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In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general in the king's army, and Thane of Glamis. The witches would be seen as a supernatural presence in the play to the Shakespearian audience, whereas the modern audience would see logical explanations to all that happens. Macbeth has a violent character, and these witches could just be mad women who provoke his "dark side". However, the witches are presented in the play as women with supernatural powers who make the day turn to night which can be explained simply by a solar eclipse and who make him hallucinate; "is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand...I have thee not, yet I see thee still"¦" The dagger leads Macbeth to the bedside of the king, where Macbeth kills king Duncan. This could have been controlled and planned by the witches, or could be Macbeth's mentality combined with his violent nature. However, if it is all controlled by the witches, this would show that Macbeth is not exactly responsible therefore the audience symapthise with him. King James I was very fascinated by witches and witchcraft, as was most the population at the time of shakespear. When Shakespeare wrote this for king James he made sure it would appeal to him. King James believed in witchcraft and supernatural powers. He believed that a group of witches attempted regicide against him. Including his ancestor, Banquo, in the story also assisted in allowing the king to see his own reflection in the play, especially in the scene of the 8 kings, where king James is the 8th king. "Thou shalt get kings, thought thou be none" this was said to Banquo in act 1 scene 3, coincidentally; Banquo is king James's ancestor. Even after the Shakespearian period, the public were fascinated by witchcraft. So fascinated, that they added another scene in the play, featuring Hecate, goddess of witchcraft. Act 3 scenes 5 The Shakespearian audience and the Elizabethan audience would have thought the witches to be the most powerful element in the play. The first scene and act of the play is of the witches. Theatrical effects, like thunder and lightning, are staged to add effects and intrigue the audience. Dark, gloomy and "evil" effects are used to represent the witches and their control over Macbeth. The first scene contains a mention of meeting Macbeth; this provides a clear link to him. The witches also discuss in which weather conditions they wish to meet; this could be waiting for the next particular conditions to meet in or choosing what weather situation to CREATE for their meeting with Macbeth. The witches plan to play with Macbeth's minds and lead him to the dark path on which they tread. This would interest the Elizabethan audience greatly, as they did not have our modern science and reasoning. The believed that witches did indeed exist, and had supernatural powers to control and amuse themselves with average human minds. An Elizabethan audience at Hampton Court in 1606 would have found this powerful and intriguing, and Shakespeare's portrayal of the witches on stage may have even left them feeling weary or shaken.] The atmosphere the witches seemed to create was magical; it was dark and dull yet powerful, and in some cases, amusing. They always seemed to appear when the weather conditions are poor or within a storm, and in darkness. ""¦Her choppy fingers"¦skinny lips"¦your beards"¦" This is Banquo"s description of the witches in Act 1 Scene 3, Macbeth and Banquo"s first encounter with the witches. "Her choppy fingers", meaning chapped, red and rough, would be common as they worked with their hands, in sowing, cooking etc. along with skinny lips. These were popular features for lower and working class women. However, they have beards, which were recognised as the uttermost ugliness in women, and showed that they are either cursed, or had a presence of masculinity in them. The speech is convincing yet fascinatingly powerful, for example, the use of riddles and antitheses "when the hurly-burly's done, when the battles lost and won" What else makes their speech interesting is that they use rhyme constantly, almost as if everything said is part of a bewitching continuous chant. The witches' powers are recognised and compared in Act 1 Scene 3. The following quotes will show what they are capable of: "¢"Killing swine" -Death of animals back then were always considered witch-related. "¢"In a sieve I'll tither sail" "“witches were thought able to sail in a sieve "¢"like a rat without a tail" "“witches were also thought to have the power to morph into any animal; however they would have no tail! "¢"I'll do, I'll do and I'll do" "“the witches threaten to cause the sailor harm and mischief using the above mentioned powers "¢"I'll give thee wind" "“able to cause the wind to blow "¢"I myself have all the others" "“this witch has powers over all winds to mischief. "¢ "All the quarters that they know I' the shipman's card" "“she can stop ships from docking safely so that he does not arrive ashore. "¢"Dwindle, peak and pine"¦bark cannot be lost yet it shall be tempest tost" "“the witch will make him thin, weak and frail and play a storm around his ship. When describing what they had done to the sailor's wife in Act 1 Scene 3, it is obvious that they had no respect or sympathy towards ordinary human beings: "Give me". Rather than asking the sailors wife to give her a chestnut, the witch ordered her to. "Rump-fed ronyon" "“this is an amusing quote but again shows the lack of respect the witches have for ordinary people. However, when they meet Macbeth and Banquo they use respectful terms; this may be mockery or an attempt to gain their trust so as to play on their minds. "All hail"¦" this phrase is used repeatedly, I believe it is to flatter Macbeth and to make him believe what they predict. The audience would be surprised and would have more reasons to believe in the witches as the predictions are revealed. The first prediction is "hail Macbeth, Thane of Cowdor". This would be a surprise as no one knows of the death of the Thane of Cowdor but the King and his court, and Macbeth believes that he still lives. There is no other explanation for the witches to know, other than that they have powers to get whatever knowledge they want. However, this prediction in my opinion should not be counted as so, as, even though Macbeth does not know, he has already in the previous scene been appointed Thane of Cowdor "Go pronounce his present death, and with his former title, greet Macbeth" The second prediction is "Hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter"¦" There is already a king, king Duncan of Dunsinane. This causes confusion, but also, this is where the plot thickens, so to speak. Both Macbeth and the audience see this and wonder if it has a deeper meaning. The way the witches continue to speak with rhyme and rhythm and in riddles; the rhyme and rhythm make the speech interesting whilst the riddles provide the element of mystery. The audience are bound to jump to conclusions from the predictions, as Macbeth does. The predictions will draw the audience more into the play. Macbeth at first is surprised with the quick disappearance of the witches, and wishes that they would have stayed and told him more, this myself and probably the audience would believe was the witches plan, to leave Macbeth with this 'craving' for more information. In Act 1 Scene 4, Macbeth states "let not the light see my black and deep desires", Macbeth is hoping that the prediction is true and has faith, as the witches predicted that he would become Thane of Cowdor, and upon his arrival, Macbeth was given the title. He actually wishes to become king and hopes for his prediction to come true as the previous one did. This quote was said to king Duncan himself, and so he did not wish to reveal his desires to take king Duncan's place. When the King spends a night at Macbeths castle, Macbeth and his wife see the opportunity to murder him. Upon hearing of the witches, Lady Macbeth was eager to fulfil her own and her husband's 'destiny' that she believed lay in these prediction; she encouraged the murder of king Duncan. They planned the murder, and she encouraged him though this is only my view. The witches seemed to have played a stronger part in the murder of Duncan. Macbeth visualized a dagger before him leading him to Duncan's bedside, he was unable to touch the dagger until then; "Is this a dagger which I see before me"¦I have thee not yet I see thee still"¦" Macbeth murders the king and continues his life casually; this shocks the audience, as they no longer know whether to consider him a villain or a hero. In act 4 scene 1 Macbeth returns to the witches greedily, in my opinion, to find answers and more predictions. He wishes to know his future. When Macbeth first hears that he cannot be defeated by anyone "Woman born" he accepts his fate thinking no person can kill him, but he feels that he must know if Banquo blood will reign? "Shall Banquo's issue ever reign this kingdom?" This is where the 8 kings are shown and in the eighth king"s hands, a glass, which were to show king James reflection. King James was very fond of this particular play because he could see himself, his ancestor and his beliefs playing upon the stage before him. At the end of act2 scene 1, Macbeth realizes that whatever predictions the witches had made had and would continue to come true, and it was his own impatience that bought him the problems that he s now suffering. Before Macbeth is killed, he says "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense that keep the word of promise to ear, and break it to our hope, this is where he had realized the witches had given him a double meaning. Macduff had been born through a caesarean section, which meant he was "untimely ripped" from his mother's womb, not born naturally. I think Shakespeare intended us, as his audience, to feel a mixture of sympathy & offence, against Macbeth. He is shown throughout the play as a cold-blooded killer under the influence of witchcraft. At the end of the play the Elizabethan audience would have felt sympathy for Macbeth because he realizes he has been misled by the witches "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense"act 5 scene 8 The witches show indications throughout the play of there affect on Macbeth. For example his trace-like state, "look how our partners rapt" act1 scene 3. Also Macbeth's changed appearance " why do u make such faces" act1 scene 4, this maybe through the witches influence or his own guilty conscience. Macbeth also has an inability to pray, " Amen/ stuck in my throat"¦" This could e the witches and their evil ways distancing Macbeth from god, or Macbeth's own conscience punishing him for his own evil thoughts and doings. Hallucinations and visions "what is this I see, a dagger before me?" there are numerous reasons for hallucinations, but because the Elizabethan audience would not have thought of any of these, only that the witches were responsible. There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits. When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.
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In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general...
any of these, only that the witches were responsible.

There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits.

When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.

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Charles Dickens aimed to convey messages...Charles Dickens aimed to convey messages about social problems in his writing and was a social reformer. Hard Times, first published in 1854, is a prime example of his ideas that with the introduction of industrialisation, humans qualities would be driven out and be reached with an utilitarian philosophy "“ where there was no place for fancy. Dickens criticises this. He believed that each human was different. He believed that people required a balance between fact and fancy to have a 'healthy' effect on society. Dickens uses contrasting pairs to show what he approves and disapproves of. One of the contrasting pairs used by Dickens to criticise utilitarianism is Cecilia Sissy Jupe and Bitzer. Their appearance is completely different. In the classroom, Sissy is described to be a "dark eyed and dark haired" girl when the sunlight hits her, but when the same ray of light hits Bitzer, he is "light hair and light eyed". It is as if the utilitarian approach to education has sucked Bitzer's life, making him seem unhealthy. They also contrast in their answers in the classroom. When asked to define a horse, Sissy is "thrown into the greatest alarm by this demand." It is obvious that she is not used to such as matter-of-fact way of education. However, when Bitzer is asked the same question, he says almost mechanically, "Quadruped. Graminivorous. Forty teeth, namely twenty-four grinden, four eye-teeth, and twelve incisive. Sheds coat in the spring; in marshy countries, sheds hoofs, too"¦" Dickens disapproves of the utilitarian education approach, as Bitzer seems to have no imagination, no life, and no childhood. He seems to a robot, just giving definitions when asked. Unlike Sissy, Bitzer only knows the 'utilitarian lifestyle', and therefore does not have a clue about the fanciful side of life. It would also have to be said that Sissy is having difficulty adjusting to the utilitarian lifestyle, as she answers questions from the heart. "'What is the first principle of this science'"¦ the answer, 'To do unto others as I would that they should do unto me.'" But I believe that if Bitzer was taken off to the circus, then he would also not be able to cope with the laughter, excitement and with the people at the circus. Dickens approves of Sissy's values, whereas he does not like the way Bitzer has been raised as a mini-adult in a "practical" way, taking away his human qualities and replacing them with mechanics. Another pair that Dickens uses to disapprove of the utilitarian life is through the acts and results of the parents, the "eminently practical" Mr. Thomas Gradgrind, and the circus clown Mr. Signor Jupe. Mt. Gradgrind believes that children, including his pupils and children, are "little vessels" ready to be filled with "imperial gallons of facts." On the other hand, according to Sissy, Mr. Jupe was a loving and understanding father that appreciated the importance of the fact and fancy balance. Mr. Gradgrind only wants his children to know about the factual side of life whereas Mr. Jupe wanted his daughter to have a balanced life. This is evident as Jupe put Sissy in a school. It seems as though Gradgrind does not care about his children's lives. For example, he marries off Louisa without consulting her feeling, because according to Gradgrind feelings are not "eminently practical." This is completely different to the fathering of Jupe. Jupe, ran away from her daughter for her benefit, as he did not want to live with a clown who could not producing laughter; a failure. The effects of fathering can be seen in the attitudes of their offspring. Tom Gradgrind, can wait to leave home in Book One, calling it a "Jaundice Jail" "“ unhealthy and diseased. Louisa does not care about her life anymore, and compares it to a fire. On the other hand, Sissy is caring and pleasant. Dickens is appalled at Coketown, and describes it in disgust. He condemns the architecture of the town. "It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys"¦ The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might have been the jail, the town-hall might have been either, or both, or anything else, for anything that appeared to the contrary in the graces of their construction." The town is monotonous; featureless. It is "severally workful." Dickens also disapproves of the town river, saying that it "ran purple with ill-smelling dye." He is not only attacking that unnaturalness of the town, but saying it is not environmentally friendly. Coketown is described as a boring town, with roads that are all the same, the people all the same and the building made all of "red brick." On the other hand, Dickens describes the circus favourably. It is totally fanciful, and not one bit "eminently practical". It holds lots of different characters, all of which are friendly and emotional, including Mr. Sleary, who's philosophy is to "make the betht of uth: not the wurtht!" All the people in the circus use colloquial words, saying that Dickens is indicating that not all people need to proper and matter-of-fact. Dickens approves of the life of fancy more than the life of fact as he describes things such as the circus in a favourable light, unlike people such as Mr. Gradgrind, Bounderby and M'Choakumchild. Dickens tries to make the reader think that the best way of bringing up children is to give them a balance of fact and fancy in their life. This is being threatened because of the industrial revolution. His method of criticism is effective at times, such as when Sissy moves in with the Gradgrinds, she is lost of colour and seems unhealthy.   

Charles Dickens aimed to convey messages about social problems in his writing and was a social reformer. Hard Times, first published in 1854, is a prime example of his ideas that with the introduction of industrialisation, humans qualities would be driven out and be reached with an utilitarian philosophy –...

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In this essay I will... In this essay I will be discussing the relationship between Catherine and Eddie and how it changes during the play "A View From The Bridge ". Poverty in Italy was a big issue in the late 1940's. even though there was nice beautiful scenery, getting work there was very hard. As Rodolfo says when Catherine suggests to move to Italy together on page 43 and 44, he reply's "happier, what would you eat? You can't cook the view". The members of the community of Redhook, Brooklyn are very close, they look out for each other. Redhook is primarily illegal immigrants, who had moved to Redhook because of lack of unemployment in Italy. Miller chose this topic to base his play because he himself was a dockworker living in Redhook, Brooklyn, his parents were immigrants into the united states. He was from a Italian background. This is a modern version of a Greek tragedy. Catherine is Eddies niece in the play. At the beginning of the play, Eddie treats Catherine like his own daughter. When Catherine first enters the scene Eddies initial reaction to what Catherine is wearing which was a skirt, he advises her to pull it down because he knows what the men are like in Redhook, he is very protective. Eddie says, quote, "Katie, I promised your mother on her deathbed, I'm responsible for you"¦" on page six. This tells us that he cares for her. Eddie portrays himself at the beginning of the play as a role model father and husband. Catherine is very naïve and believes things which are told to her. She's young and attractive, and she likes to be the centre of attention. Eddie on the other hand has a split personality, sometimes he can be a really sweet and loving father figure and other times he just releases rage inside him which he wants to let out. When Marco and Rodolfo come to stay with Beatrice, Eddie and Catherine, Eddies attitude begins to change. He becomes even more protective over Catherine than he already is and becomes very defensive. On page 22, Catherine says to Rodolfo, " you like sugar", Rodolfo reply's, " sugar? Yes! I like sugar very much". Rodolfo isn't implying that he likes sugar literally, he means it in a dirty way. Eddie notice the tone in which Rodolfo speaks to Catherine and immediately cuts in and says to Catherine in an agitated tone, "its after eight". Eddie is not only aggravated at the fact that they are late, but the fact they went out in the first place. When Eddie got annoyed at Catherine and Rodolfo, Beatrice also notice the change in Eddies character. She starts to become jealous but she doesn't let on because Eddies is treating Catherine more like a wife than eh treats Beatrice. At one stage in Act 1, Beatrice says smiling " ah, go on, you're jus jealous". She says that like she's joking but inside she knows that Eddie is slightly jealous of Rodolfo. Beatrice thinks Catherine is a threat towards her relationship with Eddie. She confronts Eddie and asks him, " when am I gonna be a wife again, Eddie?" when Beatrice asked this Eddie tried to avoid the subject and steps back using the excuse that, he " don't feel good". Slowly, slowly Eddie is pushing Beatrice away. Beatrice comments on how she saw Catherine in the bathroom when Eddie was shaving in his underwear, she tell Catherine she's no longer twelve anymore she cannot through herself at Eddie. Beatrice says on page 30 to Catherine, "I know, honey. But if you act like a baby he be treatin' you like a baby". she trying to tell Catherine to grow up a bit and act mature because she is around grown men. Catherine doesn't seem to want to know and refuses to believe the idea even came into Beatrice's head. Her ignorance take the best of her. Near the ending of Act 1, Eddie, Catherine, Beatrice, Rodolfo and Marco are all sitting in the living room, when Catherine decides to get up and put a record on the phonograph; 'Paper Doll' plays, Catherine flushed with revolt builds up the courage and asks Rodolfo if he wants to dance, Eddie freezes at this moment in time at first Rodolfo refuses but then stiffly excepts. As the couple dance, the other three are having a conversation about Rodolfo. When Marco tell "B" and Eddie Rodolfo cooks. Eddie speaks in a sarcastic way, " he a cook, too!". Eddie is trying to imply that Rodolfo is "gay". After a little while Rodolfo and Catherine stop dancing. Eddies becomes very annoyed when Catherine complements Rodolfo, he starts twisting the newspaper unconsciously in a tight roll. He becomes so angry inside he rips the paper in two, he gets up and confronts Marco. Eddie offers a boxing match with Marco, but Marco refuses at first, then he agrees to take him up on a challenge. At first its just a light boxing match but then Eddie becomes more serious and aggressive, this is when Beatrice and jumps in and stops him. Rodolfo grabs Catherine hand and requests that she dances with him. Eddie at this stage of the play is very angry and wants to get back at Rodolfo in some way or another. Marco gets angry because of Eddies reaction towards the boxing match and decides to get even. He challenges Eddie to lift a chair up with one hand kneeling down. Eddie thinking he can do it try's to lift the chair, he disappointedly fails. Marco becomes face to face with Eddies, you can see the tension building. Marco lifts the chair above Eddie like a weapon, he has a glare of warning on his face; this is to show he is not afraid. The warning turns into a smile of triumph. Eddie starts to grow anguish when Catherine comes out from the bedroom, adjusting her dress at the beginning of Act 2. Eddie knows that Rodolfo and Catherine have just had sex but still says sarcastically, " Rodolfo makin' you a dress?". Seeing Rodolfo come out of the bedroom makes Eddies arm jerk slightly in shock. When Rodolfo nods testingly, Eddie becomes angry and tell Rodolfo to leave. Catherine immediately turns and walks towards the bedroom, when Eddie grabs her she tells him she need to get out of there. Eddie grabs Rodolfo and kisses him, Eddies is trying to prove that Rodolfo is gay. Catherine is shouting telling him to get off. Catherine pleads to Eddie and tell him she is not a baby anymore. Catherine at this stage is very angry and scared she just want to find a way to get out of there. Eddie goes to visit Alfieri, he tell Alfieri that he want to ring the immigration officers but something is holding him back. He tell Alfieri how angry he is and will do anything to get rid of them. Alfieri warns Eddie not to ring the immigration officers but Eddie ignores him and rings. Eddie anonymously rings and tell the bureau where Marco and Rodolfo are. Eddie goes home and finds only Beatrice sitting there. In a surprised way he says, "where is everybody?", at first "B" doesn't answer but then says how she's moving in with Mrs Dondero. When Beatrice tells Eddie Catherine's getting pillows his initial reaction is he thinks she moving in with the two brothers but, Beatrice gets angry and says, ""¦ I'm sick and tired of it". She's upset that Eddie cares more about Catherine than his own wife, she even says that she wished she could have dropped dead. Eddie tries to make it out like Beatrice is blowing everything out of proportion, when he knows it his fault. On page 55 the immigration officers come to get the brothers, Eddie points them into the right direction and at this point Beatrice has a look of terror on her face towards Eddie. The officers take Marco away. Marco shouts out to Eddie, "that one! He killed my children! That one stole the food from my children!". Eddie just says he is crazy. Eddie does this for his own benefit he does it so that maybe if they are gone Catherine will be interested in him. But Catherine is in shock and is disgusted with Eddie for doing such a thing. Alfieri goes to Marco and tell him he can be released but he should not do anything to Eddie. Marco in rage of anger says "I'm gonna kill him". Marco gets released and goes to find Eddie. At this point people can hear shouting on the street so the come to see what the commotion is all about. Eddie is speaking and makes Marco even more angrier then before. Eddie pulls out a knife, Louis tries to stop him but the moves back. Marco shouts " Anima-a-a-l!", Eddie lunges with the knife but Marco turns it around and stabs Eddie. He fall to the floor before Marco, his final words are "my B", he dies in her arms. Alfieri ends the story saying he that he will love Eddie and respect him anymore than any of his other clients because he tried so hard to get something he knew he couldn't have. Relationship between Eddie and Catherine change dramatically during the play. Eddies jealousy took over his whole life for someone who's relationship was no more than platonic toward him.   

In this essay I will be discussing the relationship between Catherine and Eddie and how it changes during the play "A View From The Bridge ". Poverty in Italy was a big issue in the late 1940's. even though there was nice beautiful scenery, getting work there was...

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The theme that is brought... The theme that is brought up early in this play is "fate and predestination". This was very much part of the Protestant belief at the time of Macbeth. Ones future was mapped out to a certain extent ultimately leading to salvation or damnation. In Macbeth's case it was damnation and failure. This theme was displayed early in the play. Macbeth and Banquo have recently been in a tough battle with rebels and have won the victory for Scotland. Duncan rewards Macbeth for his courage by giving him the title 'Thane of Cawdor'. This title previously belonged to one who was a 'most disloyal traitor' so it seems Macbeth was destined to become one himself. But Duncan himself does not tell Macbeth. He is told by three witches he meets on the 'lonely moor'. Macbeth is surprised to be told by the witches but even more so when they proclaim he will be King: Act 1 Scene 3 "First Witch All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Glamis Second Witch All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor Third Witch All hail Macbeth, that shall be King here after." However, certain issues must be raised. The question has to be asked "“ "Are the witches predicting his future or are they trying to manipulate him into doing something he would regret?" The witches may have been told by someone about Macbeth receiving the honour of being Thane of Cawdor before the information got to him. Macbeth was destined to fail as soon as he thought about being King. Thinking about being would have made him exercise thoughts about killing Duncan in order to be King more quickly. In those days it was believed that the Monarch was appointed by God and therefore any attempt to usurp the Monarch was sacrilegious. This is made clear to us when Duncan's sons discover their father dead. McDuff says: Act 2 Scene 3 "Confusion now hath made his masterpiece Most sacrilegious murder hath broke ope The Lord's appointed temple and stole thence The life o'th'building." McDuff says that the life of the 'Lord's anointed temple' has been stolen. He means that Duncan was the life of God and this life was stolen because he is dead. This shows a strong belief that Kings were appointed by God. This belief is called "The Divine Rights of Monarchs" and once again shows that Macbeth was destined to fail when he killed Duncan. Macbeth's moral dilemma when considering murdering Duncan, and the religious terminology he uses illustrates how he knows that the act he is considering is immoral and that he will be punished accordingly. However he is still seduced by offers of greatness. He says: Act 1 Scene 7 "But in these cases We still have judgement here that we but teach Bloody instructions, which being taught, return To plague th'inventor" Even though he will receive greatness for murdering Duncan, it will come back to haunt him or he might even be killed himself. This once again shows that Macbeth was destined to fail. It is obvious to us that Macbeth is attracted to the idea of murdering Duncan but he knows it is an evil act: Act 2 Scene 1 "Nature seems dead"¦ wicked dreams"¦ Witchcraft celebrates Pale Hecate's off'ring"¦ Withered murder"¦ wolf"¦ howl's"¦ Tarquin's Ravishing strides"¦ ghost" All of these things represent evil and it shows what was going through Macbeth's mind. Even still he contemplated murdering Duncan. This shows that he was once again destined to fail. The murder of Duncan and the upsetting of the pre-ordained order is illustrated symbolically by the in incident with the owl and the falcon: Act 2 Scene 4 "old man 'Tis unnatural, Even like the deed that's done on Tuesday last At a falcon tow' ring in her pride of place Was by a mousing owl hawked at and killed" This is showing that the less powerful and important is killing the more powerful and important. It is a parallel to Macbeth killing Duncan. Macbeth usurped Duncan's position and this is unnatural or wrong occurrence. Macbeth is defying the natural order and therefore defying God therefore he will be punished and this punishment will be failure. This manifestation of God's will was central to the belief system of Low Church Christians in the early 17th Century, of which James I was one. This play serves as a warning to those wanting to kill the monarch at the time of the play. The Gunpowder Plot is referred to at the beginning of Act 2 Scene 3: "Knock, knock. Who's there in th'other devils name? Faith, here's an equivocator that could swear in both the Scales against either scale, who committed treason Enough for God's sake, yet could not equivocate to Heaven. O, come in, equivocator." The Porter seems to be referring to the Jesuit father Garnet, who tried to save his life with his specious arguments but who was executed in 1606 for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot. He especially refers to the Jesuit priest's equivocal oaths when he says "for God's sake". The plotters were condemned and this is parallel to Macbeth being condemned "“ his madness and suffering along with that of his wife are symbolic of the punishment awaiting the traitors. His punishment comes in several ways. Firstly he cannot sleep at night, secondly he keeps visualising the ghost of Banquo and thirdly and ultimately he himself is killed. James I defeating the plotters and Malcom and McDuff defeating Macbeth are examples of the theme good versus evil. If good were not to prevail then the whole socio-cultural fabric that underpinned 17th Century life would be destroyed making society unstable. This is proved in the years following the death of James I. His successor Charles I was impeached and he was eventually executed after the Civil War. Also the governments of the Interregnum and the Protectorate had failed.   

The theme that is brought up early in this play is "fate and predestination". This was very much part of the Protestant belief at the time of Macbeth. Ones future was mapped out to a certain extent ultimately leading to salvation or damnation. In Macbeth's case it was damnation...

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