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In this essay I will be looking at two stories one written in the nineteenth century "The signalman" and the other in the twentieth century "Lamb to the Slaughter". I will look at these two stories and compare all the similarities and differences between them, especially in terms of style, content and language. At the beginning of Dahl's "Lamb to the Slaughter" Dahl sets the scene very well by using a lot of adjectives, this gives the reader a better description of where and when the story is set "the room was warm and clean the curtains drawn, the two table lamps alight "“ hers and the one by the empty chair opposite." "There was a slow smiling air about her" From these quotes we can see that Dahl has set the scene and it is happy and relaxed. At the beginning of "The Signalman" Dickens begins with speech, this makes you want to read on I think, he also uses the narrator to make the story more interesting. These are two very different ways of beginning a story, the readers expectation depends on how they interpret the beginning but I think that Dahl tried to make the reader ask them self who is this woman waiting why is she so happy, but Dickens on the other hand wants the reader to think who is this shouting who is this person telling the story, both beginnings make you want to read on. Dahl creates suspense by building the scene and using a lot of adjectives, this helps build up the suspense very well. Dickens builds suspense by keeping the characters very secretive so the reader is always asking questions so they will read on this I think is a very good way of building suspense. We aren't told what Patrick says to Mary in "Lamb to the Slaughter" because this would be a bit of a predictable story, I think not being told also creates more suspense. Where "Lamb to the slaughter" is set at home adds to the story it is homely but at the same time deadly because anything can happen behind closed doors "the room was warm and clean the curtains drawn, the two table lamps alight "“ hers and the one by the empty chair opposite." "The Signalman" is set in a valley like place on a train track this sets a scary mood because down there anything could happen "his post was in as solitary and dismal a place as ever I saw". Both of the stories were written at different times "Lamb to the Slaughter" in the twentieth century and "The signalman" in the nineteenth century so the styles are very different. "Lamb to the slaughter" is written in the third person and so there is lots of direct speech, but "The Signalman is written in the first person and so there is not really any direct speech. I think direct speech is better and adds more to the story. I think the language used by Dickens, because it is older makes the story more eerie. The stories do have different purposes I think they both have morals but they are very different in the way that I think Dahl wrote his story with a moral but also made the story funny to prove that not all stories have to be serious to have a moral. On the other hand, Dickens wrote his story to warn people. Dickens didn't support new technology like trains and so wanted to warn people about the terrible tragedies that could happen. Dahl, on the other hand, wanted to express that even if you love someone they can still make you angry enough to kill them. I think both of the authors use the same sort of main characters even though the stories were completely different! Both of the characters had been very nervous and unsure about themselves. I think the authors used violence and death to put across their stories because it grabs people's attention and makes them think about what is going on in the stories. I don't think it is very important that the stories are written in the First person or the third person "she might as well have hit him with a steel club" "I was not sure, I told him that I did fully understand" these ways of telling the story are just as good as each other. Dickens wrote about a train killing someone because people were afraid of trains in those days, in 1866 trains were relatively a new invention. Dickens didn't support new technology and trains so in his story he could express his dislike for train and warm people of what they could do. Dahl's massage had more of a moral to it the concerns about the rights and wrongs murder. He used Mary Maloney as an example that murder is a spur of the moment thing and you can even use the anger to hurt someone you love. This shows that both writers suggested in their stories that new technology is not always helpful for example trains, forensic science-finger printing etc. For the time we are in now Dahl is more up to date and writes for a more modern audience and often his work is written for television and radio, he would assume that his readers would know what a typical household would look like because they would have seem many on the television. This is because Dahl's story was written in 1979 when the TV and radon had been invented "she carried it upstairs, holding the thin bone-end of it with both her hands, and she went through the living room she saw him." This quote does not use a lot of description about what the living room and stairs etc looked like because it would be the same as on TV every other suburban household. Dickens wrote his story in a lot more detail because people only had access to books and written words they would need to build a picture of this story in their imaginations, and because this story was a ghost story this would have thrilled and excited them. Televisions were not invented when this story was written in 1866 "there was a fire, a desk for an official book in which he had to make certain entries, a telegraphic instrument with its dial, face, and needles, and a little bell of which he had spoken." This quote uses a lot of description because if you had a TV you would have probably seen an example of a signalman box or a little hut before but because the television hadn't been invented Dickens had to use a lot of description. I have found the difference between these two stories are, "The signalman" is supernatural "Lamb to the Slaughter" is not, both writers have a serious but different purpose for writing their stories, both writers suggest that modern science and technology don't give you all the answers in life, both have central characters who have seem to have "lost their minds", both writers involve violence and death in their stories to draw the readers attention, and the ending to both stories had a twist which in both of the stories I did not expect. "Lamb to the Slaughter" is very funny but at the same time ends on a cliff hanger, but "The signalman" is not really a cliff hanger but leaves you thinking.
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In this essay I will be looking at two stories one written in the nineteenth century "The signalman" and the other in the twentieth century "Lamb to the Slaughter". I will look at these two stories and compare all the similarities and differences between them, especially in terms of style, content and language. At the beginning of Dahl's "Lamb to the Slaughter" Dahl sets the scene very well by using a lot of adjectives, this gives the reader a better description of where and when the story is set "the room was warm and clean the curtains drawn, the...
but different purpose for writing their stories, both writers suggest that modern science and technology don't give you all the answers in life, both have central characters who have seem to have "lost their minds", both writers involve violence and death in their stories to draw the readers attention, and the ending to both stories had a twist which in both of the stories I did not expect. "Lamb to the Slaughter" is very funny but at the same time ends on a cliff hanger, but "The signalman" is not really a cliff hanger but leaves you thinking.

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Topic: Hunting with Dogs Running...Topic: Hunting with Dogs Running for your life, but yet knowing deep inside you that you're going to be ripped limb from limb. The last thing you hear is your screams for help and the sound of cheering by a group of humans. The last thing you see is your killer's face covered in your blood. Some people call this morally wrong act of cruelty a 'sport'. It is turning into a more common 'sport' around the country and it needs to stop"¦not for the distant future, but NOW! Reports and tests show that 96.9% of animals hunted and then killed by dogs die a slow painful death due to their atrocious injuries. The other 3.1% of animals killed by dogs die from exhaustion and die more quickly from its injuries. Either way the hunted animal dies from the effects of being hunted. Surely this has to stop? "Why" do you say? Well 'why' do hunting packs only hunt foxes, deer's, hares and minks? I'll tell you why, its because these animals don't defend themselves against the hounds. They aren't strong enough to attack back. They just run, run as far as they can go, until the hounds catch up and kill them. Easy targets. More animals hunted in one go. Quick and 'effective' games. If this isn't cruelty to animals, then I don't know and can't see, what is! RSPCA, CPHA and LACS are the most highly praised organisations that try to prevent these hunting games from carrying on. They try to their highest ability to try and ban hunting with dogs, but sadly the government and the House of Lords are too strong and believe this morally wrong blood sport is perfectly 'normal'. They say the sport can go ahead because it keeps control over the numbers of Foxes, Deer's, Hares and Minks. However, studies show that the number of those animals doesn't need controlling and could decrease at alarming rates in the near future. If they thought this sport helps keep control and that it's the only way, well they're wrong! Scientists show that the only rightful way to keep control over the numbers of animals is not to hunt them with dogs but to shoot them with a type of tranquilliser which would cause the animal to die a quiet, non painful death. This is kind to the animal without the outrage of a bloodthirsty dog ripping them limb from limb. Are the government and the House of Lords being stubborn? Scared to face up to the situation and the blood sports team members? Among the supporters of hunting there is a fear that if it is banned there will be a severe shortage of jobs in rural areas. However I feel that this argument does not stand up in today's modern world with its very low overall unemployment rates. In addition to this the rapid increase in opportunities for working at home coupled with the advances in computer technology and the associated training courses available make it easier to replace any lost jobs. "Hunting is natural. Humans have been hunting since the moment we were created, so why stop now?" says Mr Robert Burns, a farmer from Somerset. Everybody aggress initially we were barbaric in nature but surely we're suppose to have progressively become more civilised. Or have we? Picture the scene: You're looking for food for your loved one and your 4 children. You hear a noise, which you've heard before, but you carry on hunting for food for your family. Then suddenly out of the bushes jump 15 hounds, thirsty for blood, your blood. You run until you can run no more; you collapse. Fighting for your breath, you try to get up but before you know it you're being ripped apart. You're dead. Your body is covered in blood and taken away by a human on a horse. Your skin to make clothes. Your flesh to be eaten by your killers. Your bones crushed to mark various items. Your family is left to starve. Your family is dead. But worse the, perpetrators revel in it. The question we need to ask is, who are the real animals, the Foxes, Deer's, Hares and Minks, or US? Let us make positive steps to change this situation by getting the law changed to ban hunting with dogs.  

Topic: Hunting with Dogs Running for your life, but yet knowing deep inside you that you're going to be ripped limb from limb. The last thing you hear is your screams for help and the sound of cheering by a group of humans. The last thing you see is...

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English Coursework 7th July 2003 ...English Coursework 7th July 2003 Ghosts epitomize the mysterious and supernatural, and as there is no sufficient evidence of them being true, they are seen as nonmaterial embodiments which appear in the depths of human imagination. Their correlation with death, misery, grief and depression makes them an excellent utensil for portraying gruesome and unnatural images in books, films and other sorts of media. However, successful though ghost stories have been throughout time, they where not fully established as an individual genre until as late as the mid 18th century to the early 19th century. The Victorian age brought some new features to ghost stories, but the main characteristic was the same as that of most ghost stories; the ability to ensnare thoughts and feelings of fear and unease in the readers' minds. In addition to this, Victorian ghost stories provide firstly more specific characters' roles in that the main character is typically shown as a person whose belief in supernatural occurrences is either weak or none whatsoever. The minor characters on the other hand are shown as mysterious people appearing now and then throughout the story and transparently concealing information about the paranoia. Secondly, I have come to realise that generally all Victorian ghost stories are set in a specific, typical setting. A large, deep-rooted manor, castle, monastery or cemetery usually comes in use. I also found that the Victorian stories have a precise order in which the factors above are introduced. Firstly the main character/s are established in varying detail-sometimes in depth to give the reader a clear picture and other times a vague description to keep the characters attitude and appearance unclear. The minor characters, however, are introduced into the story at varying times depending on there importance in the story. After the introduction of the characters, a typical Victorian ghost story will focus on the setting before immersing into the actual plot of the story. These aspects are found in most Victorian ghost stories to help create that tension and unease in what makes a typical ghost story. The saying 'Don't judge a book by it's cover' is often overlooked when looking at the title and cover of a book. Regardless of the well known saying the title and cover does have a massive influence on a persons opinion on a book. It is almost a 6th Sense in that as soon as a person looks at a book it gives them an indistinct idea to how interesting it will be, what the story is about and if they would like to read it. The titles of the books I have studied are "The Old Nurse's Story" by Elizabeth Gaskell published in 1852, "The Red Room" by Herbert George Wells 1894 and "The Signal Man" by Charles Dickens 1965. I also watched a film called "The Turn Of The Screw" by Henry James book published in 1898 to give me a different perspective of Victorian ghost stories i.e. though someone else's imagination. On first impressions, the story title that grabbed my attention was "The Red Room". I think H. G. Wells deliberately picked the word red in the title to immediately provoke strange and scary images in the readers mind. The word is very cleverly used in a way that does not give a specific meaning of the word in the title but brings many thoughts into the readers mind as to what it could mean. I initially thought of the words fire, danger, blood and death. But on second thought I think the title says the story would be set in a house with some sort of haunted room i.e. the red room, where there possibly may have been or may will be an occurrence of fanatical danger. "The Old Nurse's Story" was, in my opinion, a surprising and lacklustre title for a ghost story. It does not create interest or appeal and is overall a really boring title. Personally, I would have been reluctant to have read this book after glancing at the title. The other two story titles where not as straight forward to interpret as an obvious ghost story title as "The Red Room". However, both did make me think about the meanings. Firstly, "The Signal Man" initially meant nothing to me, but on second thought I was reminded of the year in which it was published. The Victorian Era brought many new inventions, one of which was the 'cutting-edge of technology' at the time, the railway system. The majority of the country had very little knowledge and experience with railroads and the railway system. Which made the title ambiguous and mysterious, perfect for a typical Victorian ghost story. The title "The Signal Man" is also beneficial as it does not give too much away about the story but enough to make you think about it and pursue to finish the story. "The Turn Of The Screw" was very difficult to interpret and it was only after watching most of the film that you truly understand what it means. To begin with I thought without watching any of the film or taking into account that it is a ghost story that the film would be something to do with a type of disagreement or argument, maybe even a war where something takes place to change the story i.e. the turning point or the turn of the tide. My second thought came after remembering the saying 's/he's got a screw loose in her/his head' meaning that the person has got not only a less able mind, but they have actually deteriorated to that state from a previously healthy mental state. Hence, the screws mental state have become loose have deteriorated. It turned out that my second interpretation of the title was correct. The film was about the gradual relapsing of the main characters mental state. I think that Henry James choice of the word "screw" was very clever and calculated, it is what makes the title suitable for the story. As you can see, already there is a general pattern emerging throughout the stories. All the stories except "The Old Nurse's Story" have titles possessing hidden meanings creating mystery of gruesome matters creating fear which are both essential ingredients in a satisfactory ghost story. It is vital for the ghost stories to have these interesting and attention-grabbing titles that incite feelings of apprehension and unease, that way the reader is already interested before even starting to read the book. The introduction of a story is as important as the title. A good title should be supported by an interesting introduction. A bad introduction, like a bad title, may discourage the reader. H. G. Wells' story, "The Red Room", told in 1st person, opens in speech. The narrator, who is also the protagonist, begins with the line "I can assure you that it will take a very tangible ghost to frighten me". H. G. Wells has again chosen his words skilfully. This line immediately makes it clear that the main character is cynical of any supernatural beings. However, he does not rule out his belief in ghosts totally which leaves assumptions in the readers mind. The word "ghost" itself appearing in the very first line works well and is very concise. It creates tension and grabs the readers attention right away. Throughout the next few paragraphs the minor characters are introduced. They are described by the narrator according to their defects. For example the narrator describes one of the servants as ""¦the man with the withered arm"¦". He also illustrates the way this servant looked to be 'askance'. Other characters are further depicted as strange, elderly and eerie with words and phrases like "old", "aged", "more wrinkled" and with "pale eyes" and "decaying yellow teeth". The narrator himself is, however, little described. All the reader finds out is that he is twenty eight years of age and is sceptical of paranormal happenings. The inadequate information creates mystery as to who he is and why he is there, this makes the readers want to read on and find out the answers to their questions. The words describing the servant however give the reader clear images of creepy old people again adding to the tension and build up to the climax. Charles Dickens' "The Signal Man" starts similarly with speech and is also written in 1st person. However, unlike the direct approach of "The Red Room", "The Signal Man" starts tamely with the line "Haloa! Below there!". This first line gives an immediate view of a jovial person and does not have any mention of anything to do with ghosts. In the next paragraph the narrator starts questioning the choice of decisions the signal man is making such as looking the obviously wrong way when greeted. This gives the idea that maybe the signal man would rather be left alone as a loner. The signal man also says very little throughout the introduction of the story, which gives a puzzling and spooky feel to his character. It must also be noted that the reader does not yet know who the characters are i.e. the narrator and the signal man, again creating inscrutability. In addition to this the description of the setting is also prolonged and is written in a way that makes it difficult to understand where exactly the story is set and so once more intensifying the mystery and encouraging the reader to read on. Moving on, the narrator can be seen as very interested in the works and eager to find out more about the place. This can be deducted from the line "Is there any path by which I can come down and speak to you?". As the story continues, the narrator continually shows an interest in the rail works and the signal man's job. The signal man himself is eventually described as ""¦ a dark sallow man, with a dark beard and rather heavy eyebrows", this sentence again helps the reader imagine a sinister, lonely man who seems to have been isolated from any connection with other people. Unlike the "The Red Room", the introduction of "The Signal Man" does not have much tension or fear. But the mystery created in the opening of the "The Signal Man" works just as well and is in my opinion a successful introduction. The introduction of "The Old Nurse's Story" begins, like "The Red Room", with the description of characters, in 1st person. However, unlike "The Red Room", the descriptions start off as pleasant. The first line "You know, my dears, that your mother was an orphan, and an only child"¦" straight away tells the reader that the nurse is telling the story to the children of one of the characters. The nurse then goes on to describe herself as "honest" and "good". These words and the line ""¦though you've all of you been fine enough in your turns; but for sweet, winning ways, you've none of you come up to your mother" gives the reader a view of the nurse as a person who is proud of herself, caring, kind and loving. Then when the servants are described, Elizabeth Gaskell typically wished to portray them as mysterious and Enigmatic. Words such as "cold", "grey" and "stony" are used to describe one of the servants. The narrator, Hester the nurse, takes much time in the introduction to layout the history, jobs and the whereabouts of the family. By doing this she adds sincerity and practicality in the story. This story is ideal for patient readers. It does not start, like "The Red Room" or "The Signal Man" with fear or mystery, but builds up to a satisfying climax where the at first insignificant details help the reader to understand the story fully. Although it works reasonably well with this particular story, the method Elizabeth Gaskell uses in her introduction is not best suited to all ghost stories. The mysterious and fearful openings of the other stories are far more apt and make the ghost story a lot more effective. The setting of a ghost story helps the writer create the right sort of mood for a story. It also helps the reader imagine the story more clearly and understand the story better. As I have said before, a typical Victorian ghost story is usually set in an isolated and mysterious manor. Elizabeth Gaskell establishes the setting for "The Old Nurse's Story" in the second chapter. It is set in Furnivall Manor, and described as "overshadowed", "desolate" and "grand", the manor and setting are typical and instantly incite moods of trepidation. Which, for a ghost story, is an ideal frame of mind. The description of the setting is continued throughout the next few pages using words like "dark", "gloomy" and "vast". Elizabeth Gaskell's setting is unlike her title, it creates a lot of interest and is a very good background for a ghost story. Similarly, "The Turn Of The Screw" by Henry James is set in an isolated countryside in Bly. Again it is a big house accompanied only by servants. The typical settings of both these stories provoke moods of apprehension and depression. Charles Dickens' "The Signal Man" is however set in a entirely atypical place. The setting for this story is a signal box found in a railway station. It was a brave adventure into a new setting by Charles Dickens. However, his attempt to establish the place as an innovative idea for a ghost story setting failed as the set turned out to be the uniform mysterious and isolated place found in a typical Victorian ghost story. The narrators description of the signal box shows this. The words "dismal", "solitary" and "gloomy" and the phrase "as if I had left the natural world" where used, creating the typical mystery and isolation. So regardless of the extreme diversity, the setting of "The Signal Man" by Charles Dickens has the same affect as does "The Turn Of The Screw" and "The Old Nurse's Story". The last story "The Red Room" is set in Lorraine Castle a typically grim environment. H. G. Wells portrays the inside of the castle by repeatedly describing passages and stairways using words similar to "dusty", "shadowy" and "chilly". By means of these types of words H. G. Wells, like the other authors, creates the typical but vital ambience of unease and fright found in a Victorian ghost story. The styles of suspense found in the four different stories I have studied fluctuate. The longer stories like "The Old Nurse's Story" have more moments of suspense. Whereas "The Red Room", which is considerably shorter, builds up to one final climactic moment of suspense. It can be argued that the more moments of suspense the better a story is and vice versa. However, I have come to see that with only one moment of suspense, H. G. Wells was able to contemplate on other aspects like the setting, the characters and his psychosomatic use of words in much more detail. He was able to use these to his advantage to build up to a final climax. The introduction is by no accident prolonged. H. G. Wells carefully lays down his foundations for what promises to be a great finale. The exploitations of the words "Red" and "ghost" in the title and first line are two examples of his psychological use of words. This choice of words, his description of the characters by their defects, and his continuous portrayal of the castle as "shadowy", all help the writer to create the right sort of mood and encourage the reader to read on. He also uses repetition effectively to make the servants sound more sinister. The lines "It's your own choosing" and "This night of all nights!" are repeated many times by the servants previously described as "the man with the withered arm" and "the old woman", respectively. Now that the reader has become interested, the story starts to accelerate as the protagonist enters the "Red Room". Upon entrance, he describes how the duke had come out of this room and fallen down the stairs to his death. He also talks of the death of the duke's wife. The narrator then says that the "Red Room" is the "scene of my vigil". Hence, finally revealing the reason for his being there. He then goes on to describe the darkness of the room again using the word "shadowy" among others. The narrators talk of the "tongue of flame" that left "an ocean of mystery and suggestion beyond its island of light" reinforces the darkness in the room and suggests that a single candle is not enough. This suggestion questions the narrators nerves as clearly unease is creeping upon him now he is alone. The isolation and fear in the room now creates an excellent atmosphere for the readers as they sense the climax is imminent. The narrator shows increasing apprehension as the story continues and in an attempt to consolidate himself he decides to light other candles. The build up to the culmination continues as all of a sudden a candle extinguishes. At this the narrator humours himself by saying "By Jove! That draught's a strong one!" Then the climax begins, as to the narrators bewilderment two more candles go off. He tries to revive the now quickly dying candle lights but they start to go out in more numbers. The events in the room are now denting the narrators firm non-belief in ghosts, he does not now what is extinguishing the candles and panic-stricken, he starts to talk to himself. Eventually all the candles go out and only the fireplace remained as the source of light and comfort. The reader then finds out one possible reason for which H. G. Wells chose the title "The Red Room". The narrator describes how the embers in the grate were "splashing red reflections upon the furniture" depicting "The Red Room". The fireplace ultimately terminates. He then suggests that he was possibly "struck" by someone as well as "battering" himself as he moved around the room in search of the door. The pinnacle of the story comes as he finally falls to the ground, unconscious. In a disappointing conclusion he is woken by the servants. They start to converse about the narrators experience of the night before. Upon questioning as to what haunts the room the narrator explains that something does in fact haunt the room, he claims that this thing is nothing but fear, and all the odd happenings of the past were all due to human fear of ghosts and the supernatural and not actual ghosts. However, this leaves unanswered questions in the readers mind such as who or what actually did extinguish the candles. The closing paragraph of the story then provokes more questions. The servants speech does not clearly say who is the actual cause of the terrible happenings. His mention of the countess suggests that maybe her ghost is to blame rather then the narrators idea of fear being in the room. Furthermore, it is unclear as to what he means by "this house of sin". The excellent title, introduction and build up to this story makes the conclusion particularly disappointing. Charles Dickens' "The Signal Man" was in contrast to "The Red Room" a more lengthy story. However, the story surprisingly does not incorporate much moments of suspense, instead it is made interesting mainly by the mystery found throughout the story. "The Signal Man" is set in an isolated place and, due to the signalman's working hours, is an almost fully nocturnal story. The atmosphere created by Charles Dickens is not of fear but an eerie silence. Most part of the story consists of the signal man telling the narrator about his previous sightings and as the narrator suggests that he may have imagined it, questions are left in the readers mind as to if there really is a ghost. These question in the readers mind encourage the reader to read on in search of answers. The actual climax arrives all of sudden when the narrator finds the signal man dead upon arrival one night at the signal box. The story ends with a twist as the narrator discovers how the signal man died upon hearing the words "Below there! Look out! Look out! For God's sake, clear the way" which where known to both the signal man and himself as previous words from the ghost. This line answers the main question in the readers mind. It means that the signal man did in fact see something and it was most probably a ghost. It also means that the ghost was trying to help the signal man by warning him of his death. This story gives a different aspect to ghosts and the supernatural, suggesting that not all ghosts are bad, a rarity in Victorian ghost stories. The story is also a sort of warning to the reader from Charles Dickens. It warns the reader of not only the dangers of the railroads, which he himself has experienced, but also of loneliness. The untimely death of the signal man leaves the reader in sorrow of a wasted life. It shows that anyone may pass away at anytime, and so life must not be wasted. The time you have with the people around you must be spent with enjoyment and not as the signal man did in isolation and pessimism. Elizabeth Gaskell's "The Old Nurse's Story" was the longest out of the three books I read so predictably it had many moments of suspense. The length of the book meant that Elizabeth Gaskell was able to play with the readers mind affectively, leading them to believe one thing through suspense then dying the story down, only to reproduce another moment of suspense later on. She was also able to give herself options through the different moments of suspense as to how the story would end. The readers enjoyment comes of this as well. By the time the final climax comes the reader has got many different ideas as to what may happen. The first out-standing moment of suspense comes when Miss Rosamond as a child disappears before claiming to have seen a women and child outside in the snow. At first Hester accuses Miss Rosamond of "telling stories" but then claims she will "catch it". This may confuse the reader as to what she really thinks, does she believe Miss Rosamond? And if so, by saying "I shall catch it" does she think it was a physical presence rather then supernatural? The reaction of Miss Furnivall is also puzzling, she asks for "mercy" and "forgiveness" and also says "It is many a long year ago"¦". She describes the child seen by Miss Rosamond as "evil", "wicked" and "naughty" giving the reader the impression that Miss Furnivall once knew this child. Furthermore, the mysterious servant Mrs. Stark attempts to keep Miss Furnivall quiet, as if she doesn't want the concealed information to become known to Hester. This produces more questions as to what happened between Miss Furnivall and the child. All these questions keep the reader interested and play a part in the enjoyment of the story later on. The best moment of suspense in the story comes in the very last chapter. It starts with Miss Furnivall claiming to have heard her father. At the same moment Miss Rosamond awakens from her sleep. The others listen out and then they too hear the voices. Hester, the narrator, describes the voices as "screams" and said that she "dared not speak" in fright. Then when Miss Rosamond says the line "Hester, I must go! My little girl is there; I hear her; she is coming! Hester, I must go!" and starts to make for the voices the reader understands the link between the girl in the snow and Miss Rosamond. The child is in fact Miss Rosamond's daughter. This satisfying link and the hysteria shown by Miss Rosamond add to the already tension filled atmosphere and persuade the reader to carry on. Then the climax arrives as the doors to a hall are opened with a "thundering crash" and the ghosts appear. The narrator describes the man as "tall", "old" and with "gleaming eyes" who is accompanied by a "beautiful" woman and child. Miss Rosamond continuously pleads with Hester to let her join the "terrible phantoms". "I must go!" she says in a fanatic manner as if possessed. The reader then discovers the reason for which Miss Furnival had acted weird, upon hearing about the child at first. As the man lifted his crutch as if to strike the child Miss Furnivall cries out "Oh, father! Father! Spare the innocent child!". The ghosts, now including the ghost of the young Miss Furnivall, recreate the past. It seems to have a devastating affect on Miss Furnivall as she is emotionally scared, "death-stricken" as Hester describes. The last few sentences "Alas! Alas! What is done in youth can never be undone in age! What is done in youth can never be undone in age!" said by Miss Furnivall provides the reader with an extremely satisfying conclusion. These last few sentences sum up the general point or moral Elizabeth Gaskell is trying to say- unsettled problems will repeatedly haunt you until they are resolved. The last story, "The Turn Of The Screw", had a major advantage on displaying suspense over the other stories, simply because it was a film. The sound inside a persons imagination is not really there, only pictures can truly be imagined. But in a film great atmosphere can be created by music. A pulsating sound can very easily create tension and suspense. I have also seen that a sudden burst of sound following a long and quiet eerie tone of sound works particularly well and makes the viewer jump. This method was used throughout "The Turn Of The Screw" according to the appearances of the ghosts of the previous governess, Miss Jessel, and her supposed partner Peter Quint. So in terms of suspense, Henry James did not need to create much, the music does this for him. The story itself is based on mainly the protagonistwho is also the narrator's psychological state. The fact that the narrator is the only one that sees these ghosts other then the children can make the audience believe that she is imagining them. Then when the final climax comes the viewers are again left unsure. Myles, the young boy, is in the arms of the governess when he dies and it is indefinite if the governess killed him or if it was the ghosts. This uncertainty is what makes the ending of "The Turn Of The Screw" substandard. The actors and actresses, however, fit perfectly and are an excellent choice of the producers. Henry James' character Myles is especially good, his outer perfection creates a great base for his dark side. Henry James uses the line "When I'm good I'm good, when I'm bad I'm very bad" through this character to show the viewers that a person can be both evil and good. Three out of four of the stories I have studied possess a typical setting, either in a castle or manor. The mystery surrounding the ancient buildings is also without question an important factor and along with the isolation and fear found in typical ghost stories, provides an excellent atmosphere for the writer to build his/her climax. "The Signal Man" has this atmosphere and so, even though it is not typically set its setting has the same effect as the other stories. The typical minor characters are likewise as important as the setting, the macabre characters provide added mystery and fear to the already tension filled atmosphere. The leading character is however typically seen as a person whose belief in ghosts is minute and because of this helps create yet another key aspect, practicality. The reader finds the sightings of a ghost by a sceptic more believable then a non-sceptic, hence producing sincerity. These are all features found in a typical Victorian ghost story. There is one other characteristic of a Victorian ghost story which has not been carried on in modern day ghost stories. It is seldom appreciated and is often overshadowed by the fear and mystery in the story. This aspect is the inner meanings of the stories, the views and concepts of the author. For example the warning from Charles Dickens and the moral in "The Old Nurse's Story". So, in conclusion of my study of nineteenth century ghost stories I have learnt that Victorian ghost stories have many similar trends. The setting, casting of major and minor characters and the mystery, fear and isolation are all typical, and along with practicality, sincerity and the all important hidden meanings are vital for a effective ghost story.  

English Coursework 7th July 2003 Ghosts epitomize the mysterious and supernatural, and as there is no sufficient evidence of them being true, they are seen as nonmaterial embodiments which appear in the depths of human imagination. Their correlation with death, misery, grief and depression makes them an excellent utensil...

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Dulce Et Decorum est, written... Dulce Et Decorum est, written by Wilfred Owen is a very realistic and brutal poem about the First World War. In his poem he describes the terrible conditions of which many Soldiers had to live, fight and for many soldiers die in. This contrasts greatly with the poem The Soldier written by Rupert Brooke. The Soldier is a very passionate patriotic poem about The First World War. The Soldier was written at the beginning of The First World War, whilst the whole Country was full with enthusiasm and with a patriotic feel. Although Rupert Brooke wrote about the War, he himself never made it there as he died on the journey there. This again may be another reason for his enthusiasm, as he had never experienced the grim and harsh reality of War. Dulce Et Decorum est was written towards the very end of the War, where most of the Country was tired and bitter of fighting. Wilfred Owen, the writer of Dulce Et Decorum est, had fought in the War and had experienced the horrific conditions of War. This is maybe the reason he decided to use the highly ironic title Dulce Et Decorum Est, which is a famous line created by the well-known academic Horace. It means it is sweet and fitting to fight for your country. This has a great contrast to the poems tone and content. The content of both of these poems has great relevance to the First World War. The Soldier has great means of pride, patriotism and religious content: "In hearts at peace, under an English heaven". By concentrating on these elements, Rupert Brooke creates a very different poem to Dulce Et Decorum est. In the first stanza he writes of how if he were to die in war, a corner of a foreign field will be "for ever England." This is very patoratic as it shows the reader, that he has no fear. He follows by decribing England as a beautiful land full of freedom, "Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam." This again is very patoratic as it shows the readers,potential soldiers, that England is something worth fighting for. He starts his next stanza by describing his own psyical and mental fight for his country, "And think, this heart, all evil shed away." This shows how he is not jut fighting for his Country he is also fighting a mental battle within himself. He follows by describing himself as a "pulse in the eternal mind." Which shows he is well aware he is only a very small piece of a large plan.It could also mean he is in pulse with God and that he believes God is backing them.This gives the reader great confidence as it shows that if God is backing them they must be in the right and therefore they will win.He then finishes the poem by using strong passionate personification to describe England, "Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day."This is another form of patronism as it gives the reader great pride for England. In Wilfred Owen's poem his point of view on the War is very different. He writes about treacherous events vividly which causes very clear images: "Gas! Gas"¦yelling out and stumbling". This vivid explanation causes a very clear disturbing picture, which makes the reader think of those who fought for their Country and those who died doing it. This therefore sends the reader a very different view of war. He starts Dulce Et Decorum est by describing the shocking state of which all soldiers were in and the horrific condition which they lived and fought in, "Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge." He then describes a vivid gas attack by using strong description and imagary, "Gas! Gas! Quick, boys! "“ An ecstasy of fumbling, Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time; But someone still was yelling out and stumbling, And flound"ring like a man in fire or lime." This is very penetrating as the strong imagary make you imagine the shocking conditions and the sudden attack. This therefore makes the prospect of the war a reality. His last stanza starts by describing the attack effect of the gas attack, "His hanging face, like a devil"s sick of sin; If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs." This is very frightening for the reader as you can vividly imagine it. It would also be frightening if you had family or friends in the war as it is very easy to imagine the horrific death happening to one of them. In the final stanza, Owen enforces that, should readers see what he has seen, the government would cease to send young men to war, all the while instilling visions of glory in their heads. No longer would they tell them the old lie, "Dulce Et Decorum est." The language used in The Soldier has many different descriptive techniques. Rupert Brooke decides to use personification to describe England: "Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day". This effect echances the certain theme of patronism around the poem, this is because the reader thinks of England as a woman and therefore something worth fighting for. He also uses a few examples of alliteration which is very promanent in old English poems. Alliterations has a gratifying effect on the sound, which gives a reinforcement to stresses, and can also serve as a subtle connection or emphasis of key words in a line, "And laughter, learnt of friends; and geltleness". Dulce et Decorum est also includes very clever and effective descriptive words which creates imminant images. He uses imagery in his poem so he is albe to create a picture in the readers mind which is needed to feel the full force of the poem "Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge." He also uses repetition, which is very effective and therefore creates a certain feel for the poem, "Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!" The tone of The Soldier is very different to the one of Dulce et Decorum as it has very different content. The Soldier has a very uplifting tone this is acheived by using patroatic and romantic content. It is also very optimistic as it ideailized England, this is very unrealistic. On the other hand the tone of Dulce et decorum est is very realistic as is it shows the true, depressing facts of war. Both of the poems impact the reader greatly as they are both written about the same topic,War.The Soldiers impacts the reader by showing a patoratic romantic view of the war. This impacts the reader as it shows great courage and the strong proud atmosphere which was drilled into everyone.On the other hand Dulce Et Decorum Est was written towards the very end of the War and impacts the reader by describing the horrific death of a soldier after being attacked by a gas bomb.This impacts the reader greatly as Wilfred Owen uses many strong language tecniques to create a vivid image. Although both poems are very much about World War One, they are both very different. The Soldier was written during the beggining of the war when the whole country was full with patronism and belief. This is the reason for its upbeat tone and optimism. It is full with religious and patroatic content which is created using strong personiication and descriptions.Dulce Et Decorum est was written towards the end of the War,this is the reason for its very harsh realistic view on the war. Wilfred Owen writes about the shocking conditions and how a fellow soldier died whilst he stood their helpless. He uses strong imagary to create vivid images in the readers mind.   

Dulce Et Decorum est, written by Wilfred Owen is a very realistic and brutal poem about the First World War. In his poem he describes the terrible conditions of which many Soldiers had to live, fight and for many soldiers die in. This contrasts greatly with the poem The...

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