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In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general in the king's army, and Thane of Glamis. The witches would be seen as a supernatural presence in the play to the Shakespearian audience, whereas the modern audience would see logical explanations to all that happens. Macbeth has a violent character, and these witches could just be mad women who provoke his "dark side". However, the witches are presented in the play as women with supernatural powers who make the day turn to night which can be explained simply by a solar eclipse and who make him hallucinate; "is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand...I have thee not, yet I see thee still"¦" The dagger leads Macbeth to the bedside of the king, where Macbeth kills king Duncan. This could have been controlled and planned by the witches, or could be Macbeth's mentality combined with his violent nature. However, if it is all controlled by the witches, this would show that Macbeth is not exactly responsible therefore the audience symapthise with him. King James I was very fascinated by witches and witchcraft, as was most the population at the time of shakespear. When Shakespeare wrote this for king James he made sure it would appeal to him. King James believed in witchcraft and supernatural powers. He believed that a group of witches attempted regicide against him. Including his ancestor, Banquo, in the story also assisted in allowing the king to see his own reflection in the play, especially in the scene of the 8 kings, where king James is the 8th king. "Thou shalt get kings, thought thou be none" this was said to Banquo in act 1 scene 3, coincidentally; Banquo is king James's ancestor. Even after the Shakespearian period, the public were fascinated by witchcraft. So fascinated, that they added another scene in the play, featuring Hecate, goddess of witchcraft. Act 3 scenes 5 The Shakespearian audience and the Elizabethan audience would have thought the witches to be the most powerful element in the play. The first scene and act of the play is of the witches. Theatrical effects, like thunder and lightning, are staged to add effects and intrigue the audience. Dark, gloomy and "evil" effects are used to represent the witches and their control over Macbeth. The first scene contains a mention of meeting Macbeth; this provides a clear link to him. The witches also discuss in which weather conditions they wish to meet; this could be waiting for the next particular conditions to meet in or choosing what weather situation to CREATE for their meeting with Macbeth. The witches plan to play with Macbeth's minds and lead him to the dark path on which they tread. This would interest the Elizabethan audience greatly, as they did not have our modern science and reasoning. The believed that witches did indeed exist, and had supernatural powers to control and amuse themselves with average human minds. An Elizabethan audience at Hampton Court in 1606 would have found this powerful and intriguing, and Shakespeare's portrayal of the witches on stage may have even left them feeling weary or shaken.] The atmosphere the witches seemed to create was magical; it was dark and dull yet powerful, and in some cases, amusing. They always seemed to appear when the weather conditions are poor or within a storm, and in darkness. ""¦Her choppy fingers"¦skinny lips"¦your beards"¦" This is Banquo"s description of the witches in Act 1 Scene 3, Macbeth and Banquo"s first encounter with the witches. "Her choppy fingers", meaning chapped, red and rough, would be common as they worked with their hands, in sowing, cooking etc. along with skinny lips. These were popular features for lower and working class women. However, they have beards, which were recognised as the uttermost ugliness in women, and showed that they are either cursed, or had a presence of masculinity in them. The speech is convincing yet fascinatingly powerful, for example, the use of riddles and antitheses "when the hurly-burly's done, when the battles lost and won" What else makes their speech interesting is that they use rhyme constantly, almost as if everything said is part of a bewitching continuous chant. The witches' powers are recognised and compared in Act 1 Scene 3. The following quotes will show what they are capable of: "¢"Killing swine" -Death of animals back then were always considered witch-related. "¢"In a sieve I'll tither sail" "“witches were thought able to sail in a sieve "¢"like a rat without a tail" "“witches were also thought to have the power to morph into any animal; however they would have no tail! "¢"I'll do, I'll do and I'll do" "“the witches threaten to cause the sailor harm and mischief using the above mentioned powers "¢"I'll give thee wind" "“able to cause the wind to blow "¢"I myself have all the others" "“this witch has powers over all winds to mischief. "¢ "All the quarters that they know I' the shipman's card" "“she can stop ships from docking safely so that he does not arrive ashore. "¢"Dwindle, peak and pine"¦bark cannot be lost yet it shall be tempest tost" "“the witch will make him thin, weak and frail and play a storm around his ship. When describing what they had done to the sailor's wife in Act 1 Scene 3, it is obvious that they had no respect or sympathy towards ordinary human beings: "Give me". Rather than asking the sailors wife to give her a chestnut, the witch ordered her to. "Rump-fed ronyon" "“this is an amusing quote but again shows the lack of respect the witches have for ordinary people. However, when they meet Macbeth and Banquo they use respectful terms; this may be mockery or an attempt to gain their trust so as to play on their minds. "All hail"¦" this phrase is used repeatedly, I believe it is to flatter Macbeth and to make him believe what they predict. The audience would be surprised and would have more reasons to believe in the witches as the predictions are revealed. The first prediction is "hail Macbeth, Thane of Cowdor". This would be a surprise as no one knows of the death of the Thane of Cowdor but the King and his court, and Macbeth believes that he still lives. There is no other explanation for the witches to know, other than that they have powers to get whatever knowledge they want. However, this prediction in my opinion should not be counted as so, as, even though Macbeth does not know, he has already in the previous scene been appointed Thane of Cowdor "Go pronounce his present death, and with his former title, greet Macbeth" The second prediction is "Hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter"¦" There is already a king, king Duncan of Dunsinane. This causes confusion, but also, this is where the plot thickens, so to speak. Both Macbeth and the audience see this and wonder if it has a deeper meaning. The way the witches continue to speak with rhyme and rhythm and in riddles; the rhyme and rhythm make the speech interesting whilst the riddles provide the element of mystery. The audience are bound to jump to conclusions from the predictions, as Macbeth does. The predictions will draw the audience more into the play. Macbeth at first is surprised with the quick disappearance of the witches, and wishes that they would have stayed and told him more, this myself and probably the audience would believe was the witches plan, to leave Macbeth with this 'craving' for more information. In Act 1 Scene 4, Macbeth states "let not the light see my black and deep desires", Macbeth is hoping that the prediction is true and has faith, as the witches predicted that he would become Thane of Cowdor, and upon his arrival, Macbeth was given the title. He actually wishes to become king and hopes for his prediction to come true as the previous one did. This quote was said to king Duncan himself, and so he did not wish to reveal his desires to take king Duncan's place. When the King spends a night at Macbeths castle, Macbeth and his wife see the opportunity to murder him. Upon hearing of the witches, Lady Macbeth was eager to fulfil her own and her husband's 'destiny' that she believed lay in these prediction; she encouraged the murder of king Duncan. They planned the murder, and she encouraged him though this is only my view. The witches seemed to have played a stronger part in the murder of Duncan. Macbeth visualized a dagger before him leading him to Duncan's bedside, he was unable to touch the dagger until then; "Is this a dagger which I see before me"¦I have thee not yet I see thee still"¦" Macbeth murders the king and continues his life casually; this shocks the audience, as they no longer know whether to consider him a villain or a hero. In act 4 scene 1 Macbeth returns to the witches greedily, in my opinion, to find answers and more predictions. He wishes to know his future. When Macbeth first hears that he cannot be defeated by anyone "Woman born" he accepts his fate thinking no person can kill him, but he feels that he must know if Banquo blood will reign? "Shall Banquo's issue ever reign this kingdom?" This is where the 8 kings are shown and in the eighth king"s hands, a glass, which were to show king James reflection. King James was very fond of this particular play because he could see himself, his ancestor and his beliefs playing upon the stage before him. At the end of act2 scene 1, Macbeth realizes that whatever predictions the witches had made had and would continue to come true, and it was his own impatience that bought him the problems that he s now suffering. Before Macbeth is killed, he says "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense that keep the word of promise to ear, and break it to our hope, this is where he had realized the witches had given him a double meaning. Macduff had been born through a caesarean section, which meant he was "untimely ripped" from his mother's womb, not born naturally. I think Shakespeare intended us, as his audience, to feel a mixture of sympathy & offence, against Macbeth. He is shown throughout the play as a cold-blooded killer under the influence of witchcraft. At the end of the play the Elizabethan audience would have felt sympathy for Macbeth because he realizes he has been misled by the witches "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense"act 5 scene 8 The witches show indications throughout the play of there affect on Macbeth. For example his trace-like state, "look how our partners rapt" act1 scene 3. Also Macbeth's changed appearance " why do u make such faces" act1 scene 4, this maybe through the witches influence or his own guilty conscience. Macbeth also has an inability to pray, " Amen/ stuck in my throat"¦" This could e the witches and their evil ways distancing Macbeth from god, or Macbeth's own conscience punishing him for his own evil thoughts and doings. Hallucinations and visions "what is this I see, a dagger before me?" there are numerous reasons for hallucinations, but because the Elizabethan audience would not have thought of any of these, only that the witches were responsible. There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits. When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.
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In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general...
any of these, only that the witches were responsible.

There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits.

When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.

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"Disabled" and "Exposure" are poems written..."Disabled" and "Exposure" are poems written by Wilfred Owen during the First World War. Although they are both written about the same subject they show different aspects of war. "Disabled" centres on the thoughts and feeling of a man who has survived the war and how his life changed after becoming disabled. "Exposure" shows the consequences of war and describes life in the trenches and the weather that the soldiers were exposed to. Although both pieces are different they both show the mental and physical suffering of the soldiers on the front line and the terror of war. "Exposure" is based on a group of men and how they managed to survive the conditions of winter on the front lines. The structure of the poem is in eight verses that describe the slow process of death. The larger verses at the end build up very gloomy and depressing pictures of the conditions and circumstances they faced. There is no colour in the poem and phrases that are used give a very dull, dark, grey morbid image of life at the front. The last line of each verse throughout the poem is shorter than the others and is either a question or a statement. For example, "Is it that we are dying" and "We turn back to our dying". The first verse is about the night times and is about the soldiers on guard duty, and how they felt in the cold weather. We know that it is icy cold from the line, "Our brains ache in the merciless iced east winds". This is also an example of personification as it implies the winds are human and cruel. It also says that the soldiers are worried by the silence around them and although exhausted cannot sleep because they are so anxious. Their feelings are shown clearly in this line, "Wearied we keep awake because the night is silent"¦." They also felt "curious and nervous" showing that they were brave, and stayed there because they had no choice. In the second verse the soldiers are starting to think, "What are we doing here?" This gives us the impression that they feel the whole thing is pointless and wonder what it is they are fighting for as they are watching and waiting for the enemy. "But nothing happens" shows that they want some action even if it means being killed in combat as they do not want to die a slow death caused by the bitter weather conditions. It highlights their boredom and constant waiting for something to happen. In verse three, the line "Dawn massing in the east her melancholy army" describes the dawn as an army gathering in the east where the sun rises. This is also a good example of personification as dawn is made out to be in human form gathering its men together. "Attacks once more in ranks on shivering ranks of grey". This line creates a picture of the sun getting stronger and shining on the soldiers who are cold and terrified. This verse focuses a lot on some of the weather conditions, and morning time. It uses very descriptive words to create a good image. The fourth verse is again describing the grim weather "Air that shudders". The snow starts to fall; it pours heavily then stops, and starts again, making it very difficult for them to stay in the same place and keep warm. "Sudden successive flights of bullets streak the silence". This is effective alliteration which allows the reader to imagine the sound of the shooting bullets. The soldiers start to move as they hear the sounds of the bullets, but find it hard because of the snow. "Black with snow" suggests a miserable, evil and sorrowful atmosphere. It creates the impression that the snow is alive and attacking the soldiers. Once more "nothing happens". The line at the beginning of verse five describes the cold snow falling quickly, touching their faces as if to remind them of the relentlessness of the weather, "Pale flakes with lingering stealth come feeling for our faces". "Forgotten hopes" could imply that they have given up an any thoughts they had of returning home safely to their families. The next verse is when the soldiers start to think about home. "Glimpsing the sunken fires glozed with crusted dark-red jewels", here they could be thinking about a warm fire and the coal- the colour of it as it burns out. Their minds drift back to visualise their homes and how much they dream to be there: "Shutters and doors closed: on us the doors are closed". It is the feeling of realisation that they cannot return there. The seventh verse is about God. That his love is shown through the shining sun, love of children and harvest. The line," For love of God seems dying" suggests that Owen feels as though Gods love for the soldiers is dying because God preaches peace and love and they have gone into war and had to endure such terrible weather. Everything seems to be against them. It seems that God has sent this terrible weather because the soldiers have gone to war, and this shows how he disapproves. In the final verse, "To-night his frost" means 'Gods frost' because God controls the weather. The frost had a huge effect on the soldiers. "Shrivelling many hands" tell us the freezing conditions they faced with nothing to keep their bodies warm. It then goes onto when the soldiers bury the dead. "The burying party" were the group of soldiers whose job it was to bury the dead. They had to dig graves then bury their fellow soldiers. "All their eyes are ice" creates another image of the cold staring expression of death. Overall the weather is the main issue in this poem as it is the major problem to the soldiers at the time. They feel it is a greater enemy than the gunfire of the opposing soldiers. The men find themselves thinking about death as a result of the weather and they think about their homes, their families and whether they will ever see them again and question their religious beliefs as to why God would put them into such a terrible situation. The poem "Disabled" is a poem based on the thoughts and feelings of a disabled soldier who has survived the war yet lost both of his legs and one arm up to the elbow. It is about his life how it has changed dramatically since being injured. Back in his youth before he had considered going into the war, he was always out playing football or going to the pub with friends and was popular with the girls. But after the accident nobody even gave him a second look or respected the fact that he had fought for his country. When he comes home from war he has to live in a hospice and he thinks that people don't really care about him anymore. The ex-soldier feels as though he has got nothing left to live for and is waiting for his time to come to an end. The mood of this poem is very sad and depressing and is set out in seven verses, focussing on the soldiers' memories from the past, the present and the future. The first verse of the poem introduced the main character and begins with the image of him sitting alone in his wheel chair "waiting for dark" implies that he is lonely and feels his life is pointless and just wants the day to end. "Legless, sewn short at elbow", tells us of his condition and the reason why he is in a wheel chair. "Voices of boys rang saddening like a hymn", as he was sitting all alone he heard the boys laughing and having a good time and this takes him back to when he was able to go out. It depressed him because he would never again be able to experience that feeling. In the second verse the poem describes how things used to be, before the tragic accident. "And the girls glanced lovelier as the air grew dim, in the old times before he threw away his knees." He remembers when girls used to look at him when he was full bodied and know he is in a wheel chair girls don't go near him, and they touch him as though he has got some "queer disease." He reminisces about when he was able to go out and meet girls. "Now he will never feel again, how slim girl's waists are, or how warm their subtle hands." From this we can see that he is feeling low and depressed thinking of past loves and that he may never experience the love of a woman again. In verse three it then goes on to tell us about his experiences at the battle fields and when he was seriously wounded. In this stanza he thinks about how young his face was, and how much it his withered and aged. He realises that he shall never be able to walk again. "his back will never brace". He has aged because of all the stress and pain he has been through. "For it was younger than his youth last year. Now he is old." "Poured it down shell-holes till the veins ran dry, and half his lifetime lapsed in the hot race and leap of purple spurted from his thigh." These are the images of blood and pain that he remembers happening to him. In the next part of the poem, Owen focuses on the soldier's memories before the war. He goes on to describe when he used to play football "One time he liked a blood smear down his leg" tells us how he had football injuries when he was young, and the frustration that he feels because he can no longer experience that feeling. He also reminisces about the day he joined the army after a football game following a few drinks at the pub with friends. Meg was his girlfriend at the time, so he joined to please and impress all the girls, now the girls he joined for are no longer interested in him because he is now disabled. "He asked to join. He didn't have to beg," he volunteered to go into the army to try and impress women and friends, although he also felt a sense of duty. "Smiling they wrote his lie: aged nineteen years". He lied to them saying he was nineteen when he was really younger. When it was time for him to go he didn't think of the fear he was about to face "no fears of fear came yet." In this verse it also gives an impression that he was excited about being in the army "“ because he knew that the soldiers got paid and he liked the idea of having his own personal weapons and taking care of them. "Smart salutes and care of arms." It gives him a sense of belonging "Espirit De Corps" is the French phrase for a group. "And soon he was drafted out with drums and cheers," suggests that he liked all of the praise and the cheers. He thought it was great and was quite overwhelmed by it all. The next verse describes when he got home from the war after his injury. He uses the comparison of football and war, "Some cheered him home, but not as crowds cheer goal". The language used creates a very gloomy home coming not the cheering of heroes who had fought for their country. He also begins to realise how much his life is about to change. The final verse is about him thinking about the future. "Spend a few sick years in institutes," indicates that he knows that for the rest of his life he will be in homes and cast aside from the rest of the world. The use of word 'sick' implies that the years will not be worth living. "And do what things the rules consider wise," suggests that he no longer has any freedom and has to do what other people tell him to do. The line," Tonight he noticed how the woman's eyes passed from him to strong men that where whole," implies that girls are repulsed by him and that because of his injury's that he is no longer whole. He is lonely and just wants the days to go quickly so his pain and misery can finally come to an end. I think that the poem "Disabled" is a perfect example of the effects of war because it tells you of the consequences and the pain that some people went through. The ones that came back from war all in one piece were very fortunate; many came back with injuries or didn't come back at all. Owen manages to make his audience feel sorry for the victims of war. Studying these two poems by Wilfred Owen has given me a clearer insight into the horrors soldiers faced in the war and the effect this had on them and their families. Owen uses powerful language in both poems to help us picture the images seen by soldiers on the front line and also to Help us to understand the physical and mental effects this had on those who survived.   

"Disabled" and "Exposure" are poems written by Wilfred Owen during the First World War. Although they are both written about the same subject they show different aspects of war. "Disabled" centres on the thoughts and feeling of a man who has survived the war and how his life changed after...

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For both stories that I have...For both stories that I have selected H.G. Wells and The Red Room, Conan Doyle and The Clubfooted Grocer each writer has used plenty of different techniques to create tension and suspense. Each of the techniques holds their own importance in the role of creating tension and suspense. Language, context gothic influences, withheld information and imagery are all of the techniques that I will be reviewing and comparing between each of the stories. In The Red Room there are many references to darkness, isolation and old places, which is a typical gothic setting. The Red Room is set in a castle, which people often associate with isolation and if you are isolated then the only people that can help you are far away thus creating tension and suspense because the writer is implying that there is to be death or some kind of violent activity. A good example of the type of setting in The Red Room is " The long draughty"¦shadows cower and quiver " because it has a reference to darkness where the writer has mentioned that there is a candle and there are shadows. This entails that it is dark and there is only a primitive lighting system, which implies that vision is impaired so you might not be able to see trouble when it is coming towards you. This also builds up tension and suspense, as there are constant subtle hints to violence and death. Also in that last quote the writer describes that " the shadows cower and quiver " and the technique used here is personification, which makes the shadows sound like they are alive and that they are like ghosts, which hints towards the supernatural. Strange noises and weird things like "the queer old mirror" surround the castle and " the door creaked " which again is a subtle hint towards he supernatural. There are many more references to the darkness where the writer is constantly trying to put the fact toward the reader that the narrator has impaired vision and that it is night-time which is when supernatural things mostly occur e.g. "looked up the blackness of the wide chimney " and " the dark oak panelling ". It is very much the same kind of point Doyle is trying to get across in The Club Footed Grocer. There are constant references to isolation and darkness e.g. " desolate rolling plains ", " depressing country" and " bleak and sad and stern ". These are all references to isolation, which means that there are no means of help and law and order. This is a good way of implying that there is going to be some kind of violent action later on in the story and that the people involved will have to deal with it themselves rather than gain the help from some kind of authority. In The Red Room, there are many uses of language, which create tension and suspense. The writer uses imagery many times. He uses personification when mentioning the shadows " a shadow came sweeping up after me ", " but its shadow fell"¦someone crouching to waylay me " which increases the supernatural feel to the story and creates the feeling that the shadows are out to get the narrator. When Wells wanted a fast, very active scene, he uses a technique called verbs of action. This is where instead of using normal verbs like "walked" he uses many other verbs like " dashed ", " snatched " and " thrust " which increases the pace and creates more of a sense of tension and suspense. Doyle also uses this technique when there is a fast paced, violent scene where there is a fight " lashed ", " whirled ", " cried " and " seized " as it increase tension and suspense. Doyle also uses short sentences " won't tell, won't you? We'll see about that! Get him ready, Jim! " Which create pace, tension and suspense. In The Clubfooted Grocer, Doyle uses " dark language " to create tension and suspense by making Steven Maples house seem like a prison " The inmates"¦rasping of locks and clattering of bars " which entail that Steven Maple is a prisoner in his own home and has to lock himself in securely for his own safety which also hints towards violent action later on in the story. This is a very good way of creating tension and suspense. In both of the stories information is withheld. In The Red Room, Wells has not given out any information about the room, what haunts it or the history of it. You eventually find out that fear is haunting the room but because the information is withheld it creates tension and suspense as it makes you very involved in the story. It makes the reader more involved in the plot, as your imagination is needed to think about what might haunt the room and who the apparent ghost is. In The Club Footed Grocer, Doyle uses withheld information when John Maple receives the letter from his Uncle. Doyle doesn't say why Steven Maple wants the services of his nephew or why he wants him to bring a gun. This creates tension and suspense because you think that there will be violence as John is told to bring his gun and you start to feel fear for John Maple because he is naïve because he sees this trip as an "adventure" and he probably doesn't know that he will encounter violence. Each of the writers has used characterisation as a key part of creating tension and suspense. In the Red room, Wells has made the three old people particularly vivid by his description. He has made them all very old "the old woman ", " pale eyes ", " decaying yellow teeth ", " withered arm " and " ancient faces " which has made the feel of the story change as people often associate the old with death and death with the supernatural and so the story now implies tat there is going to be some kind of death or supernatural activity that is going to happen. The narrator is very cynical and because it is a gothic horror story written in the Victorian era, many of the people reading it will have been able to sympathise and relate with him as he is a middle class Victorian which will be the majority of the readers of this story. The Victorians were very cynical and often tried to explain things by logic so he is a typical Victorian. And when the readers have related themselves with the narrator then they will experience the emotions that the narrator is feeling. This creates a very large sense of tension and suspense for the reader as they are now involved in the story. In The Club Footed Grocer, the narrator, John Maple, is a middle class, educated Victorian gentleman. Many of the readers of this story when it was first published, would have been Victorian gentleman so they would have been able to relate to the narrator. Like most of the middle class, young Victorians, he is naïve of life outside educated people and the law. So he has no idea of what he is about to encounter and feels that the journey to his uncles is an " adventure " even though there is a hint that he will encounter violence as he is told to bring his gun. Because Steven Maple has already been described as an unsavoury character we can assume that the help that he needs is not legal and is to do with some trouble he has caused. This is an implication that there will be some kind of violence later on in the story. When John Maple is going to his uncle's house he encounters a man who was described as " a burly fellow " and " rough ". He also had earrings " the glint of earrings in his ears " and all these things put together would mean that he is an unpleasant character to a Victorian audience. I conclude that the two stories may have very different plots and story lines but they both use the same techniques. The techniques used are typical gothic horror story techniques used to create tension and suspense. In my opinion, the most effective of all the techniques used is withheld information as it leads you to guess at what is going to happen. When the lot unfolds the story makes sense and you remember all the things that were withheld previously in the story and it all fits together.  

For both stories that I have selected H.G. Wells and The Red Room, Conan Doyle and The Clubfooted Grocer each writer has used plenty of different techniques to create tension and suspense. Each of the techniques holds their own importance in the role of creating tension and suspense. Language, context...

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English Coursework 7th July 2003 ...English Coursework 7th July 2003 Ghosts epitomize the mysterious and supernatural, and as there is no sufficient evidence of them being true, they are seen as nonmaterial embodiments which appear in the depths of human imagination. Their correlation with death, misery, grief and depression makes them an excellent utensil for portraying gruesome and unnatural images in books, films and other sorts of media. However, successful though ghost stories have been throughout time, they where not fully established as an individual genre until as late as the mid 18th century to the early 19th century. The Victorian age brought some new features to ghost stories, but the main characteristic was the same as that of most ghost stories; the ability to ensnare thoughts and feelings of fear and unease in the readers' minds. In addition to this, Victorian ghost stories provide firstly more specific characters' roles in that the main character is typically shown as a person whose belief in supernatural occurrences is either weak or none whatsoever. The minor characters on the other hand are shown as mysterious people appearing now and then throughout the story and transparently concealing information about the paranoia. Secondly, I have come to realise that generally all Victorian ghost stories are set in a specific, typical setting. A large, deep-rooted manor, castle, monastery or cemetery usually comes in use. I also found that the Victorian stories have a precise order in which the factors above are introduced. Firstly the main character/s are established in varying detail-sometimes in depth to give the reader a clear picture and other times a vague description to keep the characters attitude and appearance unclear. The minor characters, however, are introduced into the story at varying times depending on there importance in the story. After the introduction of the characters, a typical Victorian ghost story will focus on the setting before immersing into the actual plot of the story. These aspects are found in most Victorian ghost stories to help create that tension and unease in what makes a typical ghost story. The saying 'Don't judge a book by it's cover' is often overlooked when looking at the title and cover of a book. Regardless of the well known saying the title and cover does have a massive influence on a persons opinion on a book. It is almost a 6th Sense in that as soon as a person looks at a book it gives them an indistinct idea to how interesting it will be, what the story is about and if they would like to read it. The titles of the books I have studied are "The Old Nurse's Story" by Elizabeth Gaskell published in 1852, "The Red Room" by Herbert George Wells 1894 and "The Signal Man" by Charles Dickens 1965. I also watched a film called "The Turn Of The Screw" by Henry James book published in 1898 to give me a different perspective of Victorian ghost stories i.e. though someone else's imagination. On first impressions, the story title that grabbed my attention was "The Red Room". I think H. G. Wells deliberately picked the word red in the title to immediately provoke strange and scary images in the readers mind. The word is very cleverly used in a way that does not give a specific meaning of the word in the title but brings many thoughts into the readers mind as to what it could mean. I initially thought of the words fire, danger, blood and death. But on second thought I think the title says the story would be set in a house with some sort of haunted room i.e. the red room, where there possibly may have been or may will be an occurrence of fanatical danger. "The Old Nurse's Story" was, in my opinion, a surprising and lacklustre title for a ghost story. It does not create interest or appeal and is overall a really boring title. Personally, I would have been reluctant to have read this book after glancing at the title. The other two story titles where not as straight forward to interpret as an obvious ghost story title as "The Red Room". However, both did make me think about the meanings. Firstly, "The Signal Man" initially meant nothing to me, but on second thought I was reminded of the year in which it was published. The Victorian Era brought many new inventions, one of which was the 'cutting-edge of technology' at the time, the railway system. The majority of the country had very little knowledge and experience with railroads and the railway system. Which made the title ambiguous and mysterious, perfect for a typical Victorian ghost story. The title "The Signal Man" is also beneficial as it does not give too much away about the story but enough to make you think about it and pursue to finish the story. "The Turn Of The Screw" was very difficult to interpret and it was only after watching most of the film that you truly understand what it means. To begin with I thought without watching any of the film or taking into account that it is a ghost story that the film would be something to do with a type of disagreement or argument, maybe even a war where something takes place to change the story i.e. the turning point or the turn of the tide. My second thought came after remembering the saying 's/he's got a screw loose in her/his head' meaning that the person has got not only a less able mind, but they have actually deteriorated to that state from a previously healthy mental state. Hence, the screws mental state have become loose have deteriorated. It turned out that my second interpretation of the title was correct. The film was about the gradual relapsing of the main characters mental state. I think that Henry James choice of the word "screw" was very clever and calculated, it is what makes the title suitable for the story. As you can see, already there is a general pattern emerging throughout the stories. All the stories except "The Old Nurse's Story" have titles possessing hidden meanings creating mystery of gruesome matters creating fear which are both essential ingredients in a satisfactory ghost story. It is vital for the ghost stories to have these interesting and attention-grabbing titles that incite feelings of apprehension and unease, that way the reader is already interested before even starting to read the book. The introduction of a story is as important as the title. A good title should be supported by an interesting introduction. A bad introduction, like a bad title, may discourage the reader. H. G. Wells' story, "The Red Room", told in 1st person, opens in speech. The narrator, who is also the protagonist, begins with the line "I can assure you that it will take a very tangible ghost to frighten me". H. G. Wells has again chosen his words skilfully. This line immediately makes it clear that the main character is cynical of any supernatural beings. However, he does not rule out his belief in ghosts totally which leaves assumptions in the readers mind. The word "ghost" itself appearing in the very first line works well and is very concise. It creates tension and grabs the readers attention right away. Throughout the next few paragraphs the minor characters are introduced. They are described by the narrator according to their defects. For example the narrator describes one of the servants as ""¦the man with the withered arm"¦". He also illustrates the way this servant looked to be 'askance'. Other characters are further depicted as strange, elderly and eerie with words and phrases like "old", "aged", "more wrinkled" and with "pale eyes" and "decaying yellow teeth". The narrator himself is, however, little described. All the reader finds out is that he is twenty eight years of age and is sceptical of paranormal happenings. The inadequate information creates mystery as to who he is and why he is there, this makes the readers want to read on and find out the answers to their questions. The words describing the servant however give the reader clear images of creepy old people again adding to the tension and build up to the climax. Charles Dickens' "The Signal Man" starts similarly with speech and is also written in 1st person. However, unlike the direct approach of "The Red Room", "The Signal Man" starts tamely with the line "Haloa! Below there!". This first line gives an immediate view of a jovial person and does not have any mention of anything to do with ghosts. In the next paragraph the narrator starts questioning the choice of decisions the signal man is making such as looking the obviously wrong way when greeted. This gives the idea that maybe the signal man would rather be left alone as a loner. The signal man also says very little throughout the introduction of the story, which gives a puzzling and spooky feel to his character. It must also be noted that the reader does not yet know who the characters are i.e. the narrator and the signal man, again creating inscrutability. In addition to this the description of the setting is also prolonged and is written in a way that makes it difficult to understand where exactly the story is set and so once more intensifying the mystery and encouraging the reader to read on. Moving on, the narrator can be seen as very interested in the works and eager to find out more about the place. This can be deducted from the line "Is there any path by which I can come down and speak to you?". As the story continues, the narrator continually shows an interest in the rail works and the signal man's job. The signal man himself is eventually described as ""¦ a dark sallow man, with a dark beard and rather heavy eyebrows", this sentence again helps the reader imagine a sinister, lonely man who seems to have been isolated from any connection with other people. Unlike the "The Red Room", the introduction of "The Signal Man" does not have much tension or fear. But the mystery created in the opening of the "The Signal Man" works just as well and is in my opinion a successful introduction. The introduction of "The Old Nurse's Story" begins, like "The Red Room", with the description of characters, in 1st person. However, unlike "The Red Room", the descriptions start off as pleasant. The first line "You know, my dears, that your mother was an orphan, and an only child"¦" straight away tells the reader that the nurse is telling the story to the children of one of the characters. The nurse then goes on to describe herself as "honest" and "good". These words and the line ""¦though you've all of you been fine enough in your turns; but for sweet, winning ways, you've none of you come up to your mother" gives the reader a view of the nurse as a person who is proud of herself, caring, kind and loving. Then when the servants are described, Elizabeth Gaskell typically wished to portray them as mysterious and Enigmatic. Words such as "cold", "grey" and "stony" are used to describe one of the servants. The narrator, Hester the nurse, takes much time in the introduction to layout the history, jobs and the whereabouts of the family. By doing this she adds sincerity and practicality in the story. This story is ideal for patient readers. It does not start, like "The Red Room" or "The Signal Man" with fear or mystery, but builds up to a satisfying climax where the at first insignificant details help the reader to understand the story fully. Although it works reasonably well with this particular story, the method Elizabeth Gaskell uses in her introduction is not best suited to all ghost stories. The mysterious and fearful openings of the other stories are far more apt and make the ghost story a lot more effective. The setting of a ghost story helps the writer create the right sort of mood for a story. It also helps the reader imagine the story more clearly and understand the story better. As I have said before, a typical Victorian ghost story is usually set in an isolated and mysterious manor. Elizabeth Gaskell establishes the setting for "The Old Nurse's Story" in the second chapter. It is set in Furnivall Manor, and described as "overshadowed", "desolate" and "grand", the manor and setting are typical and instantly incite moods of trepidation. Which, for a ghost story, is an ideal frame of mind. The description of the setting is continued throughout the next few pages using words like "dark", "gloomy" and "vast". Elizabeth Gaskell's setting is unlike her title, it creates a lot of interest and is a very good background for a ghost story. Similarly, "The Turn Of The Screw" by Henry James is set in an isolated countryside in Bly. Again it is a big house accompanied only by servants. The typical settings of both these stories provoke moods of apprehension and depression. Charles Dickens' "The Signal Man" is however set in a entirely atypical place. The setting for this story is a signal box found in a railway station. It was a brave adventure into a new setting by Charles Dickens. However, his attempt to establish the place as an innovative idea for a ghost story setting failed as the set turned out to be the uniform mysterious and isolated place found in a typical Victorian ghost story. The narrators description of the signal box shows this. The words "dismal", "solitary" and "gloomy" and the phrase "as if I had left the natural world" where used, creating the typical mystery and isolation. So regardless of the extreme diversity, the setting of "The Signal Man" by Charles Dickens has the same affect as does "The Turn Of The Screw" and "The Old Nurse's Story". The last story "The Red Room" is set in Lorraine Castle a typically grim environment. H. G. Wells portrays the inside of the castle by repeatedly describing passages and stairways using words similar to "dusty", "shadowy" and "chilly". By means of these types of words H. G. Wells, like the other authors, creates the typical but vital ambience of unease and fright found in a Victorian ghost story. The styles of suspense found in the four different stories I have studied fluctuate. The longer stories like "The Old Nurse's Story" have more moments of suspense. Whereas "The Red Room", which is considerably shorter, builds up to one final climactic moment of suspense. It can be argued that the more moments of suspense the better a story is and vice versa. However, I have come to see that with only one moment of suspense, H. G. Wells was able to contemplate on other aspects like the setting, the characters and his psychosomatic use of words in much more detail. He was able to use these to his advantage to build up to a final climax. The introduction is by no accident prolonged. H. G. Wells carefully lays down his foundations for what promises to be a great finale. The exploitations of the words "Red" and "ghost" in the title and first line are two examples of his psychological use of words. This choice of words, his description of the characters by their defects, and his continuous portrayal of the castle as "shadowy", all help the writer to create the right sort of mood and encourage the reader to read on. He also uses repetition effectively to make the servants sound more sinister. The lines "It's your own choosing" and "This night of all nights!" are repeated many times by the servants previously described as "the man with the withered arm" and "the old woman", respectively. Now that the reader has become interested, the story starts to accelerate as the protagonist enters the "Red Room". Upon entrance, he describes how the duke had come out of this room and fallen down the stairs to his death. He also talks of the death of the duke's wife. The narrator then says that the "Red Room" is the "scene of my vigil". Hence, finally revealing the reason for his being there. He then goes on to describe the darkness of the room again using the word "shadowy" among others. The narrators talk of the "tongue of flame" that left "an ocean of mystery and suggestion beyond its island of light" reinforces the darkness in the room and suggests that a single candle is not enough. This suggestion questions the narrators nerves as clearly unease is creeping upon him now he is alone. The isolation and fear in the room now creates an excellent atmosphere for the readers as they sense the climax is imminent. The narrator shows increasing apprehension as the story continues and in an attempt to consolidate himself he decides to light other candles. The build up to the culmination continues as all of a sudden a candle extinguishes. At this the narrator humours himself by saying "By Jove! That draught's a strong one!" Then the climax begins, as to the narrators bewilderment two more candles go off. He tries to revive the now quickly dying candle lights but they start to go out in more numbers. The events in the room are now denting the narrators firm non-belief in ghosts, he does not now what is extinguishing the candles and panic-stricken, he starts to talk to himself. Eventually all the candles go out and only the fireplace remained as the source of light and comfort. The reader then finds out one possible reason for which H. G. Wells chose the title "The Red Room". The narrator describes how the embers in the grate were "splashing red reflections upon the furniture" depicting "The Red Room". The fireplace ultimately terminates. He then suggests that he was possibly "struck" by someone as well as "battering" himself as he moved around the room in search of the door. The pinnacle of the story comes as he finally falls to the ground, unconscious. In a disappointing conclusion he is woken by the servants. They start to converse about the narrators experience of the night before. Upon questioning as to what haunts the room the narrator explains that something does in fact haunt the room, he claims that this thing is nothing but fear, and all the odd happenings of the past were all due to human fear of ghosts and the supernatural and not actual ghosts. However, this leaves unanswered questions in the readers mind such as who or what actually did extinguish the candles. The closing paragraph of the story then provokes more questions. The servants speech does not clearly say who is the actual cause of the terrible happenings. His mention of the countess suggests that maybe her ghost is to blame rather then the narrators idea of fear being in the room. Furthermore, it is unclear as to what he means by "this house of sin". The excellent title, introduction and build up to this story makes the conclusion particularly disappointing. Charles Dickens' "The Signal Man" was in contrast to "The Red Room" a more lengthy story. However, the story surprisingly does not incorporate much moments of suspense, instead it is made interesting mainly by the mystery found throughout the story. "The Signal Man" is set in an isolated place and, due to the signalman's working hours, is an almost fully nocturnal story. The atmosphere created by Charles Dickens is not of fear but an eerie silence. Most part of the story consists of the signal man telling the narrator about his previous sightings and as the narrator suggests that he may have imagined it, questions are left in the readers mind as to if there really is a ghost. These question in the readers mind encourage the reader to read on in search of answers. The actual climax arrives all of sudden when the narrator finds the signal man dead upon arrival one night at the signal box. The story ends with a twist as the narrator discovers how the signal man died upon hearing the words "Below there! Look out! Look out! For God's sake, clear the way" which where known to both the signal man and himself as previous words from the ghost. This line answers the main question in the readers mind. It means that the signal man did in fact see something and it was most probably a ghost. It also means that the ghost was trying to help the signal man by warning him of his death. This story gives a different aspect to ghosts and the supernatural, suggesting that not all ghosts are bad, a rarity in Victorian ghost stories. The story is also a sort of warning to the reader from Charles Dickens. It warns the reader of not only the dangers of the railroads, which he himself has experienced, but also of loneliness. The untimely death of the signal man leaves the reader in sorrow of a wasted life. It shows that anyone may pass away at anytime, and so life must not be wasted. The time you have with the people around you must be spent with enjoyment and not as the signal man did in isolation and pessimism. Elizabeth Gaskell's "The Old Nurse's Story" was the longest out of the three books I read so predictably it had many moments of suspense. The length of the book meant that Elizabeth Gaskell was able to play with the readers mind affectively, leading them to believe one thing through suspense then dying the story down, only to reproduce another moment of suspense later on. She was also able to give herself options through the different moments of suspense as to how the story would end. The readers enjoyment comes of this as well. By the time the final climax comes the reader has got many different ideas as to what may happen. The first out-standing moment of suspense comes when Miss Rosamond as a child disappears before claiming to have seen a women and child outside in the snow. At first Hester accuses Miss Rosamond of "telling stories" but then claims she will "catch it". This may confuse the reader as to what she really thinks, does she believe Miss Rosamond? And if so, by saying "I shall catch it" does she think it was a physical presence rather then supernatural? The reaction of Miss Furnivall is also puzzling, she asks for "mercy" and "forgiveness" and also says "It is many a long year ago"¦". She describes the child seen by Miss Rosamond as "evil", "wicked" and "naughty" giving the reader the impression that Miss Furnivall once knew this child. Furthermore, the mysterious servant Mrs. Stark attempts to keep Miss Furnivall quiet, as if she doesn't want the concealed information to become known to Hester. This produces more questions as to what happened between Miss Furnivall and the child. All these questions keep the reader interested and play a part in the enjoyment of the story later on. The best moment of suspense in the story comes in the very last chapter. It starts with Miss Furnivall claiming to have heard her father. At the same moment Miss Rosamond awakens from her sleep. The others listen out and then they too hear the voices. Hester, the narrator, describes the voices as "screams" and said that she "dared not speak" in fright. Then when Miss Rosamond says the line "Hester, I must go! My little girl is there; I hear her; she is coming! Hester, I must go!" and starts to make for the voices the reader understands the link between the girl in the snow and Miss Rosamond. The child is in fact Miss Rosamond's daughter. This satisfying link and the hysteria shown by Miss Rosamond add to the already tension filled atmosphere and persuade the reader to carry on. Then the climax arrives as the doors to a hall are opened with a "thundering crash" and the ghosts appear. The narrator describes the man as "tall", "old" and with "gleaming eyes" who is accompanied by a "beautiful" woman and child. Miss Rosamond continuously pleads with Hester to let her join the "terrible phantoms". "I must go!" she says in a fanatic manner as if possessed. The reader then discovers the reason for which Miss Furnival had acted weird, upon hearing about the child at first. As the man lifted his crutch as if to strike the child Miss Furnivall cries out "Oh, father! Father! Spare the innocent child!". The ghosts, now including the ghost of the young Miss Furnivall, recreate the past. It seems to have a devastating affect on Miss Furnivall as she is emotionally scared, "death-stricken" as Hester describes. The last few sentences "Alas! Alas! What is done in youth can never be undone in age! What is done in youth can never be undone in age!" said by Miss Furnivall provides the reader with an extremely satisfying conclusion. These last few sentences sum up the general point or moral Elizabeth Gaskell is trying to say- unsettled problems will repeatedly haunt you until they are resolved. The last story, "The Turn Of The Screw", had a major advantage on displaying suspense over the other stories, simply because it was a film. The sound inside a persons imagination is not really there, only pictures can truly be imagined. But in a film great atmosphere can be created by music. A pulsating sound can very easily create tension and suspense. I have also seen that a sudden burst of sound following a long and quiet eerie tone of sound works particularly well and makes the viewer jump. This method was used throughout "The Turn Of The Screw" according to the appearances of the ghosts of the previous governess, Miss Jessel, and her supposed partner Peter Quint. So in terms of suspense, Henry James did not need to create much, the music does this for him. The story itself is based on mainly the protagonistwho is also the narrator's psychological state. The fact that the narrator is the only one that sees these ghosts other then the children can make the audience believe that she is imagining them. Then when the final climax comes the viewers are again left unsure. Myles, the young boy, is in the arms of the governess when he dies and it is indefinite if the governess killed him or if it was the ghosts. This uncertainty is what makes the ending of "The Turn Of The Screw" substandard. The actors and actresses, however, fit perfectly and are an excellent choice of the producers. Henry James' character Myles is especially good, his outer perfection creates a great base for his dark side. Henry James uses the line "When I'm good I'm good, when I'm bad I'm very bad" through this character to show the viewers that a person can be both evil and good. Three out of four of the stories I have studied possess a typical setting, either in a castle or manor. The mystery surrounding the ancient buildings is also without question an important factor and along with the isolation and fear found in typical ghost stories, provides an excellent atmosphere for the writer to build his/her climax. "The Signal Man" has this atmosphere and so, even though it is not typically set its setting has the same effect as the other stories. The typical minor characters are likewise as important as the setting, the macabre characters provide added mystery and fear to the already tension filled atmosphere. The leading character is however typically seen as a person whose belief in ghosts is minute and because of this helps create yet another key aspect, practicality. The reader finds the sightings of a ghost by a sceptic more believable then a non-sceptic, hence producing sincerity. These are all features found in a typical Victorian ghost story. There is one other characteristic of a Victorian ghost story which has not been carried on in modern day ghost stories. It is seldom appreciated and is often overshadowed by the fear and mystery in the story. This aspect is the inner meanings of the stories, the views and concepts of the author. For example the warning from Charles Dickens and the moral in "The Old Nurse's Story". So, in conclusion of my study of nineteenth century ghost stories I have learnt that Victorian ghost stories have many similar trends. The setting, casting of major and minor characters and the mystery, fear and isolation are all typical, and along with practicality, sincerity and the all important hidden meanings are vital for a effective ghost story.  

English Coursework 7th July 2003 Ghosts epitomize the mysterious and supernatural, and as there is no sufficient evidence of them being true, they are seen as nonmaterial embodiments which appear in the depths of human imagination. Their correlation with death, misery, grief and depression makes them an excellent utensil...

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The interpretation of Romeo and... The interpretation of Romeo and Juliet within the society of today can be considered within a multitude of varying viewpoints. The technology that we currently use today is generally more enhanced in comparison to the seventeenth century, providing greater quality forms of entertainment such as television and radio. Various television programs and movies strive to deliver the same purpose and meaning that Romeo and Juliet provided in 1604, but in a much more efficient manner. There are soap operas, dramas and even multimillion-pound movies that demonstrate equal content, similar to that which Romeo and Juliet provides. There are a myriad of explanations that do not consolidate the relativity of Romeo and Juliet in this current era, one of the most frequent issues being the style of language. The author of Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare, constructed this play to withhold deeper meanings of human emotions "“ possibly a form of allegory. The atmosphere of the 'surface' of the play appears in some cases to be contrary to the morals that must be learned through the same scene. If an understanding of a scene is very little to an individual, then these morals are simply overlooked or disregarded. In addition to this, the style of language used in the play is of a more intellectual nature. Many youths may not understand even the basis of the events of the play as it is of a poetic nature; the prologue is an example of this. The prologue is written in the form of a sonnet and contains an insight of the background that the play consists of, informing the audience about opening situation of the play. Not only does the prologue set the scene of Romeo and Juliet, it tells the audience exactly what will occur throughout the plight of the play. Phrases in the prologue such as 'Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean' may not be recognised or identified by the audience as significant and is a major aspect of the play, as it is elaborated near the climax. In some cases, the play has been adapted in order to suit the demands of the entertainment industry present. Although some of the issues in Romeo and Juliet are outdated, they can still be closely related to current situations in the world today. Further issues supporting the fact that the play is of little relevance today is its association with a 'cliché' storyline. Some people believe that we will or already have tired from repeatedly observing these types of storylines, however a few individuals may forget that some of the most beloved stories today use repetitive plots all the time. One example of this is 'Eastenders' "“ The television soap that constantly relies on consistent affairs and daily events that occur to us and are present in almost all of our lives. It develops similar storylines of love and tragedy just like Romeo and Juliet. The result of entertainment today utilising the same ideals as Romeo and Juliet should in theory indicate that it could be distinguished within the technological age as a relevance to society today. Events such as riots between families or mobs occur throughout the entire human civilisation, resulting in similar outcomes of death or brutality. All forms of entertainment thrive upon the similar motives as Romeo and Juliet and can be confirmed when observing the main events of Romeo and Juliet. "Noise! Then I'll be brief. What luck "“ a dagger! This is your holder. Rest there and let me die." This quote, spoken by Juliet, adds the factor of a brutal murder to the play of which is present in the world of the 21st century. Suicide is a serious issue and the aftermath of tragedies such as these is demonstrated perfectly by the deaths of both Romeo and Juliet in this play. Sentences within Romeo and Juliet such as 'draw if you be men' proposes a sense of action, which is what makes many modern day films exciting e.g. The Matrix, The Terminator etc.. The only drawback with this statement, however, is the fact that Romeo and Juliet uses Old English, making it less appealing to simple minds in this age. The language style of Romeo and Juliet seems to be passive and therefore 'drains' away the anticipation of particular events. Examples of these occurrences are lines such as in Act 3: 'I think I see you, as you are now, but like a dead person in the bottom of a tomb.' If a less subtle approach had been taken, such as 'Die! I shall inflict pain so fatally wounding that you shall be consumed in a tomb of ultimate torture' the excitement would appeal greater to the young audience of today rather than how it is currently constructed. As an outcome to this problem, there have been modernised versions of Romeo and Juliet released, achieving the atmosphere of a more hands on approach. Additional events in Romeo and Juliet such as the secret meetings of the two 'star-cross'd lovers' are considered to be thrilling storylines today, as does the art of suicide. Death, whenever used in entertainment, is an extremely manipulative aspect of humanity and must be capitalised on within any successful storyline or plot. The alteration of an individual's emotional composure will inevitably result in a convincing or satisfying experience - which is mainly the true purpose of entertainment. Another factor that may help suggest that Romeo and Juliet may be relevant to young audiences today would be to find modern parallels to certain aspects of the play for educational purposes. One modern parallel in comparison to Romeo and Juliet could be the real life crisis that occurred throughout Ireland between Catholics and Protestants "“ two arguing religions. A civil war had been unleashed and the rivalry between these two religions still vaguely remains today. This factor may prove that Romeo and Juliet is relevant to the youth of today, but to more of a historic purpose. The civil war in Ireland can be compared to the civil war caused by the 'ancient grudge' in Romeo and Juliet. The two different religions in the civil war could represent the situations of the two disputing families of the Montagues and the Capulets. One insightful moral to Shakespeare's play was that unresolved quarrels would eventually result in the worst possible outcome "“ death. Therefore, ancient grudges should not be passed on through generations, especially if there is no particular reason to fight. The younger generation must acknowledge this point in order to stop widespread war and to not repeat history. In a psychological aspect, Romeo and Juliet portrays all of the human emotions that we feel today. Issues such as family disputes and teenage fantasies are common within our society as it was in 1604. When bearing in mind that since the dawn of humanity, humans have always had the same emotions of love, lust, hate, appreciation and jealousy, we can understand that every person is compelled by the involvement of these feelings. The events in Romeo and Juliet apply to each of these emotions making it successful "“ disregardful of any time barrier. If Romeo and Juliet were to be performed in the same environment as in 1604, it would make no impact upon today's society. The theatrical market in the 17th century was an extremely profitable and wealthy business, being the height of entertainment. Today, however, the art of live entertainment in theatre is almost dead and is not a social activity as it formally was. The concept of Romeo and Juliet however, has already been of a great success in the Hollywood movie industry. There have been remakes of Romeo and Juliet both for educational purposes in Old English and for leisure in the modern day tongue. In addition to this, many more of Shakespeare's works have generated vast profits "“ far greater than any theatre in the Tudor Times. In conclusion to the issue of whether Romeo and Juliet is relevant to the youth of today in relation to the era of the 17th century, I would make an educated assumption that it would make a significant impact upon society today. However, the impact made by Romeo and Juliet in the modern day would be relevant to youths in a different context as it was in 1604. The society of 1604 had different issues and problems compared to the dilemmas we currently face in the 21st century, therefore Romeo and Juliet would be relevant to the youth of today in a different form. The 17th century was renowned for honourable duels and deaths, but Romeo and Juliet identified a wider and more drastic objective "“ the enlightenment of the fact that quarrelling families should reunite as one. Yet, today we can learn from Romeo and Juliet about smaller issues, as the majority of the vital issues from the 17th century have already been solved in developed civilised countries such as England. One of the morals we can learn from is that co-operation and the support of our friends is a gift we must cherish, as Mercutio taught Romeo when he innocently died at the hands of Romeo's enemy Tybalt. When considering the morals that the play can teach younger generations, whether it is for educational purposes or for recreational enjoyment, Romeo and Juliet contains the relevant content to be established and appreciated immensely within the youth of today.   

The interpretation of Romeo and Juliet within the society of today can be considered within a multitude of varying viewpoints. The technology that we currently use today is generally more enhanced in comparison to the seventeenth century, providing greater quality forms of entertainment such as television and radio. Various...

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