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There are five characters who can be linked to the death of Eva Smith. All of the members of the Birling family and Sheila Birling's fiancé Gerald Croft. All of these five characters will be looked at separately before an opinion is drawn. Mr. Birling is connected to Eva Smith in the fact that he employed her as a worker in his factory. After Eva led a strike over pay, Mr. Birling fired her and Eva found herself on the streets. Mr. Birling's son Eric found the fact that her father Arthur had fired a woman over such a small dispute over pay as 2 and a half pence. This can be shown when he says, 'Why shouldn't they try for higher wages? And I don't see why she should have been sacked just because she'd a bit more spirit than the others.' Mr. Birling stands by himself, believing that he had done the correct thing when he says, 'I can't accept any responsibility.' Sheila Birling, Arthur Birling's daughter, was the second member of the family to be connected to Eva Smith. Eva Smith was working in a shop called Milwards when Sheila paid a visit there to but a dress. Sheila became displeased with Eva's attitude when she caught a glimpse of her smirking at her in the mirror when she was trying a dress on. Sheila complained, and as a regular customer, she got the girl sacked. Sheila took the fact that she had done this to heart and felt exceptionally bitter that she could have done such a thing that may have ended a girl's life. This can be shown when she said 'Don't you understand? And if I could help her now, I would-'. Sheila is very shocked when it is revealed to her that Eva Smith took her own life, and Sheila instantly believes that it is all her fault that Eva is now dead, especially because Sheila got Eva fired because she was jealous of her good looks. Eric Birling, Arthur Birling's daughter, was also connected to the death of Eva Smith in and was directly in contact with her, which comes as a great shock to his family when it is revealed on page 49. Eric played a major part in Eva Smith's life for a few months when they were having an affair. During this period, Eva became pregnant with Eric's baby. When Eric is told about the death of Eva, it is obvious that he believes that he played no part in her death and that it was all his own mothers fault. This can be shown when he says 'you killed her. She came to you to protect me "“ and you turned her away "“ yes, and you killed her "“ and the child she'd had too "“ my child "“ your own grandchild "“ you killed them both "“ damn you, damn you -'. This passage shows that Eric might have actually felt something for Eva, in contradiction to what he told the inspector when he said 'I wasn't in love with her or anything'. Eric obviously tried very hard to make life as comfortable as possible for Eva Smith as well, so he may not be one of the major contributors to Eva's death, Eric believes that his mother Mrs. Birling is the one who killed Eva. Mrs. Birling, the wife of Arthur Birling, is seen by Eric to be the one to have killed Eva Smith. This is because she turned Eva away from the organisation that she chaired because she felt that the story that Eva Smith was telling was false and that Mrs. Birling also didn't like the fact that Eva had used the name Mrs. Birling when she came in front of the committee. The real Mrs. Birling didn't like this, so she used her power to reject Eva's case. Mrs. Birling, however, doesn't think that she has herself to blame for the death of Eva Smith. This can be shown when she says 'I think she had only herself to blame.' Mrs. Birling also felt that she would have done anything wrong even if Eva Smith hadn't used Mrs. Birling as her name. This can be shown where Mrs. Birling says 'I did nothing that I'm ashamed of that won't bear investigation"¦I consider I did my duty.' These few examples could argue that Mrs. Birling is quite arrogant and believes that she is always right and that anything she does will never need justifying. The last character to investigate is the fiancé of Sheila, Gerald Croft. Gerald is another character who had had very close ties to Eva Smith, or as her name was at this point ion history, Daisy Renton. At the start of his relationship with Sheila, Gerald had an affair with Daisy. It doesn't appear that ht ending of this relationship with Daisy, however, had much to do with the death of Daisy or Eva. This can be shown when Gerald says 'She told me she'd been happier than she'd ever been before'. This shows that the affair that Daisy had with Gerald didn't really do much for the breaking down of Eva into her taking her own life. This shows that Gerald didn't really have much to do with the death of Eva Smith, but more with the keeping of Eva Smith happy. All of the five characters were all connected with Eva Smith or Daisy Renton, but only three of them, Sheila, Arthur and Mrs. Birling, made Eva or Daisy unhappy as a consequence of their actions. Arthur fired Eva and put her out onto the streets, but she was happy again when she found another job at Milwards. This means that Arthur shouldn't carry a lot of the blame for the death of Eva. Sheila complained about Eva and succeeded in getting her fired from her new job. This put Eva out onto the streets. This must have brought her close to unhappiness, but Gerald than had an affair with her, which picked her off the floor and made her happy again. Eric then slept with Eva and got her pregnant, but he supported her with money to make sure that she would be all right. Mrs. Birling then turned Eva Smith away from the help that she desperately required for the caring of the baby that she was going to have. This seemed like the last straw for Eva, and when she was rejected, she felt it was one too many and took her own life. This means that the majority of the blame must lie with Mrs. Birling, although a small part would lie with Arthur for setting the ball rolling, and with Sheila for helping her along the way.
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There are five characters who can be linked to the death of Eva Smith. All of the members of the Birling family and Sheila Birling's fiancé Gerald Croft. All of these five characters will be looked at separately before an opinion is drawn. Mr. Birling is connected to Eva Smith in the fact that he employed her as a worker in his factory. After Eva led a strike over pay, Mr. Birling fired her and Eva found herself on the streets. Mr. Birling's son Eric found the fact that her father Arthur had fired a woman over such a...
her with money to make sure that she would be all right. Mrs. Birling then turned Eva Smith away from the help that she desperately required for the caring of the baby that she was going to have. This seemed like the last straw for Eva, and when she was rejected, she felt it was one too many and took her own life. This means that the majority of the blame must lie with Mrs. Birling, although a small part would lie with Arthur for setting the ball rolling, and with Sheila for helping her along the way.

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To James Joyce, the author of...To James Joyce, the author of the Dubliners, Dublin was a city trapped by its place in history. He felt especially that it suffered from a kind of paralysis. The capital of Ireland was paralysed by England. He believed the Dubliners themselves were caught in the paralytic and imprisoning grip of poverty which he himself had experienced, and by this semi-alien culture, but also by their generally unquestioning acceptance of Roman Catholicism and its political and social implications. The world of the Dubliners which Joyce presents is laden with characters that are constantly attempting to survive in the face of hardship; trying to escape the trappings of the political, religious and social dynamic which restricts and asphyxiates the lives they lead. In both "Araby" and "Eveline" the protagonists a young, unnamed boy and a young lady are offered and attempt the chance of escape but are disappointed by its failure to succeed. This provides Joyce's key comparative theme throughout his whole collection of Dubliners: the opportunity and prospect of escape from the paralytic nature of Dublin life and the inability to break free. In both, Joyce presents a world of weariness and frustration, dominated by adults or parental figures, but one which also holds the promise of escape. In "Araby" escape is suggested through both the exotic enchantment of the bazaar and the attraction of Mangan's sister who arouses the boy's latent sexuality, whereas in "Eveline" the risk and excitement of escape is offered by a man, Frank. In "Araby", Joyce uses the stark contrast between light and darkness to create an illusion of possible escape for the young boy, "Her figure defined by the light". Previously in the story, Joyce had only implemented the use of darkness but this image provides a break from this monotony and for the first time injects a bit of hope into the rhetoric. The symbol of Mangan's sister represents an opportunity of escape. Joyce employs this use of light to symbolise hope and a sense of liberation repeatedly to emphasise the contrast this creates with the dead, decrepit descriptions of the boy's street, ""¦touched discreetly by the lamplight"; "figure defined by the light from the half-opened door". Joyce presents a sense of direction and opportunity by referring to words such as "focused" and "defined". Moreover Mangan's sister provides further contrast with the decaying and monotonous surroundings in that she represents an alien sense of movement and life, ""¦her dress swung as she moved her body and the soft rope of her hair tossed from side to side". However Joyce emphasises the boy's desperation to escape in the manner in which his relationship with Mangan's sister is illustrated, ""¦her name was like a summons to my foolish blood"; ""¦my heart leaped"; ""¦I had never spoken to her, except for a few casual words". She appears to be supplying the momentum for his desire to escape, however, his love for her is more like an infatuation, a childish crush, in that it has the same all-consuming effect. His love is an illusion and is merely fuelling his desperation, "But my body was like a harp and her words and gestures were like fingers running upon the wires". As the story progresses the alluring qualities of the bazaar which the boy visits offer a different prospect and vision of escape. The bazaar becomes his reason for living and everything else does not seem to matter, ""¦the tedious intervening days", "I could hardly any patience with the serious work of life". The Bazaar appears to assume the same position as Mangan's sister and becomes an infatuation, an obsession, "The syllables of the word Araby were called to me through the silence in which my soul luxuriated and cast an Eastern enchantment over me". In "Eveline", the notion of escape is expressed predominantly through Eveline's relationship with Frank, ""¦kind, manly, open-hearted", "He had tales of distant countries". Frank offers her something new and exciting; a break from the monotony of life. He gives her the dream of going away to some far away paradise and escaping. However, in the passage on page 33, Eveline reveals her naive view of Frank's ability as he is presented in the terms of her romantic yearning, "She must escape! Frank would save her. He would give her life"; "He would save her". In this section much of the language Joyce employs is idealised and highlights the fact that she herself has never been in love and therefore has no mature perceptions of what love is or the feeling it evokes. This idealisation is seen in the way she talks of, "the terrible Patagonians"; "the Straits of Magellan" and "distant countries". Joyce's use of free indirect speech, in which purporting in the third person to offer the objective account, Joyce in fact enters the consciousness of Eveline and makes her habitual formulations the stuff of narrative, makes her idealisation and naivety extremely effective. Frank is merely an infatuation born out of the desperation of her situation and her deep desire to escape it, as in Araby. In both "Araby" and "Eveline" Joyce presents the setting in similar ways. There is a sense of restriction and claustrophobia expressed through the drab and decaying description. In "Araby", "Air, musty from having been long enclosed" gives a sense that it is difficult to breathe in the atmosphere of the street in which the boy lives. "The other houses of the street, conscious of decent lives within them, gazed at one another with brown imperturbable faces". The personification of the word houses with the use of "faces" allows Joyce to emphasise the grimness of the poverty and the monotony of living in Dublin through these unflappable, stagnant symbols of decay and erosion. This is enhanced by Joyce's placement of the story at a "blind end" or dead end, which highlights the limitation and lack of direction present in the boy's existence causing his desperation.   

To James Joyce, the author of the Dubliners, Dublin was a city trapped by its place in history. He felt especially that it suffered from a kind of paralysis. The capital of Ireland was paralysed by England. He believed the Dubliners themselves were caught in the paralytic and imprisoning grip...

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