask is, who are the real animals, the Foxes, Deer's, Hares and Minks, or US? Let us make positive steps to change this situation by getting the law changed to ban hunting with dogs.

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I have been asked to analyse...I have been asked to analyse and compare the way Shakespeare has portrayed the reactions of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to the murder of King Duncan. For this I will be using act 2 scene 2 and act 1 scene 5 as well as quotes from other scenes in the play. I will start with analysis, first of Lady Macbeth. Lady Macbeth has always been cold and calculating in previous scenes. A good example of how Shakespeare portrayed Lady Macbeth's character is in act one scene five. Here I have quoted her speech from this scene - "The raven himself is horse That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan"¦ You shall be what you have been promised. Yet I'm worried about your nature. You are too tender hearted to take short cuts. You want greatness. You are not without ambition. But you lack the ruthlessness that's needed... Come home quickly, so that I can inspire you with my passion. My brave words will overcome the scruples standing between you and the golden circle" Here she talks about Duncan's entrance into Macbeth's castle as being fatal. She then talks about Macbeth's wishes to become king but she also talks about his lack of courage to kill Duncan so that he may rise to the throne. She then tells the audience about how she will attempt to talk Macbeth into murdering Duncan. "Come, you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me from the crown to the toe-top full of direst cruelty! Make thick my blood"' Here she is starting to ask the spirits to take away her feelings of compassion "Unsex me here" she is asking for her womanly qualities or weaknesses to be removed. By this she means feelings of remorse, pity, guilt and compassion. This next part is spoken as though said to Macbeth. "He that's coming serve the thoughts of mortals: rid me of the natural tenderness of my sex, and fill me from head to toe with direst cruelty! Thicken my blood. Make me remorseless, so that no feelings of conscience can alter my foul plans, nor stand in the way of what must be done. Come to my woman's breasts and turn my milk sour, you abettors of murder, wherever you lurk invisible, awaiting evil deeds! Come, dark night, and shroud yourself in the blackest smoke of hell, so that my sharp knife won't see the wound it makes, nor heaven - peeping through the blanket of darkness "“ cry 'Stop! Stop!' Here she is again asking the spirits to remove her softness "Rid me of the natural tenderness of my sex". She repeats the part about shrouding herself in shadows to conceal what she is going to do from heaven. Maybe she is talking about how she will make Macbeth murder Duncan rather than do the deed herself. Another one of Lady Macbeth's speeches which depicts the character Shakespeare intended her to be is from act one, scene seven. "I have given suck, and know how tender 'tis t love the babe that milks me "“ I would while it was smiling in my face Have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums. And dashed the brains out. Had I so sworn to you Have done to this." Here she is comparing her womanliness to her husband's manliness. Shakespeare uses quite shocking imagery in Lady Macbeth's speech here to further depict her ruthlessness. Now I have shown a couple of examples of the character of Lady Macbeth I will continue onto my analysis of the murder scene. Lady Macbeth is nervous, paranoid as she waits for Macbeth to return after she has sent him to perform the murder. "Hark! Peace! It was the owl that shriek'd, the fatal bellman, Which gives the stern'st good-night. He is about it:" She's jumpy. The sound of the owl's hoot scares her. Lady Macbeth is imagining her husband killing Duncan "“ "He is about it". She then hears Macbeth shouting something from outside the room. She is then very afraid. "Alack! I am afraid they have awak'd, And 'tis not done; the attempt and not the deed Confounds us. Hark! I laid their daggers ready; He could not miss 'em. Had he not resembled My father as he slept, I had done't." Here she worries about getting caught. We also see a side of Lady Macbeth which has not been shown before. She is vulnerable, nervous and not at all like her former self. She also shows some emotion "Had he not resembled my father as he slept, I had done't." She could not have performed the awful deed herself as it would have felt like she was murdering her father. When Macbeth enters both she and he are nervous. One word sentences heighten the sense of urgency between them immediately after he enters. Macbeth is obviously not in a stable state of mind. He is wrapped up in his own guilt and is not capable of doing anything. Macbeth heard voices shouting whilst he was killing Duncan. "Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep' "“ the innocent sleep" Macbeth feels his guilt so much more because he killed Duncan whilst he slept and therefore he perceives him as innocent. Macbeth then feels that as he has murdered Duncan, who was innocent as he slept, he can no longer sleep as he can no longer even be considered innocent. Lady Macbeth is very quick to realise that Macbeth is hearing things and is not speaking the truth however much he may think he is. Macbeth talks about how he could not say 'Amen' when the voices he heard talking said 'God Bless Us'. He is saying he could not ask god to bless him when he has just committed such a huge sin. Macbeth's extensive use of religious language is an attempt to show how greatly he feels his guilt. It's as if he knows he is damned for his terrible sin. Lady Macbeth on the other hand simply says "Consider it not so deeply". Macbeth feels his guilt immediately while Lady Macbeth feels nothing in the early days. While Macbeth is too afraid to look upon what sin he has committed again Lady Macbeth returns the daggers which Macbeth has bought back from the murder which were supposed to be left there to frame the guards. Macbeth says; "I'll go no more." This is when Lady Macbeth's hold on his starts to disappear. She can no longer order him around. While Lady Macbeth is offstage Macbeth further considers his heinous act. "Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather The multitudinous seas incarnadine, Making the green one red." Here he is saying that his hands are so stained with Duncan's blood that all the water in the ocean could not wash them clean. He says that his hands have so much blood on them that they would stain the green seawater blood red. He is so overwhelmed with guilt that while he is hearing knocking in the back round that rather than wash his hands to hide his act he stands there and contemplates how bloodstained they are. He has lost his ability to properly function in his mind. Lady Macbeth then returns and mocks her husband's manhood as she has done in many previous scenes. "My hands are of your colour but I shame to wear a heart so white." She then goes on to say; "A little water clears us of this deed." This shows the difference in the ways that Shakespeare has portrayed the ways Lady Macbeth and Macbeth feel their guilt initially. While Macbeth talks about his bloodstained hands turning the sea red Lady Macbeth has no such worries. They both then hear the knocking that Macbeth was hearing during his seas speech and retire to their chamber so they will not be found awake and appear suspect. As the play progresses Macbeth increasingly loses his conscience. He is made king after Duncan's death is discovered. He continues killing as though all feelings of remorse have been removed from his being. He murders Banquo and the thane of Fife's McDuff wife and child. The killing of the woman and child is uncalled for and particularly brutal on Macbeth's part, as it served no purpose. Banquo's ghost revealed himself to Macbeth at a banquet. I think this is a sign of Macbeth's own escalating madness bought on by guilt and fear of being damned. McDuff rebels and goes to England to ask for their assistance is overthrowing Macbeth. While he is gone is while Macbeth murders his family. Lady Macbeth is descending into madness. Act 5, scene 1 is the most obvious example of this. A waiting gentlewoman and a doctor are discussing Lady Macbeth. She then enters, sleepwalking. "Out damned spot! "¦ Yet who would have thought that the old man would have so much blood in him?" She is still seeing the blood of Duncan on her hands. She is haunted by the image of her bloodstained hands, much in the way Macbeth was in act 2, scene 2. "What need we fear who knows it, when none can call our power to account?" Here she is saying how she thought that after the murder of Duncan everything would be okay. She never thought there would be more killings. "Hell is murky! Fie, my lord "“ fie! A soldier, and afeared?" She is thinking about hell. She is now afraid of damnation, as Macbeth was in act 2, scene 2. Earlier she had asked evil spirits to assist her and now she is terrified of hell. She is remembering mocking Macbeth. Maybe now she feels bad for pushing him into the first murder. "The thane of fife had a wife: where is she now? No more o' that, my lord, no more o' that: you mar with all this starting." She is thinking about McDuff's wife. Macbeth no longer talked with Lady Macbeth about his plans after Duncan's murder. She is supposed to be unaware of these murders. She is annoyed at Macbeth for his continued killing and she has realised that she no longer has power over him. It's almost as if she's asking him to stop. "Here's the smell of the blood still: all the perfumes Of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. Oh! Oh! Oh!" Again she is showing how haunted she is by the blood on her hands. This speech is very similar to Macbeth's earlier "Multitudinous seas incarnadine" speech. "Banquo's buried; He cannot come out on 's grave." This is a reference to the earlier ghost scene when Macbeth saw Banquo's ghost at the banquet after he had him killed. Lady Macbeth's descent into madness has taken longer than Macbeth's and her guilt is expressing itself in a much more subconscious way than Macbeth's did. Earlier she talked about a little water clearing them of the guilt but now she is haunted and terrorised by what they did. Lady Macbeth and her husband appear to have switched roles with their expressions of their guilt. While Macbeth appears to feel nothing and continues to murder Lady Macbeth is slowly going mad. Shakespeare tries to evoke feelings of pity in the audience for Lady Macbeth. The words "this little hand" are an example of this. Macbeth expresses his guilt in a conscious, public way, his continued killings are the main sign he has been driven mad by guilt. Lady Macbeth on the other hand shows her guilt in a private way. Her sleepwalking is a subconscious expression of her innermost tormented feelings. This is her sign of madness. Lady Macbeth's madness has also taken longer to manifest itself. Macbeth's guilt was immediate but Lady Macbeth has taken several scenes to show hers. Macbeth spoke about no longer being able to sleep in the murder scene but several scenes later we see it is in fact Lady Macbeth's sleep which is disturbed. This could be Shakespeare trying to show us how Lady Macbeth was a lot more open to suggestions that she ever appeared to be before the murder scene, when she was a very cold, hard woman who used a lot of shocking imagery and was really quite a scary person. Act 5 scene 1 is a performance of Lady Macbeth's guilt. Until this time she had suppressed her feelings. She even asked the spirits to take away her feelings of compassion so she would feel no guilt. It would appear that this had no effect and she feels terrible and that manifests itself in her sleepwalking and talking. Macbeth was originally paralysed by his guilt and was unable to even wash his hands clean of the blood without Lady Macbeth's instructions to do so. Later on Macbeth seems to have taken control to the extent where he is continuing to kill without first talking with Lady Macbeth about it. The blood symbolises the guilt felt by both plotters. Macbeth was earlier scorned by his wife for his guilty feelings. Lady Macbeth's fragmented language in act 5 scene 1 makes her harder to understand than she had been in previous appearances. I believe that Shakespeare is using her language to show her mental breakdown. Macbeth's guilt was shown then suppressed and the opposite is true for Lady Macbeth. As the play continues Lady Macbeth's madness gets to the point where she can no longer live with her guilt and she eventually commits suicide. Macbeth and his allies prepare for battle with McDuff. After Lady Macbeth's death a messenger informs Macbeth that Birnam Wood "“ Malcolm's army is approaching. The battle begins and in the final showdown McDuff kills Macbeth and Malcolm is hailed as the new king. In both the case of Macbeth and the case of Lady Macbeth their guilt eventually killed them but in different ways. While Lady Macbeth was driven mad by her guilt and killed herself, Macbeth went on a killing frenzy from his guilt and was eventually killed by someone who was his friend in the beginning when he went too far. In conclusion, while Macbeth and Lady Macbeth may have shown their reactions to Duncan's murder in totally different ways both of them got their comeuppance eventually.   

I have been asked to analyse and compare the way Shakespeare has portrayed the reactions of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to the murder of King Duncan. For this I will be using act 2 scene 2 and act 1 scene 5 as well as quotes from other scenes in the...

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' The Darkness Out... ' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be more mature and less naïve. Old Mrs Chundle' is a pre-twentieth century tale about a curate who through an encounter with an old woman realises that he did not live up to the good person he had always imagined he had been, and also he feels guilty as a result of his wrong actions. The beginning of 'The Darkness Out There' is a contrast to the title with descriptions of the country and also of the old woman Mrs Rutter. 'Brushing through the grass, polleny summer grass that glinted in the sun.' This is your first impression of the surroundings Sandra travels through and an example of the contrasting descriptions compared to the gloomy title. Sandra has a strong pre-conception of old people being innocent and sweet who deserve to be treated well. 'They were really sweet, the old people.' Her pre-conceptions are down to her innocence of being young and of her naivety too. Sandra's natural assumption is that she assumes she is doing a good job giving up her time for the old people who deserved to be assisted. However as soon as Sandra gets a glimpse of Packer's End the author changes the feeling of the story to dark and gloomy descriptions of the area, 'It was a rank place' for example. This idea of the area given to the readers creates the impression that the 'darkness out there' in this story is Packers End and gives a false illusion or pre-conception that the story is morally and fully based around it. The transition from the pleasant descriptions of the countryside to the of Packer's End is quite blunt with one significant quote 'the light suddenly shutting off the bare wide sky of the field. Packer's End.' This quote is effective because it shows the change in mood and description. It also shows that Packer's End is the darkness out there in Sandra's mind too. You get the impression of Sandra's fear by the comments made like 'she wouldn't go in there for a thousand pounds', which shows you the extent that she would go to in order to avoid approaching it. There are also many descriptions describing Sandra's impressions of fear of the area like ' the greyness you couldn't quite see into the clotted shifting depths of the place.' This quote not only shows Sandra's fears but also describes the 'darkness out there' as if until you look closer you cannot tell what it is. This relates back to the pre-judgemental attitude Sandra has towards Mrs Rutter and Kerry at the start of the story. Sandra is scared of Packer's End because of all the tales that people had told her as a child like the ghostly presence of German aircrew, and recently the story of the girl that was raped and attacked there. Note that after many of the stories are told they end with 'people said'. This suggests that Sandra does not really have an entire mind of her own and that people are influential in her thinking, which is probably why she is still afraid of Packer's End. As a child she was, and still is, afraid of the ghostly place with wolves. But going into her teens it was mainly the Nazi plane and the rape that daunts her because they were more realistic things. Others again influence her on the supposed rape incident too. ' There was this girl, people at school said"¦' This quote gives evidence of her listening to what 'people' told her and she appears to be very gullible, which makes her more naïve of the real life and Packer's End Sandra has an idyllic life as her dream for the future for example travelling to perfect places you can get. 'She would go to places like on travel brochures and run into a blue sea'. As this shows she with other younger people dream of not the real world with financial problems and divorce but a flawless lifestyle where nothing could go wrong. Sandra also dreams of having a perfect home and location and a handsome husband. 'Two children, a boy and a girl. Children with fair and shiny hair like hers and there would be this man"¦' This quote portrays the lifestyle that she would like and shows her assumption that it will happen. However Sandra overlooks any possibility that some of her ideas could become flawed. But on the other hand she does seem to take her future seriously however naïve she may be. Compared to Kerry Stevens' realistic plan for life hers is like a dream because Kerry seems to have his feet firmly on the ground. The writer uses Sandra's ideas of her storybook future to further give evidence of he naivety, and by using comparisons to Kerry's future further shows how much her head appears to be up in the clouds. Kerry Stevens does not make a good impression on Sandra in terms of appearance because he was not the best looking person and the writer shows Sandra's judgemental attitude by her initial opinions of Kerry at a first glance. 'Some people you only have to look at to know they're not up to much.' This quote shows her opinions of not Kerry but also of the way she views other people as well. The way the writer has shown Sandra's judgemental side is to also show a contrast in the story to give evidence of change in her character later on in the story. Sandra has a good view of Mrs Rutter mainly because of the portrayal of the woman being 'really sweet, lots of the old people.' This is her pre-conception before she even sees the old lady. This gives us a good understanding of not only her judging character towards appearances of people but also portrays judgement of personality for the first time also. Sandra thinks that Mrs Rutter is a very nice lady because of her friendly initial welcome to her, which is understandable because not only does the writer make Sandra think this but the reader also, perhaps to deceive us about Mrs Rutter's personality and to make ourselves pre- conceive her character too. 'A creamy smiling pool of a face in which her eyes snapped and darted.' This quote gives the impression of a plump, harmless old woman, which the writer purposely wants us the reader and Sandra to think for the deception that occurs later on in the tale. The writer encourages us, Sandra and Kerry also to feel sympathy towards her because of the fact that she is alone and her husband's death in the war was very tragic. 'He was in one of the first campaigns in Belgium, and he never came back.' The way that Mrs Rutter describes his death creates sympathy naturally and the fact she has been alone for years makes you feel sorry for her further. The writer also creates more sympathy when we learn that she was childless and regrets it because she feels it a loss not to have had any. It is more shocking to learn about what Mrs Rutter did because of the circumstances that her husband died in. You would have thought that considering he was gunned down in the same way as the German that she would have had more sympathy towards the man. However instead of giving him a chance to live, Mrs Rutter's coldness and nastiness allowed him to suffer. At this point we see a change in the story where we the reader, Sandra and Kerry see her in a different perspective to what we initially thought of her apart from Kerry, who had a slight suspicion about of her to begin with. You can at this point refer to another novel, which sends out a particular message about people. In Lord of the Flies written by William Golding the main concept and moral to the story is that whoever we are there is the potential for evil within us all. 'Dot said he wasn't going to last long, good job too, three of them that'll be.' This quote shows how unconcerned they were about an injured man that they could save from death. The writer shows Mrs Rutter's coldness by the way that the old woman narrates her story. Mrs Rutter tells the story in a manner- of- fact way and is not bothered or affected by the events. This makes us disgusted because she does not see how inhumane it was to have done such a thing. 'Tit for tat I said'. This quote gives evidence of Mrs Rutter seeing what they did as revenge or out of bitterness for the German's killing her husband, which may be the motive for her horrific actions. This quote shows us that Mrs Rutter has no feeling of guilt or remorse and by showing us this, the writer makes us feel more horrified of what she and her sister did. 'The boy's spoon clattered to the floor; he did not move.' This quote gives evidence to us of Kerry's stunned reaction to Mrs Rutter in the way that he was so shocked he could not move. He is also sickened by the fact that that Mrs Rutter thinks that it is something normal for a person to do. 'You had this coming to you mate, there's a war on.' 'It was what everyone said in those days.' These quotes show that she thought it was humane and acceptable for anyone to do. She used this expression that people had said to justify her actions, but even though people said this would they have left a helpless man to die? To show that Sandra has changed the writer illustrates the better points of Packer's End to make her realise that it is not a bad place or most importantly 'the darkness out there'. 'Birds sang. There were not, as the girl the girl realised wolves, witches or tigers.' This shows us her realisation that there is nothing to be scared of as she first thought. The writer also by her new view of Packers End shows that she is less naïve of the place and that she has opened her eyes to reality more. Sandra has also grown up in other ways by learning not to pre-judge people as she did with Mrs Rutter and Kerry. She has realised that it is not appearances that matter but what is inside also, with Mrs Rutter perceived as being a sweet woman but revealing to be a cruel hearted and bitter woman. 'You could get people all wrong, she realised with alarm.' This quote gives evidence of her realising how wrong her pre-conceptions have been, and her concern of this shows also that she has grown up because of her recognition of this. The writer also emphasises her changes in character by her recognition also of Kerry Stevens not seeming as bad as he looks. 'He had grown; he had got older and larger. His anger eclipsed his acne"¦' This quote shows Sandra looking at Kerry from a different perspective to the scruffy, dodgy type that she previously thought he was. Sandra overall has discovered that the darkness out there is not Packers End but the cold-heartedness and evil that is present within some people. Referring back to William Golding's point that 'the potential for evil is within us all'; the evil was within the innocent looking Mrs Rutter. As a result of these events and changes in character she has become less naïve about things unlike before, which may change her overall attitudes to life and become more wary of the real world. In 'Old Mrs Chundle' our first real impression of the woman is that she is quite stubborn and a grumpy old lady, and when approached by the Curate she quite unwelcoming. 'A sour look crossed her face'. This quote gives evidence of our initial opinion of her and the writer shows her character to be like this through her actions and expressions rather than through her looks in the 'Darkness out there.' 'I tell 'ee 'tis two pence and no more!' This is an example of this where she seems rude and stubborn through her actions here when talking to the Curate. 'Old Mrs Chundle is a pre-19th century text and is reflected in the language used and the actions of the characters. ' I suppose 'tis the wrong sort, and that ye would sooner have bread and cheese?' This quote shows the different style of language used in the story with 'ye' instead of you and 'tis used instead of it is. Also the actions of the characters in the story reflect the older period when it was written. 'The lunch hour drew on, and he felt hungry. Quite near him was a stone "“built old cottage of respectable and substantial build, he entered and was received by an old woman.' This quote gives evidence of an out of character action in today's society hence showing that this was written pre-19th century. No one today would do that and would instead go to a fast food restaurant or to their own homes for example. There is a contrast in our first impressions that we get of the two old ladies in both stories. Mrs Rutter appears to be a nice, old woman, whilst Mrs Chundle seems to us rather rude. Thomas Hardy has done the same as Penelope Lively in creating a sort of perception for us of a character and then deceives us later in terms of who turns out to be the changed persona and who we pre-conceive. In this case the changed persona is the Curate and our pre-conception is of Mrs Chundle. The Curate seems very shocked at how Mrs Chundle could lie to him and pre-judges her motives for doing this. 'Wicked old woman. What can she think of herself for such deception?' But despite this he still tries to get her to church as a challenge and because its his sort of responsibility. 'I think it was a culpable, unkind thing of you.' This shows the determination of the Curate by confronting her on the matter. Mrs Chundle agrees to attend church firstly because of the trouble that the curate is willing to, with the ear trumpet for her to attend church. After the trumpet failing he comes up with a sound tube system to again enable her to hear the sermon. The writer makes us feel that the Curate is a good man by illustrating the trouble that he went to for Mrs Chundle to attend church. 'At great trouble to himself.' The way that the Curate tries everything to help her, the writer shows that he is quite devoted to helping the woman when no one else has ever attempted to. The writer shows the change in the Curate's character by his ignorance of the old lady in the sermon. He blocks up the tube after her bad smell lingers up the tube towards him. 'Desperately thrusting his thumb into the hole'. This quote shows that the Curate is being very intolerant and has at this point no concern about the old woman, only himself. The Curate is also shown to be self conscious about himself because he has blocked up the pipe probably to avoid further embarrassment towards himself in church. To the Curate's total dismay Mrs Chundle is very overjoyed by her ability to hear clearly. ' I shall come every Sunday morning reg'lar, now, please God.' This shows her new enthusiasm about church, and the writer illustrates this by using strong words in her dialogue for example 'Please God'. After Mrs Chundle attends church regularly the writer shows a transition in the Curate's character. 'I cannot stand this I shall tell her not to come.' This quote shows how rude and inconsiderate he is becoming after his encounters with Mrs Chundle. We also see the Curate setting out to reverse what he had been doing just to stop Mrs Chundle bothering him. He becomes very selfish because he is only considering the consequences of removing the pipe on his part and not hers. For example he simply thinks of no embarrassment at his sermons and no bother, not that the old woman would be unhappy, lonely and not be able to attend something that she enjoys.' I've promised to go and read to her but I shan't go.' The writer also illustrates the Curate to be a very angry man by showing how he puts off a simple task of going to see Mrs Chundle and again does not consider how rude it is towards the old woman. He was described as being 'vexed' about the matter viewing it as an ordeal for himself. He is shown once again by his actions in this story to being a very selfish man and inconsiderate of other people's feelings. The writer builds up the guilt the Curate should feel after Mrs Chundle's death by putting the emphasis on Mrs Chundle's circumstances of death. She became ill partly because perhaps she did not want to let the Curate down after all the trouble that he had went to for her. ' She harried overmuch, and runned up the hill.' 'It upset her heart.' This quote shows the trouble that Mrs Chundle had gone to, to get to church on time so she did not miss the Curate's sermon. The writer also creates the guilt by the way that Mrs Chundle did not assume that he did not come for bad reasons as she said that he was so loyal to her. This creates guilt by the fact that Mrs Chundle thought so well of him. 'You were so staunch and faithful in wishing to do her good.' This quote emphasises how well she thought of him and how loyal she considered the Curate to be, and it also shows that she had no doubt at all that he was being unkind towards her in any way. The writer finally emphasises the point of guilt concerning the will by the words that Mrs Chundle said to the woman as she handed over the will to give to the Curate. 'He's a man in a thousand. He's not ashamed of an old woman"¦' This quote gives evidence that Mrs Chundle considers him very considerate and kind, when told this the Curate must have felt not only guilt but also moved too. This is because of the way that she thought of him so highly. Also the amount of possessions that Mrs Chundle had left the Curate shows a lot. Firstly it made him realise that he was the only friend that she had and did not have much in her life at all. It also shows that he must have meant a lot to her for her to leave him with everything that she owned. 'On opening it he found it to be what she called her will, in which she'd left him her"¦' This quote shows the extent at which she had given him in return for the good ways she had thought that the Curate treated her. The way that Mrs Chundle died and the will for example, are used by the writer to make us assume that the Curate will be guilty, shocked and upset over her death. This is also because of the way that he treated her. However judging by the ending the Curate does not seem very flustered by everything and is very calm apart from a tear in his eye. The writer uses 'like Peter' to compare what the Curate has done with Peter before the death of Christ. The correlation is that they both betrayed Mrs Chundle and Christ, which is effective because Hardy shows the extent of the Curate's unkindness further. 'And as he went his eyes were wet"¦' This quote shows to us that the Curate is moved in some way by what has happened. Although he prays we assume for forgiveness and Mrs Chundle, will he change for the future or does he consider that a prayer of repentance will be good enough and he will no longer feel any more guilt? ' He rose brushed the knees of his trousers, and walked on.' This quote at the end does suggest that now he has prayed for his sins that he can carry on normally, and that the Curate has not really learnt his lesson. At this point we as the reader are expected to be and are very sympathetic towards Mrs Chundle and only contempt towards the Curate. Therefore you can clearly see that again the writer has created a reversal in character feeling, because we liked the Curate at first as he went to all the trouble for Mrs Chundle. However he reversed in to a rude and inconsiderate man. Whereas we initially thought Mrs Chundle was rude but she turned out to be a kind and thoughtful woman. In 'The Darkness Out There' and 'Old Mrs Chundle', both writers have created a good effect of deception where the Sandra and we the reader are surprised in the change in character of Mrs Rutter, Mrs Chundle and the Curate. As a result of the encounters with these two old women, both of the main characters have changed in different ways. During the story the curate changed from being a kind-hearted man to being rude, selfish and ignorant towards Mrs Chundle. The Curate like Sandra was also naïve himself because he could not realise how his bad actions were affecting the old woman. He does change a little because he realises what his duties are as a Curate and in future how far he should take them, like not interfering so much with others. Sandra has changed her view on life by being more realistic about things rather than having her head up in the clouds so much. She is also less naïve about people and has learned not to be so pre-judgemental about people and that looks can be deceiving. The writer shows Sandra's change in character by comparing her views of Packers End before and after she has changed in attitude to emphasise the fact that she has grown up more.   

' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be...

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Arthur Miller was born on... Arthur Miller was born on October 17th, 1915, in New York City. His parents were both immigrants into the United States. The family lived in prosperity due to the success of his father"s clothing manufacturing business, but this soon collapsed along with the American economy as a whole. Miller worked as a warehouse man in order to save up fees so that he was able to attend Michigan University in 1934 to study Economics and History alongside a course of play writing. Miller wrote in the style of Greek tragedy. Miller chose to follow the Greek myths as in his play he had two acts. In the first act the finding of the problem is viewed and in the second act the possible outcomes are predicted. In Greek tragedy there is always a "chorus", a voice which fills in what does not happen on stage; Alfieri was the chorus as he narrated the play. Miller chose Eddie to die as all along in the play Alfieri gave speeches about tragic events about to happen. Alfieri had predicted eddies destiny to be hurtful and eddies ending was death. In Greek tragedy the hero is usually responsible for their own downfall. Eddie chose to ignore Alfieri"s advice and Eddie chose to fight with Marco. Eddie causes his own downfall by preventing Rodolfo and Catherine"s marriage. The play is set in the shadow of Brooklyn Bridge and is about a whole community not only the Carbone family. Miller"s personal and political views are revealed with great clarity and considering the background to "A View from the Bridge" all his thoughts unravel into sharp focus. In this play tragedy is conveyed in several different forms. Many of them disrupting and deceiving. The sense of tragedy conveyed in this play:- envy, love, death, tension, frustration, folk lore, guilt, law,guilt, trust, tradition, culture, betrayal, denial, jealousy, hatred and protectiveness. A view, two links, Alfieri the lawyer has an overview of the whole play. He is aware of the wrongs and rights involved. As he narrates and takes us through the play, he reveals the life of illegal immigrants as they take a new step of life into America. Coming from a Sicilian background they have crossed many bridges i.e. culture, tradition, relationships, folk lore and love. Already Miller has showed us that his parents have crossed these bridges. The question is where to? Reading the play I felt that the main character on the bridge and not knowing which way to turn was Beatrice. She knew that her husband Eddie was in love with her niece Catherine, and Catherine was in love with Rodolpho one of the illegal immigrants. She is on this bridge as there are two endings possible in this huge cliché. Rodolpho a young attractive man with light blond hair or Catherine has a choice of Eddie an old overweight weak man. All along Catherine is has dealt with Edie being overprotective naïve and unfair. The bridge also represents old life and new life. Eddie"s life ends in death as he chose the wrong path. All along he feels that he has the right over Catherine where according to her and the law he does not. His wise and fair lawyer and friend advices him on adapting to the American law and Italian culture; that Catherine has the choice who she will marry and as a husband already even thinking like this was going towards the opposite side of the bridge. Catherine has the choice and chooses to cross the bridge to a brighter future with someone she loves trusts and with whom she can have a wider variety of opportunities and chances. When Alfieri has a personalized conversation with Eddie, he is not only advising him as a friend but through the legal system as well. Eddie was very angry and devastated when he realized that Catherine loved Rodolpho and not him. The hidden love he had for Catherine soon turned into obsessivenes and anger over her freedom. Alfieri states that Eddie "was a good man". It shows that Alfieri understood how Eddie was feeling; his emotions and that Eddie"s thoughts were not functioning in a responsible way. Alfieri introduces himself by saying "to meet a lawyer or a priest on the street is unlucky". This comment came across as negative to me because the use of the word "unlucky". Usually a priest or lawyers are looked up at as means of purity and help. In this case it is bad and negative because the society prefers to run their lives in the way they were brought up, not changing to the American and modern way of life. "¢ "This ones name was Eddie Carbone, a long shore man working at the dock from Brooklyn bridge"¦"¦"¦" "¢ "he was a good man as he had to be in a life that was hard and even" These two comments both have the word "was" in them. They caught my attention as it presumed that the man Alfieri is talking about was alive and is no more in the present or about the past. He knows that Eddie has very little time until a big and major tragedy occurs. He knows that Eddie"s struggles and hard working will end in tragedy. From the beginning Alfieri has a situation and an ending in his head, almost as if he knew all along. Intelligently he tries to warn Eddie through his job and as a close friend. He is aware of the trouble Eddie has and is willing to help him but Eddie"s emotions are uncontrollable," This is my last word, take it or not, that's your business. Morally and legally you have no rights, you cannot stop it; she is a free agent". As Alfieri makes his speeches through the play he gives the reader a deeper insight of what is going on. He explores by going deeper into the story and looks from above on the whole community like his 'view is from a bridge'. Living in Brooklyn and being from a different cultural background and trying to carry on traditions were normal for illegal and legal migrants. In America they could find jobs and homes that would allow them to lead a successful life. The Carbone family was focused on and one thing that was highly present was the concept of respect. In the play Catherine a young girl is provoked by her uncle Eddie who has constantly overlooked her. "you ain"t goin" nowheres" "Eddie, I"m not gonna be a baby any more! You-" Eddie as usual feels that he has the right to stop Catherine from leaving the house. For the first time she stands up to him and he feels a big shock and he is astonished. As it around Christmas time he has had a few drinks and feels tipsy. Miller uses the Christmas theme as it fits in well with the situation. Eddie as the head of the house and family is highly respected. When him and his wife agree to bring in two men from their homeland, a new beginning and end are foreseen here. Catherine"s relationship develops with Rodolfo one of the immigrants, and leads to them wanting to marry. Eddie is distraught and completely disagrees with it. Tunnels are dark and gloomy. When Eddie went to Alfieri, Alfieri sensed his pain and anger, "But I will never forget how dark the room became when he looked at me; his eyes were like tunnels". Being in a tunnel is dark , cold , wet and not sure what you will find , it also leaves you with a sense of not knowing were the tunnel will end. Alfieri was aware of Eddie"s love for Catherine. Alfieri compares Eddie"s eyes with a tunnel as he saw a certain dull and gloomy ending. When Eddie is in trouble he visits Alfieri. Here the conversation proceeds to Alfieri furiously advising Eddie "You have no recourse in the law, Eddie", "There is nothing you can do Eddie, believe me" .Alfieri wants to assist Eddie but as far as the law goes there"s nothing he can do. He can tries to make Eddie believe him. Eddie feels that Catherine is being stolen away from him; he has not realized that Catherine is now a woman. Alfieri sums up his advice by simply telling Eddie "let her go". He complies this in such a way that Eddie knows Alfieri is right but his emotions once again overcome his thinking. "His eyes were like tunnels, my first thought was that he had committed a crime ", stating his thoughts carefully Alfieri shows us the readers that eddies image was pain full. Alfieri felt that he could help, he could see through him, he knew Eddie was going to do wrong he just wanted to help. Further on in the play Alfieri speaks of a mans routine, "a man works, raises his family, goes bowling, eats, gets old and then dies". This sounds tragic, but reading the play I realized that Miller"s use of language is toning and descriptive. Eddie Carbone spent his days, in this manor. Through out the play Alfieri conveys his thoughts which lead to predictions which are precisely accurate. Destiny plays a huge part in this play. At the beginning and end Alfieri makes powerful speeches. He focus"s on the Carbone Family, and through his speeches predicts what will happen in the future. He predicts that Eddies destiny is death an unhappy, dangerous and cruel death. Marco the brother of Rodolpho feels that Eddie has stole from his family and mocked his world. Miller chooses to make Marco angry as Marco was usually the quite one and never complained even when he saw the way Rodolpho was being treated. "He degraded my brother. My blood. He robbed my children, he mocks my work. I work to come here mister!" The tragedy in this is that Marco is heart broken over the disappointment brought to his blood and family. At the opening of the play Alfieri talks about the odds of being a lawyer in America, in a community of Sicilians "behind that suspicious little nod of theirs lie three thousand years of distrust .A lawyer means law, and in Sicily, from where their fathers came, the law has not been a friendly idea"¦." This point of his speech suggested that Sicilian culture and tradition plays a major part in the community. Its shows that what the parents did not and said had an effect on the upbringing of the child, it stays with the person as an honor and discipline. The last t paragraph hit my thoughts with a huge impact. "Now we settle for half". Half is the midpoint of a whole. Eddie could not gain what he wanted to happen fully but he thought by doing what he did he would have achieved something. Alfieri knew that Eddie"s feelings were immense and had warned Eddie to keep them in control. "His death useless" His death had no moral meaning behind it. It was an accident waiting to happen. "He allowed himself to be wholly known and for that I will love him" Alfieri living and working in the community new that Eddie was an open man with everyone. The only thing he hid was his feelings. Miller chooses to let Alfieri give this speech as he as a narrator and lawyer knew both his problems lawfully and morally.   

Arthur Miller was born on October 17th, 1915, in New York City. His parents were both immigrants into the United States. The family lived in prosperity due to the success of his father"s clothing manufacturing business, but this soon collapsed along with the American economy as a whole. Miller...

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