Related Keywords

No Related Keywords

Register NowHow It Works Need Essay Need Essay
In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general in the king's army, and Thane of Glamis. The witches would be seen as a supernatural presence in the play to the Shakespearian audience, whereas the modern audience would see logical explanations to all that happens. Macbeth has a violent character, and these witches could just be mad women who provoke his "dark side". However, the witches are presented in the play as women with supernatural powers who make the day turn to night which can be explained simply by a solar eclipse and who make him hallucinate; "is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand...I have thee not, yet I see thee still"¦" The dagger leads Macbeth to the bedside of the king, where Macbeth kills king Duncan. This could have been controlled and planned by the witches, or could be Macbeth's mentality combined with his violent nature. However, if it is all controlled by the witches, this would show that Macbeth is not exactly responsible therefore the audience symapthise with him. King James I was very fascinated by witches and witchcraft, as was most the population at the time of shakespear. When Shakespeare wrote this for king James he made sure it would appeal to him. King James believed in witchcraft and supernatural powers. He believed that a group of witches attempted regicide against him. Including his ancestor, Banquo, in the story also assisted in allowing the king to see his own reflection in the play, especially in the scene of the 8 kings, where king James is the 8th king. "Thou shalt get kings, thought thou be none" this was said to Banquo in act 1 scene 3, coincidentally; Banquo is king James's ancestor. Even after the Shakespearian period, the public were fascinated by witchcraft. So fascinated, that they added another scene in the play, featuring Hecate, goddess of witchcraft. Act 3 scenes 5 The Shakespearian audience and the Elizabethan audience would have thought the witches to be the most powerful element in the play. The first scene and act of the play is of the witches. Theatrical effects, like thunder and lightning, are staged to add effects and intrigue the audience. Dark, gloomy and "evil" effects are used to represent the witches and their control over Macbeth. The first scene contains a mention of meeting Macbeth; this provides a clear link to him. The witches also discuss in which weather conditions they wish to meet; this could be waiting for the next particular conditions to meet in or choosing what weather situation to CREATE for their meeting with Macbeth. The witches plan to play with Macbeth's minds and lead him to the dark path on which they tread. This would interest the Elizabethan audience greatly, as they did not have our modern science and reasoning. The believed that witches did indeed exist, and had supernatural powers to control and amuse themselves with average human minds. An Elizabethan audience at Hampton Court in 1606 would have found this powerful and intriguing, and Shakespeare's portrayal of the witches on stage may have even left them feeling weary or shaken.] The atmosphere the witches seemed to create was magical; it was dark and dull yet powerful, and in some cases, amusing. They always seemed to appear when the weather conditions are poor or within a storm, and in darkness. ""¦Her choppy fingers"¦skinny lips"¦your beards"¦" This is Banquo"s description of the witches in Act 1 Scene 3, Macbeth and Banquo"s first encounter with the witches. "Her choppy fingers", meaning chapped, red and rough, would be common as they worked with their hands, in sowing, cooking etc. along with skinny lips. These were popular features for lower and working class women. However, they have beards, which were recognised as the uttermost ugliness in women, and showed that they are either cursed, or had a presence of masculinity in them. The speech is convincing yet fascinatingly powerful, for example, the use of riddles and antitheses "when the hurly-burly's done, when the battles lost and won" What else makes their speech interesting is that they use rhyme constantly, almost as if everything said is part of a bewitching continuous chant. The witches' powers are recognised and compared in Act 1 Scene 3. The following quotes will show what they are capable of: "¢"Killing swine" -Death of animals back then were always considered witch-related. "¢"In a sieve I'll tither sail" "“witches were thought able to sail in a sieve "¢"like a rat without a tail" "“witches were also thought to have the power to morph into any animal; however they would have no tail! "¢"I'll do, I'll do and I'll do" "“the witches threaten to cause the sailor harm and mischief using the above mentioned powers "¢"I'll give thee wind" "“able to cause the wind to blow "¢"I myself have all the others" "“this witch has powers over all winds to mischief. "¢ "All the quarters that they know I' the shipman's card" "“she can stop ships from docking safely so that he does not arrive ashore. "¢"Dwindle, peak and pine"¦bark cannot be lost yet it shall be tempest tost" "“the witch will make him thin, weak and frail and play a storm around his ship. When describing what they had done to the sailor's wife in Act 1 Scene 3, it is obvious that they had no respect or sympathy towards ordinary human beings: "Give me". Rather than asking the sailors wife to give her a chestnut, the witch ordered her to. "Rump-fed ronyon" "“this is an amusing quote but again shows the lack of respect the witches have for ordinary people. However, when they meet Macbeth and Banquo they use respectful terms; this may be mockery or an attempt to gain their trust so as to play on their minds. "All hail"¦" this phrase is used repeatedly, I believe it is to flatter Macbeth and to make him believe what they predict. The audience would be surprised and would have more reasons to believe in the witches as the predictions are revealed. The first prediction is "hail Macbeth, Thane of Cowdor". This would be a surprise as no one knows of the death of the Thane of Cowdor but the King and his court, and Macbeth believes that he still lives. There is no other explanation for the witches to know, other than that they have powers to get whatever knowledge they want. However, this prediction in my opinion should not be counted as so, as, even though Macbeth does not know, he has already in the previous scene been appointed Thane of Cowdor "Go pronounce his present death, and with his former title, greet Macbeth" The second prediction is "Hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter"¦" There is already a king, king Duncan of Dunsinane. This causes confusion, but also, this is where the plot thickens, so to speak. Both Macbeth and the audience see this and wonder if it has a deeper meaning. The way the witches continue to speak with rhyme and rhythm and in riddles; the rhyme and rhythm make the speech interesting whilst the riddles provide the element of mystery. The audience are bound to jump to conclusions from the predictions, as Macbeth does. The predictions will draw the audience more into the play. Macbeth at first is surprised with the quick disappearance of the witches, and wishes that they would have stayed and told him more, this myself and probably the audience would believe was the witches plan, to leave Macbeth with this 'craving' for more information. In Act 1 Scene 4, Macbeth states "let not the light see my black and deep desires", Macbeth is hoping that the prediction is true and has faith, as the witches predicted that he would become Thane of Cowdor, and upon his arrival, Macbeth was given the title. He actually wishes to become king and hopes for his prediction to come true as the previous one did. This quote was said to king Duncan himself, and so he did not wish to reveal his desires to take king Duncan's place. When the King spends a night at Macbeths castle, Macbeth and his wife see the opportunity to murder him. Upon hearing of the witches, Lady Macbeth was eager to fulfil her own and her husband's 'destiny' that she believed lay in these prediction; she encouraged the murder of king Duncan. They planned the murder, and she encouraged him though this is only my view. The witches seemed to have played a stronger part in the murder of Duncan. Macbeth visualized a dagger before him leading him to Duncan's bedside, he was unable to touch the dagger until then; "Is this a dagger which I see before me"¦I have thee not yet I see thee still"¦" Macbeth murders the king and continues his life casually; this shocks the audience, as they no longer know whether to consider him a villain or a hero. In act 4 scene 1 Macbeth returns to the witches greedily, in my opinion, to find answers and more predictions. He wishes to know his future. When Macbeth first hears that he cannot be defeated by anyone "Woman born" he accepts his fate thinking no person can kill him, but he feels that he must know if Banquo blood will reign? "Shall Banquo's issue ever reign this kingdom?" This is where the 8 kings are shown and in the eighth king"s hands, a glass, which were to show king James reflection. King James was very fond of this particular play because he could see himself, his ancestor and his beliefs playing upon the stage before him. At the end of act2 scene 1, Macbeth realizes that whatever predictions the witches had made had and would continue to come true, and it was his own impatience that bought him the problems that he s now suffering. Before Macbeth is killed, he says "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense that keep the word of promise to ear, and break it to our hope, this is where he had realized the witches had given him a double meaning. Macduff had been born through a caesarean section, which meant he was "untimely ripped" from his mother's womb, not born naturally. I think Shakespeare intended us, as his audience, to feel a mixture of sympathy & offence, against Macbeth. He is shown throughout the play as a cold-blooded killer under the influence of witchcraft. At the end of the play the Elizabethan audience would have felt sympathy for Macbeth because he realizes he has been misled by the witches "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense"act 5 scene 8 The witches show indications throughout the play of there affect on Macbeth. For example his trace-like state, "look how our partners rapt" act1 scene 3. Also Macbeth's changed appearance " why do u make such faces" act1 scene 4, this maybe through the witches influence or his own guilty conscience. Macbeth also has an inability to pray, " Amen/ stuck in my throat"¦" This could e the witches and their evil ways distancing Macbeth from god, or Macbeth's own conscience punishing him for his own evil thoughts and doings. Hallucinations and visions "what is this I see, a dagger before me?" there are numerous reasons for hallucinations, but because the Elizabethan audience would not have thought of any of these, only that the witches were responsible. There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits. When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.
0 User(s) Rated!
Words: 2175 Views: 256 Comments: 0
In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general...
any of these, only that the witches were responsible.

There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits.

When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.

Become A Member Become a member to continue reading this essay orLoginLogin
View Comments Add Comment

Arthur Miller was born in 1915...Arthur Miller was born in 1915 in New York. He was a playwright whose work discussed significant social issues, giving the reader a deep insight into his characters' feelings. He died on February 11th 2005. In 'A View From The Bridge', Eddie Carbone is a middle-aged Sicilian-American longshoreman who lives with his wife Beatrice and his 18 year old niece Catherine. They live in a two bedroom apartment in a slum area. They don't have very much money and Eddie speaks non-standard English. Early in the book the reader gets the impression that Eddie is a hard-working man who is trying to earn enough money to provide for his wife and niece. Although Catherine is the 18 year old niece of Eddie, at the beginning of the story the reader gets the feeling that Catherine is treated as Eddie's little girl. Catherine was born in America with a slight Sicilian-American accent. She wants to leave school having been chosen out of many girls to be a stenographer for a plumbing company. Catherine is put in a difficult situation by Eddie because some of his actions suggest he may be sexually attracted to her, but Catherine falls in love with illegal immigrant Rodolpho. There are many dramatic mini scenes in Act 1. In one of them Rodolpho sings in front of everyone. This causes tension between Eddie, Rodolpho, Catherine, Beatrice and Marco. Eddie says "“'He's like a chorus girl or sump'm'. Eddie is saying that Rodolpho isn't normal and that he might be homosexual. This is very insulting and Eddie showing his dislike for Rodolpho even though he has only just met him. Eddie's rudeness towards Rodolpho makes Catherine annoyed and Miller writes "“ Embarrassed now, angered, Catherine goes into the bedroom... she gives Eddie a cold look, restrained only by strangers. The audience can see from Catherine's face and body language that she isn't very happy with Eddie and the tension this creates. The mini-scene continues with further tension from a disagreement between Eddie and Beatrice as they argue about Catherine. Eddie also says "“ 'You mean it's all right with you? That's gonna be her husband?' He is asking Beatrice whether she would be happy if Rodolpho married Catherine because Eddie obviously doesn't like him. This argument makes Beatrice say "“'When am I gonna be a wife again'. Eddie and Beatrice are going through a hard time and Beatrice feels that Eddie isn't treating her like he is supposed to. Eddie's reaction to Beatrice's comments is "“'I can't talk about it'. Eddie is becoming tense by Beatrice pestering him and doesn't know how to respond to her questions. The row results in Eddie not bothering to look at or touch Beatrice. The reader can see this from Miller's stage directions where he puts "“she tries to turn him to her"¦he keeps his head turned away. Miller, from this stage direction, makes the reader appreciate that Eddie is annoyed. Miller also writes "“Eddie"¦ his face puffed with trouble, and the room dies. Eddie is being very negative and this is frustrating other characters. Miller creates tension from his dialogue and from his stage directions as facial expressions they describe the characters body language. In act two Eddie's presence on stage has a profound effect on the other characters. Miller has presented Eddie in this way through his choice of dialogue and specific stage directions. The tension between Eddie and the other characters grows after he sees Rodolpho emerge from Catherine's room with Catherine. Miller states "“ Eddie sees him and his arm jerks slightly in shock. He puts this to illustrate to the reader that Eddie is obviously quite surprised and angry. At the time Eddie is a bit drunk and he throws himself at Catherine and kisses her on the lips. Miller writes "“ he reaches out suddenly, draws her to him, and as she strives to free herself he kisses her on the mouth. This action could be as a result of Eddie having inappropriate feelings for her or it may be a last ditch effort to stop Catherine from leaving because he can't accept that she isn't his little girl anymore. Rodolpho shouts at him "“ 'Stop that! Have respect for her!' Rodolpho eventually manages to pull Eddie off her and Eddie turns round to face Rodolpho. Rodolpho then says "“ 'She'll be my wife. That is what I want my wife. My wife!' The use of the exclamation marks shows the passion in Rodolpho's voice and contributes to creating dramatic tension. This infuriates Eddie even more and he teases Rodolpho who tries to attack Eddie, but Eddie lunges towards Rodolpho and kisses him on the lips. Miller says "“ Rodolpho flies at him in attack. Eddie pins his arms, laughing, and suddenly kisses him. A motive for kissing Rodolpho could be an attempt to prove to Catherine that Rodolpho is homosexual. The above stage directions in this mini scene are designed to achieve visual tension among the characters describing physical contact and body language especially that of Eddie so that the audience can fully appreciate the growing nature of his relationships with Catherine and Rodolpho. Events in act two build up to the tragic climax. In this mini scene Eddie reports Rodolpho and Marco to the Immigration Bureau who take them away and it is widely believed that Eddie was the person that reported them. When Catherine tells Eddie that she and Rodolpho are getting married Eddie tries to make her rethink her decision. He pleads "“ 'Katie, wait a minute'. But Catherine responds with "“ 'No, I made up my mind.' Even now, after everything that has happened before, Eddie doesn't want Catherine to leave. Even though Eddie is against the marriage he tries to get Marco and Rodolpho out of the house before the Immigration Bureau arrive. He becomes worried and anxious. He says nervously "“ 'Catherine! What're you, got no brains? You put them up there with two other submarines?' Miller also states "“ In a driving fright and anger, to describe the way Eddie was acting. Catherine moved Marco and Rodolpho to an apartment upstairs where Eddie knew the Immigration Bureau could find them. Eddies newly found care for Rodolpho and Marco meant that when the Immigration Bureau knocked on the door they all knew it was Eddie who had reported them. Miller writes "“ 'A knock on the door. His head swerves. They all stand motionless.' Eddie does what he can to make Marco and Rodolpho avoid being caught by the Immigration Bureau but it was too little too late. Miller also puts "“'Catherine stands motionless, uncomprehending"¦she stands a moment staring at him in realized horror.' This stage direction visualises for the reader the dramatic tension, it shows that Catherine knew what Eddie had done and that she was shocked and surprised that even Eddie would report them after he had constantly told her how it was against the Sicilian Code of Honour. In this mini scene Miller skilfully via his stage directions used the lack of motion to create tension. Eddies actions in act two are against everything that he was saying in act one and his jealousy makes him commit an unforgivable crime against his family and the Sicilian community. In act one he was telling Catherine how it is against the Sicilian Code of Honour to report an illegal immigrant under any circumstances. When Beatrice was describing a boy that once reported his uncle she said "“ 'He had five brothers and the old father"¦ and they pulled him down the stairs "“ three flights his head was bouncing like a coconut.' At the time this play was set, late 1940s, it wasn't acceptable to be homosexual and in act one Eddie makes it sound like being homosexual was almost as bad as breaking the Sicilian Code of Honour. Yet in act two he kisses Rodolpho. I think 'A View From The Bridge' is a very interesting book as it raises social issues that are still relevant today and it shows the difficult decisions a Sicilian American, such as Eddie, had to make in the late 1940s.   

Arthur Miller was born in 1915 in New York. He was a playwright whose work discussed significant social issues, giving the reader a deep insight into his characters' feelings. He died on February 11th 2005. In 'A View From The Bridge', Eddie Carbone is a middle-aged Sicilian-American longshoreman who lives...

Words: 1373 View(s): 291 Comment(s): 0
'Wuthering Heights' In this essay...'Wuthering Heights' In this essay I will be examining the way in which 'Wuthering Heights' fulfils the high expectations of the gothic genre"¦ As Wuthering heights was written in 1914, the time period, as it portrays in the novel is very different to the life style we lead today. Emily Bronte the author of this highly criticised novel in this era was born in 1818 she had two older sisters Charlotte and Anne who were also writers at this time. In my own opinion the pre-19 century was more formal and moralised than today's society we all live in, it may have something to do with the hierarchy or status of men and women today, which was totally different than the late 18th century. Emily Bronte expresses all her thoughts, feelings and emotions in this novel but as women and children were to be seen and not heard a woman expressing her viewpoint and especially in a novel containing such violence emotions and anger it was classed as degrading. Although today Wuthering heights is a classical and highly acclaimed novel, which also helps us to understand the differences between today's society and historical times! Emily Bronte lived her live in the solitude of the bleak and uncolourful Yorkshire moorlands. Emily was always thought of as a young child to have a creative and vivid imagination, which developed into Emily along with her two older sisters to have the confidence to publish their much worked on novels. The sisters though had much difficulty publishing their texts so they had to publish them under a male pseudonym. Publishing under a male pseudonym didn't help the sisters and their reputation, as people were appalled with what they were reading whether written by a male or female they thought it was savage they didn't admit adultery, violence, alcoholism and vengeful revenge really happened! Emily Bronte was published under the male pseudonym of Ellis Bell. Pre 1914 was a peak time for the gothic period and gothic genre to be written. The gothic context of the genre is associated with this novel because in an overview Wuthering Heights contains some gothic portrayal, such as bleak and desolate locations -Moor lands. Black mists and secrets, which can be associated with Cathy and Heathcliff's relationship. Prophecy- Nelly Dean the narrator and us as the reader our predictions and opinions of our expectations towards the characters and happenings in the novel"¦ Nelly is portrayed as being able to predict the future and help people in need to find a solution and resolution to their problems. Also evidence of women being threatened by a powerful, impulsive and tyrannical male"¦Edgar Linton overpowering Cathy and luring her in a way to love him because of his status, riches and wealth. Although Heathcliff does act an overpowering and coveted male. Emily Bronte I feel achieved the differences between all of the characters well, as she has in a way I suppose by adding a unpredictable personality for each of the characters, shows how ones characteristics can vary from the other, in a way it is much more realistic as peoples personalities and characteristics do vary even in today's society depending on there frame of mind and emotion. The gothic genre- 'European romantic pseudomevial fiction having atmosphere of mystery, suspense and often terror.' The gothic genre also incorporated things for instance- romance, imaginative innovations, horror and as well as violence. In the time period in which this novel Wuthering Heights was written Emily fulfilled all of the expectations of a gothic novel"¦ Romance- Hindley & his wife, after his fathers death. Cathy & Heathcliff, from childhood. Edgar Linton Cathy sees his riches, status and wealth. Heathcliff & Sarah Linton as part of revenge and to win back Cathy. Cathy & Heathcliff, Cathy is dying and realises her true love. Atmosphere- Wuthering Heights usually contains a certain unexplainable atmosphere, which us as the reader can sense. In some of the sections of narrative the atmosphere makes us tense, inquisitive along with occasionally scared. Mixed emotions- mixed emotions all around it seems in this novel with so much going on Emily Bronte couldn't help but get the reader all mixed up in the emotions as well, confusion, constant love, wondering we endure it all! The language in Wuthering Heights is so very different to our modern day language in the 21st century. As we tend to often use slang when we communicate in the form of speech whereas in the time period of Emily Bronte pre-1914 language was much more formal and you could understand the true meaning of each single syllable in each word. That is very different from today however. People of higher status used true formal Standard English; people of lower class spoke more formal than we would today, but less formal than people with higher status and higher up in the hierarchy than themselves. Issues of gender- Males stereotypically were in control unlike today where we are all classed as equal. Cathy didn't want to be so dull, she wanted adventure and excitement in her life before, during and after her marriage to Edgar Linton. I feel Emily Bronte portrays herself to have something in common with Cathy because she had the nerve to write such a novel I feel expressing her own thoughts and emotions and then saying I will say a man wrote this to get known, then say see we women can achieve things for themselves! In the novel we encounter two different peoples perspectives, Nelly Dean who is the main narrator Mr. Lockwood who also helps to narrate. Whilst Nelly Dean is narrating we understand what going upon her word actually happened, she helps the reader put forth their own opinion and generally come to terms with all of the past events which are in the present in the novel. With the two narrators it does seem confusing although without the narrators there wouldn't be much point because the two narrators introduce us as the reader to the story. M y overview of the novel Wuthering Heights- as a contemporary reader I found the novel an interesting read, it enables us to come to terms with the differences of life in pre 19th century and the 21st century. The gothic genre is a very different type of read I would generally go for but I found that style of novel different and unique. One thing I really enjoyed about this novel is seeing how people were and reacted to situations in them days, overall I can understand why this novel wasn't very highly rated in the specific time period of the gothic genre and as to why it is a highly acclaimed novel in today's society   

'Wuthering Heights' In this essay I will be examining the way in which 'Wuthering Heights' fulfils the high expectations of the gothic genre… As Wuthering heights was written in 1914, the time period, as it portrays in the novel is very different to the life style we lead...

Words: 1142 View(s): 202 Comment(s): 0