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Shakespeare uses various techniques to create different moods and atmospheres and to reveal the characters. He uses comparisons in characters, the use of language and the use of tension. It is one of the most important scenes as it is where Romeo and Juliet first meet and where we learn the most about main characters. Being an important scene, Shakespeare has made it very tense and entertaining. The scene includes a lot of main key characters and we learn of the differences between the two families. The audience are already looking forward to this scene, as we want to find out about and see Rosaline! We are expecting fun as it is a party and want to know what happens with Juliet and Paris; will she marry marry him when she is of an older and more mature age? Before this scene we found information about various main characters. The audience found out that Romeo was in love with Rosaline at the very beginning and he was love sick and distraught with not seeing her. Romeo had had a dream the night before about a bad thing happening at the Capulet's party. Being Romeo he believed his own thoughts and was nervous about going. We also found out that Juliet, only 13 years of age, was the only daughter of the Capulet's. She has her own 'nurse' to look after her as she is not very mature and relies on other people. Juliet is very distant from the rest of her family and does not get on with them the most majority of the time; she is a lonely child. Capulet wanted Juliet to marry Paris, a rich older man but only when Juliet was older. Capulet is a strong character, he tries to keep the peace between his family and the Montagues, but if the Montagues start a fight first then he will want to carry it on, as he doesn't want to be seen as the loser. Finally Tybalt, he is the nephew to Lady Capulet and despises the Montague's and tries his hardest to start fights with them and will never hear a bad word spoken about him. Immediately before this scene, the atmosphere is very gloomy as Romeo had a dream about a bad thing happening at Capulet's party, this also gets us interested, as we want to find out if he is right and what will happen. At the opening of scene 5 Capulet's servants prepare for his party. The atmosphere is very busy, rushed and fast moving. All of the servants are rushing around preparing for the party. They all talk to each other in short sentences; "You are look'd for, and call'd for, ask'd for"¦" This key line shows the short, snappy words the servants used. 'For' is repeatedly used as they are rushed and just use it as a joining word to get their sentence across before rushing off to prepare more things for the party once more. The apostrophes are repeated in all three words as it shows they are rushed even in their speech; they have to shorten words to say what they wanted quicker; they can't finish sentences and even words! They do not have the time to stand and chat especially under the watchful eye of Capulet; they have too much to do for everything to be ready for when the party begins. Capulet then welcomes guests into the party and tries to get them to dance. The atmosphere is very humorous, as people are all in fancy dress; it is very vibrant, lively and very cheerful as people are having fun. "Welcome Gentlemen, Ladies that have their toes unplagued with corns"¦" Capulet repeats the word 'Welcome', this tells us that he is very pleased that everyone has come and he may have had too much to drink and forgets that he has already said it! Capulet is eager to get the party off to a flying start and he teases all the ladies by telling they are welcome to attend his party if they have nice feet! Capulet adds a jolly atmosphere to the party. Once the party had got going, Romeo arrived and glimpses Juliet for the first time; the atmosphere was very romantic and slow. "What Lady's that which doth enrich the hand"¦" Romeo compares Juliet to jewels, ""¦As a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear-"¦"which shows he thinks very highly of her, he uses "What Lady's that which doth enrich the hand"¦"in describing her as special. He immediately falls in love with her and we see a different side to Romeo, his mood and feelings go from one extreme to the other, as he was totally in love with Rosaline but with one sight of Juliet he is head over heals in love with her, which is very typical of Romeo. The effect on the audience is that we are privileged to share such an intimate moment between Romeo and Juliet. After Romeo and Juliet met, Tybalt overhears Romeo talking about Juliet and was angry that a Montague had come to the Capulet's own party. An argument started between him and Capulet, Tybalt wanted to fight Romeo outside and told one of the servants to go and get his sword but Capulet stopped him and didn't want any fight at his party and told him to leave it. The atmosphere was very tense and violent; Tybalt was very aggressive towards Capulet and anyone who helped try and stop him from fighting. ""¦Fetch me my rapier, boy"¦" This suggests he has no respect for his servants and people around him; he speaks as he is higher up than everyone else and uses the word 'boy' to show his power over them. Tybalt is impulsively violent; he acts first and thinks later, as he tries his hardest to start fights between him and the Montagues. It tells us he really wanted to fight Romeo. Capulet scolds Tybalt and he leaves the party sowing revenge. Tybalt was very angry that Romeo turned up, " He shall be endured"¦" Capulet is asserting his authority, as he wouldn't let him do anything about it. Capulet is being very naïve, as he thinks he has solved the problem. The atmosphere went from being very tense and un-settled to the audience finally having a breath of relief as the tense atmosphere is over. After Tybalt had left, Romeo and Juliet meet for the first time and end up kissing. The atmosphere is very romantic, as if it is slow motion because the camera focuses and continually flicks between Romeo and Juliet. "If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine,"¦" Romeo is very eager to impress, he is pleased that he had got to be with Juliet after wanting to all night. Juliet responds in the same way, she is very flattered and equally eager to impress. Whilst Romeo and Juliet were kissing Juliet's nurse interrupted them, the atmosphere is very rushed and happens very rapidly. Unfortunately, Romeo finds out that Juliet is a Capulet and is disappointed, as he knows he will never be able to be with her with people knowing because of their family differences, ""¦My life is my foe's debt." Romeo does not understand how Juliet could be a Capulet, he was very upset at first, and he was in the hands of his enemy. The audience get anxious because of Romeo finding out she is his foe and the atmosphere gets very apprehensive. The audience feel depressed that Romeo and Juliet cannot be together with their family despising each other even though they know there could be love between them. Finally after Romeo finds out Juliet is a Capulet; vice versa for Juliet; she finds out Romeo is a Montague. The atmosphere is very playful and menacing, as Romeo and Juliet are still hopeful for being with one another from the bad news, as they know they want to be together and do not care about the consequences of being together. They were both very shocked and heartbroken about being enemies but they are not as naïve as their family and can see through differences and see love comparisons. Juliet refers to graves, which is a sign of bad things about to happen; we could interoperate as death! "My grave is like to be my wedding bed." Juliet may be thinking ahead, if she married Romeo her family would disown her and she may as well be dead to them. She also may be thinking if she married Paris, she would be very unhappy. She doesn't want to marry him but she wants to make Capulet and her family happy. She knows she would have a bad life and would think of it as her deathbed! In Act 1 scene 5, he brings across the characteristics and their personalities and uses a lot of tension. Tybalt for example, when the atmosphere got tense because of Romeo being at the party, Tybalt lost his cool and started getting angry, which gives the audience his real personality. Shakespeare creates different moods and reveals different characters because of Act 1 scene 5 is such an important scene. We know about some of the characters personalities but he shows us more, getting the audience looking forward to the scene from the tense build-up from the scene before. He uses the two families to bring across the differences and personalities; this is how he creates different moods; mostly being tense. He reveals different aspects of the main characters.
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Shakespeare uses various techniques to create different moods and atmospheres and to reveal the characters. He uses comparisons in characters, the use of language and the use of tension. It is one of the most important scenes as it is where Romeo and Juliet first meet and where we learn the most about main characters. Being an important scene, Shakespeare has made it very tense and entertaining. The scene includes a lot of main key characters and we learn of the differences between the two families. The audience are already looking forward to this scene,...
the party, Tybalt lost his cool and started getting angry, which gives the audience his real personality.

Shakespeare creates different moods and reveals different characters because of Act 1 scene 5 is such an important scene. We know about some of the characters personalities but he shows us more, getting the audience looking forward to the scene from the tense build-up from the scene before.

He uses the two families to bring across the differences and personalities; this is how he creates different moods; mostly being tense.

He reveals different aspects of the main characters.

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In 1798 a new era... In 1798 a new era began in English poetry called the Romantic age. This age provoked the thinking of new radical ideas and thoughts and the writing of these ideas in poems. The poets included Samuel T Coleridge, Alfred Lord Tennyson and William Wordsworth. Some of their ideas and thoughts include: Rebellion against tyrannical and despotic governments and leaders. These feelings were inspired by the recent French and American revolutions. Strong sense of beauty in the natural world around them. Some romantic poets even took to worshipping nature! Sympathy with poor, humble people. Vivid imaginations. The Romantic poets often made fantastic new ethereal worlds. Interest in ancient legends and traditions. A sense of melancholy and loneliness. They often expressed much vitality and emotion in their works. In this essay I will try to see if the romantic poem I will be examining has these ideas incorporated in it. The two poems I will be looking at are both on war but by different authors, with different ideas about war, in different times. I shall examine 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', by Alfred Lord Tennyson and 'Dulce et Decorum est', by Wilfred Owen. I will compare the two poet's attitudes towards war by examining the context, structure style and language of both poets. The first poem I will be examining is 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', by Alfred Lord Tennyson. The poem is a secondary account of the infamous charge the English Light Brigade made on the 25th October 1854 in the Battle of Balaclava which was part of the Crimean War. To examine the poem we need to know the historical background of the things it is describing. To put it plainly the Crimean War really had nothing whatsoever to do with Great Britain. It was a war between Turkey and Russia but as Britain was sided with Turkey and did not want Russia to find a colonial interest in British India, Britain helped to fight Russia. Now back to the actual Charge of The Light Brigade. The Charge went wrong because a military leader Lord Cardigan, interpreted the wrong orders from his superior Lord Raglan. The Brigade ended up charging into the wrong valley and came face to face with the Russian Artillery. They were mowed down mercilessly Alfred Lord Tennyson was not a soldier in the Light Brigade, he wasn't in any of the armed forces and he wasn't even present at the battle. In actual fact Tennyson was the Poet Laureate of Britain and was inspired to write the poem based on a newspaper article he had read on the Charge. The main idea Tennyson is providing in his poem is the fact that he thinks the Light Brigade should be honoured by everyone and his poem is one way of honouring them. He is also using the Romantic notion of dying in battle being very heroic. The tone of the poem actually surprised me. I thought it would be like a sombre epitaph, written on a gravestone style but in fact it seems to have the feel of a funeral party which is celebrating the bravery and life of the Light Brigade rather than being sunk in thoughts of death. The poem it self is written in six stanzas of varying lengths. This reminds me of six scenes in a movie, the middle ones being a climax and the ones leading up to it slowly setting the scene for a big showdown. The ones after the climax seem to be the 'calm after the storm' and quietly conclude the poem. The rhyming in this poem is few and irregular but repetition is used a lot in this poem stanzas one, three and five, and it adds to the war theme of this poem e.g. Stanza 1: if you say the 'half a leagues' out loud and fairly fast it will sound like galloping horses, i.e. the Light Brigade itself who were cavalry. I think this is a very good use of literary rhythm and think it's very clever. I will now go through the poem thoroughly and pick out important words and language devices. Firstly I believe the narrator of the poem knew from the beginning that the Light Brigade were doomed as he uses the phrase 'into the valley of death rode the six hundred', line 7. The use of 'valley of death' is actually an allusion to Psalm 23 of the Bible. In this verse it carries on to say 'I will fear no evil as you are with me'. I find this ironic as the Bible is saying that God will protect them but in actual fact the Light Brigade was annihilated. Another thing I find good about this poem is the fact that Tennyson tries to make the poem sound as realistic as possible and is trying to draw the reader in. This is evident from the fact that he uses 'charge for the guns!' line 6 as the command for the Light Brigade. This sounds very real and militaristic and makes the reader feel as though they really have been sucked into a battlefield rather than something like 'then they charged'. Tennyson being a Romantic poet uses many Romantic ideas in this poem. For example when he says 'their's not to make reply"¦their's but to do and die', he is saying that even though someone's made a mistake and the soldiers know it they, they will still carry out their orders, bravely, even though they will die in the process. While Tennyson believes the Light Brigade are being very heroic he doesn't believe that this is a fairy tale and none of them will die or get injured. This is proved in lines 18, 19 and 20 when the poet says 'cannon to the left/cannon to the right/ cannon to the front of them'. We can gather that having cannons blowing off in front of a group of men with horses is not the best tactic for the British as most of the will die or get injured from having 14 pound iron balls hitting them. Another Romantic notion Tennyson is using is the idea of not giving up whatever happens, even death. For example in line 22 he writes that the Light Brigade were 'stormed at with shot and shell'. This means that even though the soldiers are dying, being injured and watching their comrades fall, each one continues his job to the end. Even today we find this idea romantic and heroic, how many hundreds of movie battle scenes have guys with 6 arrows in them still fighting. Even Tennyson's idea of the Light Brigade's weapons is Romantic: They are described as having 'sabres' line 27, which may not sound especially romantic, but he could have simply described them as swords. Sabres are traditionally from Arabia and Persia, countries with very big romantic connotations themselves, think Arabian Nights and Omar Khayaam. Therefore I believe that the word 'sabre' is very well used and very subtly put. Also the style of fighting in Tennyson's is different: while today we will shoot at an enemy soldier or throw a grenade at him, the Light Brigade weren"t doing that; they were 'flashing their sabres bare'line 27. Well it was the Romantic era of warfare as well as we have mentioned. No nuclear bombs, poison gasses or rocket propelled grenades; instead we have velvet uniforms with ornately decorated pistols, curved sabres, medals glinting in the sun and brave battle horses. However Tennyson wants us to believe that the Light Brigade held out for a long time and fought their hardest and were winning some of the time. This is proved when he writes that the Russian troops have been left 'shattered and sundered' line 36. This is good because it makes the reader hope that the Light Brigade has gained the upper hand and aren"t going to die. Tennyson seems to be a master of keeping the reader hooked to a poem. When he writes 'then they rode back but not/Not the six hundred', lines 37 and 38, he is telling the reader that some of the Brigade have been eliminated. He does not say all or most but he makes the reader hope and hope that only twenty or thirty have died. However as the remnants of the Light Brigade retreat back they are mowed down by cannon balls. This is proved in line 41 where Tennyson says 'cannon behind them'. The effect of this line is that the reader will be prepared for the death of the Light Brigade, which is inevitable, but it is not blunt or boring as it would be if Tennyson said 'then the last few died'. Tennyson's feelings on how heroic it is to die in battle are very different from todays. Where, in line 50, he asks 'when can their [the Light Brigade] glory fade?' it seems to be a rather stupid comment to make as these days the charge is looked at as an unsolicited disaster, Tennyson is actually calling it 'glorious' which shows how different ideas of war were in the Romantic era. We can tell, however, that Tennyson feels sorry for the Light Brigade, for example, when he uses the word 'noble' to describe them in line 55. This is good as it shows that the Light Brigade's memory is being preserved forever in a good way and not as a group of blundering idiots. To me all of Tennyson's feelings on the charge can be summed up into one word: honour as he uses in lines 53 and 54. Dying in a battle was honourable, being remembered is honourable, and being part of a massacre is honourable. I think that since Tennyson never was a soldier this romantic idea was his only opinion about wars and fighting them. However it isn't my view as we will see in the next paragraph. I definitely like this poem from a poetry point: it is well written with a good choice of words and is definitely a good and fitting tribute to the Light Brigade and no doubt they will be treated like heroes forever. However, I do not agree with the poet. I do not find dying in a war a heroic feat, unless you have saved many people in the process. I definitely do not think going to the battle field and killing other people for such a futile reason as 'protecting your allies' that heroic. Seeing people's heads and limbs flying through the air as they have been dismembered by a cannonball, and having to do that kind of thing yourself, would rather make you the victim. I certainly admire the soldier's braveness even when they knew the order was blundered, to obey unquestioningly. That is what I believe is brave, but they did not die heroically or as a sacrifice, I mean they didn't save the country, or another regiment in the process; they were simply wasted lives because of a mistake, and that is not deliberate braveness. So in that light, I believe Tennyson is wrong. Definitely the poem has made me think but only as to what I would do if I were one of the Light Brigade. The next poem I will be analysing is 'Dulce et Decorum est', by Wilfred Owen. This poem is similar to 'The Charge of the Light Brigade' in a few ways. Firstly, and most obviously, both of them are about war. However, whereas 'The Charge of the Light Brigade' contains lots of Romantic imagery and ideas this poem doesn't. Like 'The Charge of the Light Brigade'. This poem also acknowledges that soldiers have a hard time in battles, especially when the odds are against them. However, in contrast to 'The Charge of the Light Brigade' Owen believes that having a hard time doesn't necessarily make you a hero. The poem 'Dulce et Decorum est' is set on a World War I battlefield. It is a first hand account Owen being a soldier in the battle and not just a newspaper reader like Tennyson! of a gas attack of which there were many in World War I. What is fundamentally important when comparing these two poems is the fact that one is from the mid 19th century while other is about 75 years later. Many things have changed, the map of the world for one: Britain now had a prosperous empire that covered a quarter of the world. Anaesthetics were being used all the time in medicine and war had also changed: soldiers didn't fight with sabres and guns that took thirty seconds to load; they used tanks, automatic rifles, machine guns and even aeroplanes. Wars were no longer arranged over vast fields, now soldiers fought and died in their hundreds of thousands, for a little, wasted patch of land ten metres square which was filled with unexploded shells and barbed wire. The main idea I think Owen is providing in his poem is the fact that wars aren't romantic, dying in a battle isn't heroic and getting yourself involved in a war should not be done for such reasons as it was in World War I looking good, being a hero, nothing else to do, etc. The tone of his poem is rather grim and when I read it I get a mental image of Owen shouting 'blast Tennyson and those callow romantics this is what war and dying in it is really like. The structure of this poem is in four stanzas and every line in the poem starting with the first, rhymes with the one after the one after it. So line 1 rhymes with line 3, line 2 with line 4, line 3 with line 5, line 5 with line 7 and so on. Generally I like poems which rhyme better than ones that don't, and at first I thought this poem didn't rhyme, but as I read it out and studied it, it fell into place. I especially like this poem because of its hidden, very creative rhyming scheme which must have been very hard for Owen to make a whole poem like this. I will now start going through the poem and picking out important and interesting words and devices. Firstly, Owen does not waste any time making it look like his brigade is living in luxury. In line 1 he uses the word 'beggars', which makes the reader think of terrible conditions, sleeping rough, disease, poverty and rags, the general things which are associated with homeless people. He also goes on and shows his brigade's condition is not like what would be expected for a 'hero'. In line 2 he calls him and his brigade 'hags' which instantly banishes thought of velvet uniforms and shiny swords like Charge of the Light Brigade. Instead it brings in thoughts of disease, rats and poverty. Owen from the outset of the poem shows this isn't going to be a romantic charge. He describes the conditions in which his brigade is walking in as 'sludge', line 2. This is good because it banishes from the reader's mind a heroic and conquering army, and instead shows one wandering through a place likened to a sewer. This idea of no gallant charges is enforced in line 5, where Owen describes them as 'marching asleep'. This shows the reader that this army is tired and sleepy and not ready to charge through enemy lines like 'the Charge of the Light Brigade'. Of course Owen is also saying that the soldier's outward appearance is shattered as well as their inward. He does this in line 5 where he says 'many had lost their boots'. Not only does this show the reader that the men are really in a poor state, but it also enforces the idea of how different this is to the pristine uniforms of the 'Light Brigade'. We can also gather ourselves from the poem the fact that walking around without boots in damp, icy, slippery, rat infested trenches will give you painful infections like athlete's foot if you're lucky and more serious conditions such as frostbite if you're not so lucky. The true nature of not giving up and carrying on fighting, whatever your injury is shown by Owen in line 6 ' but men limped on blood shod'. This is good as it makes the reader understand that the romanticising of war is completely different from real life. Another idea which is visible in 'Dulce et Decorum est', but is practically invisible in 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', is what will happen to the soldiers after their battles are done. In this poem, in line 6 Owen says that 'all [the soldiers] went lame, all blind'. This shows the reader that the consequences of signing up for armed combat are much more far reaching than what just happens on the battlefield: you could be maimed for life, or go blind. As I mentioned in my introductory paragraph for this poem, times have changed and weapons have evolved. Killing is no longer done with gold sabres and silver cannons. Now 'gas' line 9 is used frequently. The reader will find out war is no longer a heroic charge but a long, exhausting campaign that you have look over your shoulder, continuously for a shell with poison gas inside. Again tying in with the fact that war has far reaching consequences, we see that simply seeing your comrade's die in front of you is enough to give you psychological problems. For instance, in line 15 Owen says 'in all my dreams, before my helpless sight, he plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. Often soldiers who saw this kind of thing and were badly affected by it were sent to sanatoriums where trained army psychologists would help them get over it. Certainly nothing like this is seen in 'The Charge of the Light Brigade'. This is very effective piece of ammunition to use in Owens's fight against romantic ideas of war which are so far from the truth. Owen definitely is not a romantic because in his poem he provides many graphic representations which Tennyson did not. For example in line 19 he says that one of the injured soldiers had 'white eyes writhing in his face'. Owen has got to the point and hasn't dilly dallied about going on about heroics; he has got to the point and expressed his view. Again this is good as it describes the reality of getting injured in a war to the reader, and it doesn't seem very nice or heroic. Owens's view of how horribly painful war is for the soldiers is expressed and strengthened in line 22 where he describes the injured soldier as having 'froth corrupted lungs'. This will help the reader find out that the young soldiers didn't die heroically but more like horribly. If we probe a little under the surface, the word 'corrupted' could be used by Owen in a political sense and not just medical. He could be talking about how young men are corrupted by snazzy, persuasive recruitment posters, back in their homeland. According to Owen the root of the 'war is glorious' problem is traced back to childhood. In lines 25 and 26 he says 'my friend you would not tell with such high zest, to children ardent for some desperate glory'. This is good as it makes the reader think back into their own past and childhood and think of any war related triumphs or games they may have done or played. It could also be referring to the soldiers being young and naïve and the recruitment posters gradually selling them these lies, in the hope that they will join up and think they are heroes. Finally in the last line of the poem goes as far as to say that dying as a hero and dying for honour in battle are downright lies. In lines 27 and 28 he says 'the old Lie: Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori'. This phrase means 'it is sweet and fitting to die for one's country' and was first used by the Roman playwright Horace thousands of years ago. It is still quoted by military leaders today in basic training and before battles. I think Owens's view on this phrase is that it is very dangerous and should not be told especially to 'desperate and impressionable children'. This point of view is a hundred percent different to Tennyson's and I need not explain why. I like this poem not only as a piece of good poetry like 'The Charge of the Light Brigade' but also its morals and the poet's beliefs are that of mine unlike 'The Charge of the Light Brigade'. It is very effective in carrying across its message of war being bad and not being honourable to die in one. It shows you that the poet thinks young men are lured into war by generals who just sit on the sidelines and will die healthily in their sleep decades after the war. It shows us what happens to the ordinary men who join up, their expectations from childhood and the real thing. This poem has also made me understand something I wondered about before reading it: why there are people whose jobs are army psychologists and why there are buildings used by the military called sanatoriums. As I come to the end of my essay I've learnt two very important points of view that were used in the past. Firstly about the chivalrous Romantic era on which countless war movies have such ideas in. Honour and fighting till the end whatever the outcome are the main ideas. This will certainly appeal to people who want to hold that point of view but for a realist like me I see through the flashing sabres and the valley of death and see butchered men and mourning families at home. Tennyson never incorporates that in his poem. Secondly I come to the deeply dark and realist first hand views of Owen who explains to me the real story and no beating about the bush. His views are crystal and have made me think rather than the non human termed, honour for our land thoughts of Tennyson. Owen actually made me think about the men being the uniforms. To sum up I like both poems very much but it's clear to me what's real and what's not, what's about human beings and not 'soldiers' and all the word suggests brave, never sick, willing to die and finally what's moral to me as a human and what's not.   

In 1798 a new era began in English poetry called the Romantic age. This age provoked the thinking of new radical ideas and thoughts and the writing of these ideas in poems. The poets included Samuel T Coleridge, Alfred Lord Tennyson and William Wordsworth. Some of their ideas and...

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Romeo & Juliet is believed... Romeo & Juliet is believed to have been written around 1595. The story is about a pair of star-crossed lovers. Two teenagers pursue their love for each other despite the fact that their families have been at odds with each other for decades. The story combines sword fighting, disguise, misunderstanding, tragedy, humor, and some of the most romantic language found in literature all in the name of true love. In Verona, Italy in the late 1500"s, two powerful families the Montague's and the Capulets have been feuding with each other for years. Old Capulet, Juliet"s father, throws a party to which he invites all his friends. The Montague's are not invited Romeo and his friends plan to get a look at Rosaline a young girl he has been pursing. Romeo and friends disguises themselves and slips into the party. Once inside he met Juliet it was love at first sight. Romeo falls instantly in love. Romeo is disappointed when he finds out that Juliet is a Capulet. Juliet notices Romeo too, but she is unaware that he is a member of the hated Montague's. Later, after discovering that the young man who caught her eye is a member of the enemy family, Juliet goes out onto her balcony to tell the stars about her strong but forbidden love. At the same time, Romeo is lurking in the bushes below. He overhears Juliet confess her love for him to the heavens. No longer able to control his powerful feelings, Romeo reveals himself to her and admits that he feels the same. The very next day, with the help of Romeo"s friend Friar Lawrence, Romeo and Juliet are secretly married. On the day of the wedding, two of Romeo"s friends, Benvolio and Mercutio, are walking through the streets of Verona when they are confronted by Juliet"s cousin, Tybalt. Tybalt is out to get Romeo for crashing the Capulet"s party so he starts a fight with his friends. Romeo shows up, but does not want to fight Tybalt because he no longer holds a grudge against Juliet"s family. Romeo"s friends can"t understand why he won"t stand up for himself so Mercutio steps in to do it for him. A swordfight with Tybalt follows. Mercutio is killed. To avenge the death of his friend, Romeo kills Tybalt, an act that will award him even more hatred from the Capulet family. The Prince of Verona banishes Romeo and he is forced to leave Juliet, who is devastated by the loss of her love. Juliet"s father, not knowing of his daughter"s marriage, decides to marry her to another young man named Paris. In despair, Juliet consults with Friar Laurence. He advises her to agree to the marriage, but on the morning of the wedding, she will drink a potion that h e prepares for her. The potion will make it look like Juliet is dead and she will be put into the Capulet burial vault. Then, the Friar will send Romeo to rescue her. She does as the Friar says and is put into the vault by her heartbroken parents. Bad news traveled fast. Before the Friar can tell Romeo of the hoax, Romeo hears from someone else that his beloved Juliet is dead. Overcome with grief, Romeo buys a poison and goes to Juliet"s tomb to die beside his wife. At the door of the tomb, Romeo is forced to fight Paris, whom he swiftly kills. Nothing will stop him from joining his love. Inside the vault, Romeo drinks the poison and takes his last breath next to his sleeping wife. Moments later, Juliet awakens to see her husband"s dead body. She learns what has happened from Friar Laurence who has just arrived and accessed the scene. With no reason left to live, Juliet kills herself with Romeo"s dagger. The tragedy has a tremendous impact on both the Montages and the Capulets. The families are hurt so much by the death of their children n that they agree to never fight again. Nurse: Having been the nanny since Juliet was an infant. Nurse is Juliet"s most trusted friend. She is the go between Juliet and her Romeo. She therefore rates as Romeo"s most important ally. Friar: The Friar is trusted by all. Together with Juliet, they conceive the plan for her and Romeo to be together. With Romeo, the friar is a constant source of advice and safe haven. For both, the friar is the man who marries them in secret. Prince: He upsets Juliet with his banishment of Romeo for killing Tybalt. But banishment to another city is much better than having Romeo killed as well. For Romeo, he spared his life with Exile, although exile from Juliet may have meant death. His banter suggests long friendship with Romeo and can become far out -- like way out. For example: Mercutio: No I am the very pink of courtesy. Romeo: Pink for flower? Mercutio: Right. Besides being a flower, he is also a center of attention. Romeo describes him as "a gentleman... that loves to hear himself talk." If one cares to be superstitious, the ending of Romeo & Juliet can seem affected by Mercutio"s curse on both the House of Montague and that of Capulet. As he dies, from Tybalt"s blow, he proclaims, "A plague on both your houses!" Romeo declares that his love for Juliet has made him effeminate, and that he should have fought Tybalt in Mercutio's place. When Tybalt, still angry, storms back onto the scene, Romeo draws his sword. They fight, and Romeo kills Tybalt. Benvolio urges Romeo to run; a group of citizens outraged at the recurring street fights is approaching. Romeo, shocked at what has happened, cries "O, I am fortune's fool!" The Prince enters, accompanied by many citizens, and the Montague's and Capulets. Benvolio tells the Prince the story of the brawl, emphasizing Romeo's attempt to keep the peace, but Lady Capulet, Tybalts aunt, cries that Benvolio is lying to protect the Montague's. She demands Romeo's life. Prince chooses instead to exile Romeo from Verona. He declares that should Romeo be found within the city, he will be killed. The sudden, fatal violence in the first scene of Act III, as well as the buildup to the fighting, serves as a reminder that, for all its emphasis on love, beauty, and romance, Romeo and Juliet still takes place in a masculine world in which notions of honor, pride, and status are prone to erupt in a fury of conflict. The viciousness and dangers of the play's social environment is a dramatic tool that Shakespeare employs to make the lovers' romance seem even more precious and fragile"”their relationship is the audience's only respite from the brutal world pressing against their love. The fights between Mercutio and Tybalt and then between Romeo and Tybalt are chaotic; Tybalt kills Mercutio under Romeo's arm, flees, and then suddenly, and inexplicably, returns to fight Romeo, who kills him in revenge. Passion outweighs reason at every turn. Romeo's cry, "O, I am fortune's fool!" refers specifically to his unluckiness in being forced to kill his new wife's cousin, thereby getting himself banished III.i.131. It also recalls the sense of fate that hangs over the play. Mercutio's response to his fate, however, is notable in the ways it diverges from Romeo's response. Romeo blames fate, or fortune, for what has happened to him. Mercutio curses the Montagues and Capulets. He seems to see people as the cause of his death, and gives no credit to any larger force. Elizabethan society generally believed that a man too much in love lost his manliness. Romeo clearly subscribes to that belief, as can be seen when he states that his love for Juliet had made him "effeminate." Once again, however, this statement can be seen as a battle between the private world of love and the public world of honor, duty, and friendship. The Romeo who duels with Tybalt is the Romeo who Mercutio would call the "true" Romeo. The Romeo who sought to avoid confrontation out of concern for his wife is the person Juliet would recognize as her loving Romeo. The word effeminate is applied by the public world of honor upon those things it does not respect. In using the term to describe his present state, Romeo accepts the responsibilities thrust upon him by the social institutions of honor and family duty. The arrival of the Prince and the angry citizens shifts the focus of the play to a different sort of public sphere. Romeo's killing of Tybalt is marked by rashness and vengeance, characteristics prized by noblemen, but which threaten the public order that citizens desire and the Prince has a responsibility to uphold. As one who has displayed such traits, Romeo is banished from Verona. Earlier, the Prince acted to repress the hatred of the Montagues and the Capulets in order to preserve public peace; now, still acting to avert outbreaks of violence, the Prince unwittingly acts to thwart the love of Romeo and Juliet. Consequently, with their love censured not only by the Montagues and Capulets but by the ruler of Verona, Romeo and Juliet's relationship puts Romeo in danger of violent reprisal from both from Juliet's kinsmen and the state.   

Romeo & Juliet is believed to have been written around 1595. The story is about a pair of star-crossed lovers. Two teenagers pursue their love for each other despite the fact that their families have been at odds with each other for decades. The story combines sword fighting, disguise,...

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