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There are five characters who can be linked to the death of Eva Smith. All of the members of the Birling family and Sheila Birling's fiancé Gerald Croft. All of these five characters will be looked at separately before an opinion is drawn. Mr. Birling is connected to Eva Smith in the fact that he employed her as a worker in his factory. After Eva led a strike over pay, Mr. Birling fired her and Eva found herself on the streets. Mr. Birling's son Eric found the fact that her father Arthur had fired a woman over such a small dispute over pay as 2 and a half pence. This can be shown when he says, 'Why shouldn't they try for higher wages? And I don't see why she should have been sacked just because she'd a bit more spirit than the others.' Mr. Birling stands by himself, believing that he had done the correct thing when he says, 'I can't accept any responsibility.' Sheila Birling, Arthur Birling's daughter, was the second member of the family to be connected to Eva Smith. Eva Smith was working in a shop called Milwards when Sheila paid a visit there to but a dress. Sheila became displeased with Eva's attitude when she caught a glimpse of her smirking at her in the mirror when she was trying a dress on. Sheila complained, and as a regular customer, she got the girl sacked. Sheila took the fact that she had done this to heart and felt exceptionally bitter that she could have done such a thing that may have ended a girl's life. This can be shown when she said 'Don't you understand? And if I could help her now, I would-'. Sheila is very shocked when it is revealed to her that Eva Smith took her own life, and Sheila instantly believes that it is all her fault that Eva is now dead, especially because Sheila got Eva fired because she was jealous of her good looks. Eric Birling, Arthur Birling's daughter, was also connected to the death of Eva Smith in and was directly in contact with her, which comes as a great shock to his family when it is revealed on page 49. Eric played a major part in Eva Smith's life for a few months when they were having an affair. During this period, Eva became pregnant with Eric's baby. When Eric is told about the death of Eva, it is obvious that he believes that he played no part in her death and that it was all his own mothers fault. This can be shown when he says 'you killed her. She came to you to protect me "“ and you turned her away "“ yes, and you killed her "“ and the child she'd had too "“ my child "“ your own grandchild "“ you killed them both "“ damn you, damn you -'. This passage shows that Eric might have actually felt something for Eva, in contradiction to what he told the inspector when he said 'I wasn't in love with her or anything'. Eric obviously tried very hard to make life as comfortable as possible for Eva Smith as well, so he may not be one of the major contributors to Eva's death, Eric believes that his mother Mrs. Birling is the one who killed Eva. Mrs. Birling, the wife of Arthur Birling, is seen by Eric to be the one to have killed Eva Smith. This is because she turned Eva away from the organisation that she chaired because she felt that the story that Eva Smith was telling was false and that Mrs. Birling also didn't like the fact that Eva had used the name Mrs. Birling when she came in front of the committee. The real Mrs. Birling didn't like this, so she used her power to reject Eva's case. Mrs. Birling, however, doesn't think that she has herself to blame for the death of Eva Smith. This can be shown when she says 'I think she had only herself to blame.' Mrs. Birling also felt that she would have done anything wrong even if Eva Smith hadn't used Mrs. Birling as her name. This can be shown where Mrs. Birling says 'I did nothing that I'm ashamed of that won't bear investigation"¦I consider I did my duty.' These few examples could argue that Mrs. Birling is quite arrogant and believes that she is always right and that anything she does will never need justifying. The last character to investigate is the fiancé of Sheila, Gerald Croft. Gerald is another character who had had very close ties to Eva Smith, or as her name was at this point ion history, Daisy Renton. At the start of his relationship with Sheila, Gerald had an affair with Daisy. It doesn't appear that ht ending of this relationship with Daisy, however, had much to do with the death of Daisy or Eva. This can be shown when Gerald says 'She told me she'd been happier than she'd ever been before'. This shows that the affair that Daisy had with Gerald didn't really do much for the breaking down of Eva into her taking her own life. This shows that Gerald didn't really have much to do with the death of Eva Smith, but more with the keeping of Eva Smith happy. All of the five characters were all connected with Eva Smith or Daisy Renton, but only three of them, Sheila, Arthur and Mrs. Birling, made Eva or Daisy unhappy as a consequence of their actions. Arthur fired Eva and put her out onto the streets, but she was happy again when she found another job at Milwards. This means that Arthur shouldn't carry a lot of the blame for the death of Eva. Sheila complained about Eva and succeeded in getting her fired from her new job. This put Eva out onto the streets. This must have brought her close to unhappiness, but Gerald than had an affair with her, which picked her off the floor and made her happy again. Eric then slept with Eva and got her pregnant, but he supported her with money to make sure that she would be all right. Mrs. Birling then turned Eva Smith away from the help that she desperately required for the caring of the baby that she was going to have. This seemed like the last straw for Eva, and when she was rejected, she felt it was one too many and took her own life. This means that the majority of the blame must lie with Mrs. Birling, although a small part would lie with Arthur for setting the ball rolling, and with Sheila for helping her along the way.
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There are five characters who can be linked to the death of Eva Smith. All of the members of the Birling family and Sheila Birling's fiancé Gerald Croft. All of these five characters will be looked at separately before an opinion is drawn. Mr. Birling is connected to Eva Smith in the fact that he employed her as a worker in his factory. After Eva led a strike over pay, Mr. Birling fired her and Eva found herself on the streets. Mr. Birling's son Eric found the fact that her father Arthur had fired a woman over such a...
her with money to make sure that she would be all right. Mrs. Birling then turned Eva Smith away from the help that she desperately required for the caring of the baby that she was going to have. This seemed like the last straw for Eva, and when she was rejected, she felt it was one too many and took her own life. This means that the majority of the blame must lie with Mrs. Birling, although a small part would lie with Arthur for setting the ball rolling, and with Sheila for helping her along the way.

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' The Darkness Out... ' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be more mature and less naïve. Old Mrs Chundle' is a pre-twentieth century tale about a curate who through an encounter with an old woman realises that he did not live up to the good person he had always imagined he had been, and also he feels guilty as a result of his wrong actions. The beginning of 'The Darkness Out There' is a contrast to the title with descriptions of the country and also of the old woman Mrs Rutter. 'Brushing through the grass, polleny summer grass that glinted in the sun.' This is your first impression of the surroundings Sandra travels through and an example of the contrasting descriptions compared to the gloomy title. Sandra has a strong pre-conception of old people being innocent and sweet who deserve to be treated well. 'They were really sweet, the old people.' Her pre-conceptions are down to her innocence of being young and of her naivety too. Sandra's natural assumption is that she assumes she is doing a good job giving up her time for the old people who deserved to be assisted. However as soon as Sandra gets a glimpse of Packer's End the author changes the feeling of the story to dark and gloomy descriptions of the area, 'It was a rank place' for example. This idea of the area given to the readers creates the impression that the 'darkness out there' in this story is Packers End and gives a false illusion or pre-conception that the story is morally and fully based around it. The transition from the pleasant descriptions of the countryside to the of Packer's End is quite blunt with one significant quote 'the light suddenly shutting off the bare wide sky of the field. Packer's End.' This quote is effective because it shows the change in mood and description. It also shows that Packer's End is the darkness out there in Sandra's mind too. You get the impression of Sandra's fear by the comments made like 'she wouldn't go in there for a thousand pounds', which shows you the extent that she would go to in order to avoid approaching it. There are also many descriptions describing Sandra's impressions of fear of the area like ' the greyness you couldn't quite see into the clotted shifting depths of the place.' This quote not only shows Sandra's fears but also describes the 'darkness out there' as if until you look closer you cannot tell what it is. This relates back to the pre-judgemental attitude Sandra has towards Mrs Rutter and Kerry at the start of the story. Sandra is scared of Packer's End because of all the tales that people had told her as a child like the ghostly presence of German aircrew, and recently the story of the girl that was raped and attacked there. Note that after many of the stories are told they end with 'people said'. This suggests that Sandra does not really have an entire mind of her own and that people are influential in her thinking, which is probably why she is still afraid of Packer's End. As a child she was, and still is, afraid of the ghostly place with wolves. But going into her teens it was mainly the Nazi plane and the rape that daunts her because they were more realistic things. Others again influence her on the supposed rape incident too. ' There was this girl, people at school said"¦' This quote gives evidence of her listening to what 'people' told her and she appears to be very gullible, which makes her more naïve of the real life and Packer's End Sandra has an idyllic life as her dream for the future for example travelling to perfect places you can get. 'She would go to places like on travel brochures and run into a blue sea'. As this shows she with other younger people dream of not the real world with financial problems and divorce but a flawless lifestyle where nothing could go wrong. Sandra also dreams of having a perfect home and location and a handsome husband. 'Two children, a boy and a girl. Children with fair and shiny hair like hers and there would be this man"¦' This quote portrays the lifestyle that she would like and shows her assumption that it will happen. However Sandra overlooks any possibility that some of her ideas could become flawed. But on the other hand she does seem to take her future seriously however naïve she may be. Compared to Kerry Stevens' realistic plan for life hers is like a dream because Kerry seems to have his feet firmly on the ground. The writer uses Sandra's ideas of her storybook future to further give evidence of he naivety, and by using comparisons to Kerry's future further shows how much her head appears to be up in the clouds. Kerry Stevens does not make a good impression on Sandra in terms of appearance because he was not the best looking person and the writer shows Sandra's judgemental attitude by her initial opinions of Kerry at a first glance. 'Some people you only have to look at to know they're not up to much.' This quote shows her opinions of not Kerry but also of the way she views other people as well. The way the writer has shown Sandra's judgemental side is to also show a contrast in the story to give evidence of change in her character later on in the story. Sandra has a good view of Mrs Rutter mainly because of the portrayal of the woman being 'really sweet, lots of the old people.' This is her pre-conception before she even sees the old lady. This gives us a good understanding of not only her judging character towards appearances of people but also portrays judgement of personality for the first time also. Sandra thinks that Mrs Rutter is a very nice lady because of her friendly initial welcome to her, which is understandable because not only does the writer make Sandra think this but the reader also, perhaps to deceive us about Mrs Rutter's personality and to make ourselves pre- conceive her character too. 'A creamy smiling pool of a face in which her eyes snapped and darted.' This quote gives the impression of a plump, harmless old woman, which the writer purposely wants us the reader and Sandra to think for the deception that occurs later on in the tale. The writer encourages us, Sandra and Kerry also to feel sympathy towards her because of the fact that she is alone and her husband's death in the war was very tragic. 'He was in one of the first campaigns in Belgium, and he never came back.' The way that Mrs Rutter describes his death creates sympathy naturally and the fact she has been alone for years makes you feel sorry for her further. The writer also creates more sympathy when we learn that she was childless and regrets it because she feels it a loss not to have had any. It is more shocking to learn about what Mrs Rutter did because of the circumstances that her husband died in. You would have thought that considering he was gunned down in the same way as the German that she would have had more sympathy towards the man. However instead of giving him a chance to live, Mrs Rutter's coldness and nastiness allowed him to suffer. At this point we see a change in the story where we the reader, Sandra and Kerry see her in a different perspective to what we initially thought of her apart from Kerry, who had a slight suspicion about of her to begin with. You can at this point refer to another novel, which sends out a particular message about people. In Lord of the Flies written by William Golding the main concept and moral to the story is that whoever we are there is the potential for evil within us all. 'Dot said he wasn't going to last long, good job too, three of them that'll be.' This quote shows how unconcerned they were about an injured man that they could save from death. The writer shows Mrs Rutter's coldness by the way that the old woman narrates her story. Mrs Rutter tells the story in a manner- of- fact way and is not bothered or affected by the events. This makes us disgusted because she does not see how inhumane it was to have done such a thing. 'Tit for tat I said'. This quote gives evidence of Mrs Rutter seeing what they did as revenge or out of bitterness for the German's killing her husband, which may be the motive for her horrific actions. This quote shows us that Mrs Rutter has no feeling of guilt or remorse and by showing us this, the writer makes us feel more horrified of what she and her sister did. 'The boy's spoon clattered to the floor; he did not move.' This quote gives evidence to us of Kerry's stunned reaction to Mrs Rutter in the way that he was so shocked he could not move. He is also sickened by the fact that that Mrs Rutter thinks that it is something normal for a person to do. 'You had this coming to you mate, there's a war on.' 'It was what everyone said in those days.' These quotes show that she thought it was humane and acceptable for anyone to do. She used this expression that people had said to justify her actions, but even though people said this would they have left a helpless man to die? To show that Sandra has changed the writer illustrates the better points of Packer's End to make her realise that it is not a bad place or most importantly 'the darkness out there'. 'Birds sang. There were not, as the girl the girl realised wolves, witches or tigers.' This shows us her realisation that there is nothing to be scared of as she first thought. The writer also by her new view of Packers End shows that she is less naïve of the place and that she has opened her eyes to reality more. Sandra has also grown up in other ways by learning not to pre-judge people as she did with Mrs Rutter and Kerry. She has realised that it is not appearances that matter but what is inside also, with Mrs Rutter perceived as being a sweet woman but revealing to be a cruel hearted and bitter woman. 'You could get people all wrong, she realised with alarm.' This quote gives evidence of her realising how wrong her pre-conceptions have been, and her concern of this shows also that she has grown up because of her recognition of this. The writer also emphasises her changes in character by her recognition also of Kerry Stevens not seeming as bad as he looks. 'He had grown; he had got older and larger. His anger eclipsed his acne"¦' This quote shows Sandra looking at Kerry from a different perspective to the scruffy, dodgy type that she previously thought he was. Sandra overall has discovered that the darkness out there is not Packers End but the cold-heartedness and evil that is present within some people. Referring back to William Golding's point that 'the potential for evil is within us all'; the evil was within the innocent looking Mrs Rutter. As a result of these events and changes in character she has become less naïve about things unlike before, which may change her overall attitudes to life and become more wary of the real world. In 'Old Mrs Chundle' our first real impression of the woman is that she is quite stubborn and a grumpy old lady, and when approached by the Curate she quite unwelcoming. 'A sour look crossed her face'. This quote gives evidence of our initial opinion of her and the writer shows her character to be like this through her actions and expressions rather than through her looks in the 'Darkness out there.' 'I tell 'ee 'tis two pence and no more!' This is an example of this where she seems rude and stubborn through her actions here when talking to the Curate. 'Old Mrs Chundle is a pre-19th century text and is reflected in the language used and the actions of the characters. ' I suppose 'tis the wrong sort, and that ye would sooner have bread and cheese?' This quote shows the different style of language used in the story with 'ye' instead of you and 'tis used instead of it is. Also the actions of the characters in the story reflect the older period when it was written. 'The lunch hour drew on, and he felt hungry. Quite near him was a stone "“built old cottage of respectable and substantial build, he entered and was received by an old woman.' This quote gives evidence of an out of character action in today's society hence showing that this was written pre-19th century. No one today would do that and would instead go to a fast food restaurant or to their own homes for example. There is a contrast in our first impressions that we get of the two old ladies in both stories. Mrs Rutter appears to be a nice, old woman, whilst Mrs Chundle seems to us rather rude. Thomas Hardy has done the same as Penelope Lively in creating a sort of perception for us of a character and then deceives us later in terms of who turns out to be the changed persona and who we pre-conceive. In this case the changed persona is the Curate and our pre-conception is of Mrs Chundle. The Curate seems very shocked at how Mrs Chundle could lie to him and pre-judges her motives for doing this. 'Wicked old woman. What can she think of herself for such deception?' But despite this he still tries to get her to church as a challenge and because its his sort of responsibility. 'I think it was a culpable, unkind thing of you.' This shows the determination of the Curate by confronting her on the matter. Mrs Chundle agrees to attend church firstly because of the trouble that the curate is willing to, with the ear trumpet for her to attend church. After the trumpet failing he comes up with a sound tube system to again enable her to hear the sermon. The writer makes us feel that the Curate is a good man by illustrating the trouble that he went to for Mrs Chundle to attend church. 'At great trouble to himself.' The way that the Curate tries everything to help her, the writer shows that he is quite devoted to helping the woman when no one else has ever attempted to. The writer shows the change in the Curate's character by his ignorance of the old lady in the sermon. He blocks up the tube after her bad smell lingers up the tube towards him. 'Desperately thrusting his thumb into the hole'. This quote shows that the Curate is being very intolerant and has at this point no concern about the old woman, only himself. The Curate is also shown to be self conscious about himself because he has blocked up the pipe probably to avoid further embarrassment towards himself in church. To the Curate's total dismay Mrs Chundle is very overjoyed by her ability to hear clearly. ' I shall come every Sunday morning reg'lar, now, please God.' This shows her new enthusiasm about church, and the writer illustrates this by using strong words in her dialogue for example 'Please God'. After Mrs Chundle attends church regularly the writer shows a transition in the Curate's character. 'I cannot stand this I shall tell her not to come.' This quote shows how rude and inconsiderate he is becoming after his encounters with Mrs Chundle. We also see the Curate setting out to reverse what he had been doing just to stop Mrs Chundle bothering him. He becomes very selfish because he is only considering the consequences of removing the pipe on his part and not hers. For example he simply thinks of no embarrassment at his sermons and no bother, not that the old woman would be unhappy, lonely and not be able to attend something that she enjoys.' I've promised to go and read to her but I shan't go.' The writer also illustrates the Curate to be a very angry man by showing how he puts off a simple task of going to see Mrs Chundle and again does not consider how rude it is towards the old woman. He was described as being 'vexed' about the matter viewing it as an ordeal for himself. He is shown once again by his actions in this story to being a very selfish man and inconsiderate of other people's feelings. The writer builds up the guilt the Curate should feel after Mrs Chundle's death by putting the emphasis on Mrs Chundle's circumstances of death. She became ill partly because perhaps she did not want to let the Curate down after all the trouble that he had went to for her. ' She harried overmuch, and runned up the hill.' 'It upset her heart.' This quote shows the trouble that Mrs Chundle had gone to, to get to church on time so she did not miss the Curate's sermon. The writer also creates the guilt by the way that Mrs Chundle did not assume that he did not come for bad reasons as she said that he was so loyal to her. This creates guilt by the fact that Mrs Chundle thought so well of him. 'You were so staunch and faithful in wishing to do her good.' This quote emphasises how well she thought of him and how loyal she considered the Curate to be, and it also shows that she had no doubt at all that he was being unkind towards her in any way. The writer finally emphasises the point of guilt concerning the will by the words that Mrs Chundle said to the woman as she handed over the will to give to the Curate. 'He's a man in a thousand. He's not ashamed of an old woman"¦' This quote gives evidence that Mrs Chundle considers him very considerate and kind, when told this the Curate must have felt not only guilt but also moved too. This is because of the way that she thought of him so highly. Also the amount of possessions that Mrs Chundle had left the Curate shows a lot. Firstly it made him realise that he was the only friend that she had and did not have much in her life at all. It also shows that he must have meant a lot to her for her to leave him with everything that she owned. 'On opening it he found it to be what she called her will, in which she'd left him her"¦' This quote shows the extent at which she had given him in return for the good ways she had thought that the Curate treated her. The way that Mrs Chundle died and the will for example, are used by the writer to make us assume that the Curate will be guilty, shocked and upset over her death. This is also because of the way that he treated her. However judging by the ending the Curate does not seem very flustered by everything and is very calm apart from a tear in his eye. The writer uses 'like Peter' to compare what the Curate has done with Peter before the death of Christ. The correlation is that they both betrayed Mrs Chundle and Christ, which is effective because Hardy shows the extent of the Curate's unkindness further. 'And as he went his eyes were wet"¦' This quote shows to us that the Curate is moved in some way by what has happened. Although he prays we assume for forgiveness and Mrs Chundle, will he change for the future or does he consider that a prayer of repentance will be good enough and he will no longer feel any more guilt? ' He rose brushed the knees of his trousers, and walked on.' This quote at the end does suggest that now he has prayed for his sins that he can carry on normally, and that the Curate has not really learnt his lesson. At this point we as the reader are expected to be and are very sympathetic towards Mrs Chundle and only contempt towards the Curate. Therefore you can clearly see that again the writer has created a reversal in character feeling, because we liked the Curate at first as he went to all the trouble for Mrs Chundle. However he reversed in to a rude and inconsiderate man. Whereas we initially thought Mrs Chundle was rude but she turned out to be a kind and thoughtful woman. In 'The Darkness Out There' and 'Old Mrs Chundle', both writers have created a good effect of deception where the Sandra and we the reader are surprised in the change in character of Mrs Rutter, Mrs Chundle and the Curate. As a result of the encounters with these two old women, both of the main characters have changed in different ways. During the story the curate changed from being a kind-hearted man to being rude, selfish and ignorant towards Mrs Chundle. The Curate like Sandra was also naïve himself because he could not realise how his bad actions were affecting the old woman. He does change a little because he realises what his duties are as a Curate and in future how far he should take them, like not interfering so much with others. Sandra has changed her view on life by being more realistic about things rather than having her head up in the clouds so much. She is also less naïve about people and has learned not to be so pre-judgemental about people and that looks can be deceiving. The writer shows Sandra's change in character by comparing her views of Packers End before and after she has changed in attitude to emphasise the fact that she has grown up more.   

' The Darkness Out There' written by Penelope Lively is a twentieth century story about a girl called Sandra who over a trip to an old lady's house realises that appearances can be deceiving and learns not to be so prejudge mental to people. She learns to be...

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The Lonely Characters in "Of...The Lonely Characters in "Of Mice and Men" Of Mice and Men is set during the 1930s about the time of the American depression. It focuses upon two men who are raising money to buy and live on a small farm of their dreams. They work on the ranches to earn the money to do this. These men are George Milton and Lennie Small. George looks after Lennie as he is very forgetful and slow. Lennie usually ends up getting the both of them 'canned' this means thrown off the ranch as he tends to do stupid things that get them both in trouble. The ranches are lonely places as the men who work on them often have little or no family. The men upon the ranches play simple games when they're not in the fields working in order to pass the time. George is described in the book as he and Lennie are walking, it describes well by saying "The first man was small and quick, dark of face, with restless eyes and sharp, strong features Every part of him was defined; small, strong hands, slender arms, a thin and bony nose." The book then continues to describe Lennie it reads "Behind him walked his opposite, a huge man, shapeless of face, with large, pale eyes, with wide, sloping shoulders; and he walked heavily, dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws." George sometimes gets annoyed with Lennie, although he loves him and cares deeply for him. An example of this love and care is "Lennie, for Gods sake don't drink so much." Lennie continued to snort into the pool. The small man leaned over and shook him by the shoulder. "Lennie. You gonna be sick like you was last night." George misses having someone to love him. You can tell this as he says "Guys like us, that work on the ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world. They got no family. They don't belong no place." I believe that this shows a slight glimpse of George's real feelings, though I think that he is too afraid to disclose his true feelings for the sake of Lennie. Crooks is also a ranch worker. He takes care of the horses and gets them ready in the morning for working in the fields. Crooks is a black man with a crooked back, he got his crooked back after being kicked in the back by a horse. I think that his name is meant to signify his crooked back. He lives away from the other ranch workers in a small room in the barn. Reading books alone in his room is how he passes time when not working. He isn't allowed in the bunkhouse where the other men sleep as he is a black man. So it is easy to see he is very lonely as most of the men won't even speak to him. The only time he can come into the bunkhouse is on Christmas day when to boss gives them a case of whisky. "A guy goes nuts if he ain't got nobody. Don't make a difference who the guy is, long's he's with you"¦ I tell ya a guy gets too lonely, an' he gets sick." I believe that this defiantly proves that Crooks is one of the lonely characters in the book. Curley is another lonely character on the ranch his father is the boss. This is the only reason that the other men tolerate him and I believe that he knows this. Although he is fortunate to have a wife unlike the other men, he is still lonely as they have an extremely poor relationship. Curley is unpopular with the men on the ranch, he is a moody person, small and he has a thing against big people. Curley has a wife, she tells Lennie that he gets in a mood when she speaks to other men, and that he treats her bad all the time. She also tells Lennie "I get Lonely. You can talk to people, but I can't talk to anybody but Curley. Else he gets mad. How'd you like not to talk to anybody?" Curley's wife feels very lonely, she can't talk to any of the other men on the ranch except for Curley, or he gets mad with her. There are no other women to socialise with on the ranch. She speaks of running away and that nobody would ever see her again if she did. This shows that she is an extremely lonely character on the ranch. Another way that you can tell she is a lonely character is that she is never referred to by name, this shows nobody has taken time to even discover her name. Therefore it must be assumed that the men see her as an object rather than a person. Curley and she don't have a good relationship at all you know this, as they never have a conversation during the story. Also she married him to escape her mother and believes that he is strong as a person and that he has power over the workers on the ranch when it is his father who owns the ranch. There is another lonely character on the ranch, Candy, he is and old man who lost one of his hands in a machine accident, so now he sweeps up in the yard. Candy sweeps while the other men are out in the fields. Candy has an old dog but the book doesn't give you the dogs name Candy just calls her 'girl'. The dog is Candy's only companion whilst the other men are out in the fields. During the story the dog is shot due her old age, after she is shot he tells George "I ought to of shot that dog myself, I shouldn't ought to of let no stranger shoot my dog." Another worker on the ranch shot the dog. Candy is one of the older workers on the ranch and realises that he is too old to live out his dreams now. Also he has no idea what he is going to do when he is 'canned'. He has no hopes for the future and no real friends therefore he is one of the loneliest characters on the ranch. George faces a similar predicament, George knows that he must be the one too kill Lennie, because if anyone else does it they will do it inhumanly. This is why he shoots Lennie while talking to him as to distract him, where as Curley would "shoot for his guts." Although all of the characters are lonely I feel that these characters are the loneliest. Georges saying sums up all of the ranch workers loneliness by saying " Guys like us, that work on the ranches, are the loneliest guys in the world."   

The Lonely Characters in "Of Mice and Men" Of Mice and Men is set during the 1930s about the time of the American depression. It focuses upon two men who are raising money to buy and live on a small farm of their dreams. They work on the...

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William Shakespeare creates a... William Shakespeare creates a lot of tension for the audience in Romeo and Juliet during act one scene five, where we see Romeo and Juliet fall deeply in love. The audience know that they are both from feuding families- the Capulets and Montagues before Romeo and Juliet themselves discover it, which creates tension. Shakespeare also creates tension by showing contrasts in the moods and emotions of the characters, particularly Tybalt and Capulet. He also uses different styles of language, acting and dramatic irony to produce more tension within this scene. The atmosphere at the beginning of the scene is very bright, entertaining and effective. This is because Capulet is welcoming his guests in a humorous and cheerful manner. 'Welcome gentlemen. Ladies that have their toes unplagued with corns will walk about with you. Ah ha my mistresses, which of you all will now deny to dance?' This quote is extracted from the Capulet's welcoming speech, clearly in a good mood. This shows the merry mood he intends for the party to have and his humour and jolliness rubs off on the rest of the guests, as the party eventually breaks into song and dance. We can also see from his speech these intentions when he says 'A hall a hall, give room and foot it girls'. This also shows his encouragement and eagerness to get the festivities started. When Romeo first speaks of Juliet 'Oh she doth teach the torches to burn bright"¦' it injects a lot of romance into the scene. Firstly Romeo uses a number of metaphors and similes to emphasise his view of Juliet's beauty, 'So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows'. This shows that Romeo compares her to being the most beautiful in the room and standing out from the rest of the women, as the dove symbolises Juliet and her beauty amongst the dark crows. 'It seems she hangs upon the cheek of the night"¦' This quote is Romeo descriptively stating his overwhelming his praising view of her and her radiance, which again effectively shows the romance and passion. This part of the scene is a sonnet, which is very poetic compared to the other sections of this scene, making it a unique style from the rest of the language within the scene. When Tybalt realises a Montague is present at his family's party, he becomes very outraged and rather hotheaded that they had dared to trespass the party. 'This by voice should be a Montague, fetch me a rapier boy.' This quote shows his sheer outrage and hatred towards the Montague family marking the beginning of conflict in order to get revenge for what they have done. So much does he feel angered that he is willing to disrupt the peaceful and merry mood of the party in order to do so. However surprisingly Capulet disagrees with this and a strong conversation develops between the two family members. 'Why, uncle t'is a shame"¦' 'Go to go to.' This quote shows that Capulet is intolerant of Tybalt's intentions to retaliate and the conversation becomes further heated, whilst seeing a different side to Capulet for the first time. 'You are a saucy boy. Is't so indeed?' This quote from Capulet shows an insult thrown at Tybalt being so insolent, noting that at the time of writing these words were considered to be rather strong, even though not seeming much now. In terms of how this part between the two men should be played, the actors should portray these lines by Capulet showing a strong contrast between his jolliness at the start of the scene to his anger at the present time. Both actors should show strong expressions whilst arguing to strongly emphasise the disagreements between the two hotheaded men to the audience. Body language is also important too. Whilst facing the audience, gestures should be used to again exaggerate the situation and the mood of the characters. Particularly in lines 90/91, Tybalt gives a number of warnings and further implications between the families for the future. Although at the end of the argument with Capulet he agrees to calm, he clearly shows this is only for the short term and he may use this as a reason to seek revenge and conflict with the opposing family. Tybalt is clearly going to be the first to make a move with the fights and revenge as shown in lines 88-91. 'Patience perforce with wilful choler makes my flesh tremble in their different greeting.' 'I will withdraw, but this intrusion shall, now seeming sweet, convert to bitterest gall.' Tension is increased for the audience, as they know who Romeo and Juliet are in terms of family ties, and the tension is also built up in this scene in many other ways. Firstly the tension is increased when Romeo and Juliet begin to talk on a one to one basis. 'My lips two blushing pilgrims ready to stand to smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss.' This quote gives evidence of Romeo being desperate to kiss Juliet- his object of affection, and compares her to being like a shrine to him. The tension builds because instead of an immediate embrace between them both, they talk romantically to each other for a while. This leaves the audience in suspense as to whether they kiss each other or not, and begin a romance. There is also hesitance between Romeo and Juliet questioning each other as to whether to kiss and if they have fallen in love with each other. 'Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too?' 'Ay pilgrims lips that that they must use in prayer.' These quotations give evidence of the couple's constant questioning of their possible love for one another. As the conversation intensifies and Romeo and Juliet are about to embrace tension therefore increases because the audience know that if they do, they shall both be eventually heartbroken when they discover their family identities, which are known to the audience already. This is an example in this scene of dramatic irony. In the final section of the scene, Romeo and Juliet discover separately who they both are. The tension increases by the fact that Romeo only discovers Juliet's identity by knowing who her mother is and catching on then to her Capulet household name. 'What is her mother?' 'Her mother is lady of the house"¦' 'Is she a Capulet? Oh dear account my life is my foe's debt.' This conversation between he and the nurse shows how he learns about Juliet and of the realisation that he is getting involved with a member of the opposing family- the Capulets. Note that Romeo asks indirectly about Juliet, which again causes tension because he is afraid that the nurse will discover his romantic intentions and that she as a result would ruin it. 'His name is Romeo, and a Montague"¦' This is spoken by the nurse to Juliet informing her of her worst fears like Romeo of their backgrounds. From these quotes therefore tension occurs when both realise from the nurse individually who they truly are, and the dismay that they both feel when they know that their true love for one another could be destroyed due to their name. 'My grave is like to be my wedding bed.' This quote from Juliet, states that she will either die unmarried or she will die if she cannot marry Romeo under all these circumstances. This is an omen for the future because she ironically dies later on as a result of all her love for Romeo. 'My life is my foes debt.' Romeo quotes this also when discovering about Juliet, means that his life is dependant on his enemy. This is again an omen for the future because he also dies as a result of his household enemy but Juliet in the end. This again is an example of dramatic irony whereby we see them speaking omens for the future, and then because of their romance becoming real. In conclusion Shakespeare has used many elements in order to create tension for the audience in this scene. He has used dramatic irony along with a build up in dialogue during Romeo and Juliet's conversation to create tension for the audience. This proves to be very effective upon analysing it. Also Shakespeare has developed an alternative style and use of language when Romeo describes the beauty and his love for Juliet. He uses a sonnet and poetic, romantic styles along with uses of similes and metaphors to emphasise his love for her. This was effective because it is a turning point when the audience views Romeo falling in love with the enemy, and from the style the tension increases for the audience as the irony again comes into effect. Shakespeare also adds lines into the lines of Romeo and Juliet when they discover their identities that imply hints for future events. These are also constructive because he mixes present and future occurrences in small hints and statements like the omens. The actors portraying all the characters in this scene would firstly show a contrast in Capulet's mood, from his jolly mood at the beginning of the scene to his heated conversation with Tybalt. It is important to use as much vocal facial and bodily expressions as possible in this scene. This is because there are so many feelings, and emotions to portray strongly to the audience. The scenes involving Romeo and Juliet should be acted passionately with lots of vocal expression. This is because the scenes are romantic and very dramatic in order to show to the audience the extent of their love.   

William Shakespeare creates a lot of tension for the audience in Romeo and Juliet during act one scene five, where we see Romeo and Juliet fall deeply in love. The audience know that they are both from feuding families- the Capulets and Montagues before Romeo and Juliet themselves...

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The Crucible is a play based...The Crucible is a play based on a true story set in the 17th century, about a closely-knit community in Salem, Massachusetts which from the accusations of girl "“ Abigail Williams "“ led to a witch hunt all over the town which ended up having over half of the town hung and the other half set free because they agreed when they were called witches but 'wanted to repent their sins'. Arthur Miller wrote Crucible in the mid 20th century as a parallel to the 'witch hunt' against communists and people with left wing views led by senator McCarthy in the 1950s. This involved making anyone with anything near to communist views made unemployable so that America wasn't 'taken over' by communism. Because this play very strongly conveyed Miller's views about McCarthyism at that time it was not able to be performed in theatres in America when it was first ready as any educated member of the audience could unravel the parallels that Miller made. In any play there are three things that can be determined by the play write apart from the script: the stage directions, the set, and the lighting. Miller has given directions very specifically on all three of these so that the play looks near to exactly as he first envisioned it to be and to keep the tension in the play working as it should. Throughout the play there are times where there is a lot of tension, uncertainty and drama. This helps to "suspend the belief" of the audience and keep them interested in the play. The main contributor to this build up is John Proctor whose quirky remarks and strange choices lead to the whole play becoming a bigger drama than any audience might have first thought. From even before the play has started John Proctor made a choice that was thought of to be very taboo "“ having an affair with Abigail. In the play, Abigail is 16. Although quite a young age to be running off with a middle-aged man was not as young as the real documents told: she was really 12, but in the 1950's the audience, no matter how educated would not have been able to cope with the story line of a 12 year old girl going and sleeping with a middle aged man so the dramatist changed the age to 16. After this early and disgraceful choice he continues to push the boundaries by choosing not to go to church. Since this was a Puritan and Quaker community the thought of not going to church would make many people cry blasphemy. But Proctor had a good reason, which was that he hated the way the Reverend Parris ran the ceremony. Not going set him aside as rouge and because of this conflict Proctor had with religion he increased the tension, as this is how the majority of tension is created in a play. He next makes a big decision to end his relationship with Abigail so to try to patch up his marriage and to try to start over. But Abigail doesn't take to this very well and accuses Proctor's wife of being a witch. Being his wife, the drama can thrive on the conflict within John and the conflicts he has focusing on this topic with both Abigail and Elizabeth. The conflict due to the now unrequited love of Abigail towards John led her to be more cunning and in her determination, comes a greater factor of tension and uncertainty into what she will do next. The decision that really increases the uncertainty is the decision Elizabeth "“ John's wife "“ makes to protect her husband over telling the truth. John previously said to the Danforth "she have never lied". Therefore when asked whether John had an affair with Abigail "“ earlier making it obvious that she knew of it "“ the audience expects her to say yes because she had never lied in her life, but to make the tension climax Miller makes her say no, which to an audience that had never seen the play before would shock, and enthral them at the same time. The main tension and drama building decision made by John Proctor is in Act 4: after being put in jail for not admitting to being a witch when accused, Danforth comes to see John, to supposedly set him free. All John has to do to be freed and not go to be hung on that very same day is to sign a piece of paper that says he admits to being a witch. Despite being advised by the comforting and wise Reverend Hail, he will not give Danforth the signed document. "But it's my name!" He makes a conscious decision to keep his self-respect, which is what a 'hero' in most stories and plays tries to achieve. By giving them the sheet of paper he would have signed his life away to a lie, this was something he could not do. Even after his wife forgave him for everything he did and apologised for everything she did to make him feel bad and then told him "whatever you will do it is a good man that does it" which would mean to her that she wouldn't care if he gave in to them. Despite all of this he puts all he can into maintaining his dignity and not giving in. He only told the truth and because he kept his name, even though he was hung he leaves the play having the audience on his side. Along with the choices there are some very subtle things that Miller uses to add to the atmosphere of the play. Firstly the language used predominantly in the play is colloquial language of the 17th century Quakers. This makes the characters much more realistic as the language they use is common with where they are and of the time. It also helps to show just how familiar everyone is with everyone living in Salem and that because of this anyone could be accused next. All Abigail needed to do was figuratively pull a name out of a hat, and accuse that person. But this type of language is not used in all parts. In the courtroom scene 3 the language changes to a much more formal version of this same dialect, mainly because of the presence of the judges who lived in another town and were unknown by the majority of people. Therefore the tension can build up more easily but since it is in a courtroom the people are unable to take the step onwards to climax this tension and so it just increases throughout the scene. Using the technique of conflict, Miller successfully created a drama with unexpected plot twists and betrayal that needed a basis of a true story to help it along with making believable characters and a believable witch hunt. Being a great contributor to the excitement that the play bring John Proctor is an essential character who drives the tension, drama and uncertainty in the play and when doing what is the right thing, he shows the audience that any person can change. He is just one example of a great character changing his morals.   

The Crucible is a play based on a true story set in the 17th century, about a closely-knit community in Salem, Massachusetts which from the accusations of girl – Abigail Williams – led to a witch hunt all over the town which ended up having over half of the town...

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