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In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general in the king's army, and Thane of Glamis. The witches would be seen as a supernatural presence in the play to the Shakespearian audience, whereas the modern audience would see logical explanations to all that happens. Macbeth has a violent character, and these witches could just be mad women who provoke his "dark side". However, the witches are presented in the play as women with supernatural powers who make the day turn to night which can be explained simply by a solar eclipse and who make him hallucinate; "is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand...I have thee not, yet I see thee still"¦" The dagger leads Macbeth to the bedside of the king, where Macbeth kills king Duncan. This could have been controlled and planned by the witches, or could be Macbeth's mentality combined with his violent nature. However, if it is all controlled by the witches, this would show that Macbeth is not exactly responsible therefore the audience symapthise with him. King James I was very fascinated by witches and witchcraft, as was most the population at the time of shakespear. When Shakespeare wrote this for king James he made sure it would appeal to him. King James believed in witchcraft and supernatural powers. He believed that a group of witches attempted regicide against him. Including his ancestor, Banquo, in the story also assisted in allowing the king to see his own reflection in the play, especially in the scene of the 8 kings, where king James is the 8th king. "Thou shalt get kings, thought thou be none" this was said to Banquo in act 1 scene 3, coincidentally; Banquo is king James's ancestor. Even after the Shakespearian period, the public were fascinated by witchcraft. So fascinated, that they added another scene in the play, featuring Hecate, goddess of witchcraft. Act 3 scenes 5 The Shakespearian audience and the Elizabethan audience would have thought the witches to be the most powerful element in the play. The first scene and act of the play is of the witches. Theatrical effects, like thunder and lightning, are staged to add effects and intrigue the audience. Dark, gloomy and "evil" effects are used to represent the witches and their control over Macbeth. The first scene contains a mention of meeting Macbeth; this provides a clear link to him. The witches also discuss in which weather conditions they wish to meet; this could be waiting for the next particular conditions to meet in or choosing what weather situation to CREATE for their meeting with Macbeth. The witches plan to play with Macbeth's minds and lead him to the dark path on which they tread. This would interest the Elizabethan audience greatly, as they did not have our modern science and reasoning. The believed that witches did indeed exist, and had supernatural powers to control and amuse themselves with average human minds. An Elizabethan audience at Hampton Court in 1606 would have found this powerful and intriguing, and Shakespeare's portrayal of the witches on stage may have even left them feeling weary or shaken.] The atmosphere the witches seemed to create was magical; it was dark and dull yet powerful, and in some cases, amusing. They always seemed to appear when the weather conditions are poor or within a storm, and in darkness. ""¦Her choppy fingers"¦skinny lips"¦your beards"¦" This is Banquo"s description of the witches in Act 1 Scene 3, Macbeth and Banquo"s first encounter with the witches. "Her choppy fingers", meaning chapped, red and rough, would be common as they worked with their hands, in sowing, cooking etc. along with skinny lips. These were popular features for lower and working class women. However, they have beards, which were recognised as the uttermost ugliness in women, and showed that they are either cursed, or had a presence of masculinity in them. The speech is convincing yet fascinatingly powerful, for example, the use of riddles and antitheses "when the hurly-burly's done, when the battles lost and won" What else makes their speech interesting is that they use rhyme constantly, almost as if everything said is part of a bewitching continuous chant. The witches' powers are recognised and compared in Act 1 Scene 3. The following quotes will show what they are capable of: "¢"Killing swine" -Death of animals back then were always considered witch-related. "¢"In a sieve I'll tither sail" "“witches were thought able to sail in a sieve "¢"like a rat without a tail" "“witches were also thought to have the power to morph into any animal; however they would have no tail! "¢"I'll do, I'll do and I'll do" "“the witches threaten to cause the sailor harm and mischief using the above mentioned powers "¢"I'll give thee wind" "“able to cause the wind to blow "¢"I myself have all the others" "“this witch has powers over all winds to mischief. "¢ "All the quarters that they know I' the shipman's card" "“she can stop ships from docking safely so that he does not arrive ashore. "¢"Dwindle, peak and pine"¦bark cannot be lost yet it shall be tempest tost" "“the witch will make him thin, weak and frail and play a storm around his ship. When describing what they had done to the sailor's wife in Act 1 Scene 3, it is obvious that they had no respect or sympathy towards ordinary human beings: "Give me". Rather than asking the sailors wife to give her a chestnut, the witch ordered her to. "Rump-fed ronyon" "“this is an amusing quote but again shows the lack of respect the witches have for ordinary people. However, when they meet Macbeth and Banquo they use respectful terms; this may be mockery or an attempt to gain their trust so as to play on their minds. "All hail"¦" this phrase is used repeatedly, I believe it is to flatter Macbeth and to make him believe what they predict. The audience would be surprised and would have more reasons to believe in the witches as the predictions are revealed. The first prediction is "hail Macbeth, Thane of Cowdor". This would be a surprise as no one knows of the death of the Thane of Cowdor but the King and his court, and Macbeth believes that he still lives. There is no other explanation for the witches to know, other than that they have powers to get whatever knowledge they want. However, this prediction in my opinion should not be counted as so, as, even though Macbeth does not know, he has already in the previous scene been appointed Thane of Cowdor "Go pronounce his present death, and with his former title, greet Macbeth" The second prediction is "Hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter"¦" There is already a king, king Duncan of Dunsinane. This causes confusion, but also, this is where the plot thickens, so to speak. Both Macbeth and the audience see this and wonder if it has a deeper meaning. The way the witches continue to speak with rhyme and rhythm and in riddles; the rhyme and rhythm make the speech interesting whilst the riddles provide the element of mystery. The audience are bound to jump to conclusions from the predictions, as Macbeth does. The predictions will draw the audience more into the play. Macbeth at first is surprised with the quick disappearance of the witches, and wishes that they would have stayed and told him more, this myself and probably the audience would believe was the witches plan, to leave Macbeth with this 'craving' for more information. In Act 1 Scene 4, Macbeth states "let not the light see my black and deep desires", Macbeth is hoping that the prediction is true and has faith, as the witches predicted that he would become Thane of Cowdor, and upon his arrival, Macbeth was given the title. He actually wishes to become king and hopes for his prediction to come true as the previous one did. This quote was said to king Duncan himself, and so he did not wish to reveal his desires to take king Duncan's place. When the King spends a night at Macbeths castle, Macbeth and his wife see the opportunity to murder him. Upon hearing of the witches, Lady Macbeth was eager to fulfil her own and her husband's 'destiny' that she believed lay in these prediction; she encouraged the murder of king Duncan. They planned the murder, and she encouraged him though this is only my view. The witches seemed to have played a stronger part in the murder of Duncan. Macbeth visualized a dagger before him leading him to Duncan's bedside, he was unable to touch the dagger until then; "Is this a dagger which I see before me"¦I have thee not yet I see thee still"¦" Macbeth murders the king and continues his life casually; this shocks the audience, as they no longer know whether to consider him a villain or a hero. In act 4 scene 1 Macbeth returns to the witches greedily, in my opinion, to find answers and more predictions. He wishes to know his future. When Macbeth first hears that he cannot be defeated by anyone "Woman born" he accepts his fate thinking no person can kill him, but he feels that he must know if Banquo blood will reign? "Shall Banquo's issue ever reign this kingdom?" This is where the 8 kings are shown and in the eighth king"s hands, a glass, which were to show king James reflection. King James was very fond of this particular play because he could see himself, his ancestor and his beliefs playing upon the stage before him. At the end of act2 scene 1, Macbeth realizes that whatever predictions the witches had made had and would continue to come true, and it was his own impatience that bought him the problems that he s now suffering. Before Macbeth is killed, he says "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense that keep the word of promise to ear, and break it to our hope, this is where he had realized the witches had given him a double meaning. Macduff had been born through a caesarean section, which meant he was "untimely ripped" from his mother's womb, not born naturally. I think Shakespeare intended us, as his audience, to feel a mixture of sympathy & offence, against Macbeth. He is shown throughout the play as a cold-blooded killer under the influence of witchcraft. At the end of the play the Elizabethan audience would have felt sympathy for Macbeth because he realizes he has been misled by the witches "these juggling themes no more believed that patter with us in a double sense"act 5 scene 8 The witches show indications throughout the play of there affect on Macbeth. For example his trace-like state, "look how our partners rapt" act1 scene 3. Also Macbeth's changed appearance " why do u make such faces" act1 scene 4, this maybe through the witches influence or his own guilty conscience. Macbeth also has an inability to pray, " Amen/ stuck in my throat"¦" This could e the witches and their evil ways distancing Macbeth from god, or Macbeth's own conscience punishing him for his own evil thoughts and doings. Hallucinations and visions "what is this I see, a dagger before me?" there are numerous reasons for hallucinations, but because the Elizabethan audience would not have thought of any of these, only that the witches were responsible. There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits. When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.
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In my opinion, Macbeth is a tragic hero. I see a tragic hero as a character who is admired and loved and followed throughout the play, and is bought down by a flaw in their character followed by fate. Macbeth is a brave hero, highly ranked by his own family and society, as well as the country. I see the reason for this, however, as the following: He is a brute. He is a violent, blood-loving butcher, and these are the activities, which got him to the status at which he is, a general...
any of these, only that the witches were responsible.

There are other examples also, that the Elizabethan audience would consider the witches responsible for, like Macbeth's lack of fear, disturbed behaviour, indifference to life and also invitation to evil spirits.

When focusing mainly on the supernatural details of the play, the witches seemed to me as the most powerful element of the play, otherwise, Macbeth seemed like a power-hungry mad murderer, but again, this is only my opinion. The Elizabethan audience would almost definitely consider the witches to be the most powerful element into the play.

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The Roses of Eyam by Don...The Roses of Eyam by Don Taylor an accurate portrayal of how the villages of a small village situated in Derbyshire called Eyam coped with the arrival of the plague in 1665. In the civil war Charles I had little understanding of Scotland. The Scottish church was Presbyterian it was against having bishops. Charles I tried to force the Scots to follow English forms of worship. In 1638 the Scots drew up a petition, the national covenant, rejecting his demands. Charles I went to war with the covenanters in 1639 and 1640, but was forced to make peace. Charles I now tried to come to an agreement with the English parliament, but failed. In 1647 he fled to the isle of white. He made a secret deal with his former enemies in Scotland, promising them the reforms they desired. The Scots marched on England and there were royalist risings in Wales, too. However all were defeated and by 1649 Charles was imprisoned. On 30 January 1649, Charles I was marched from saint James's palace to Whitehall. At one o'clock the king stepped to the scaffold. When the axe had fallen, his head was shown to the ranks of soldiers and the crowd. The nation was now republic. The parliament ruled the land instead of a king or queen. It governed through a council of state, made up of 40 members. However as far as the army was concerned, parliament was much too cautious in its reforms. In 1653 power was handed over to one man, Oliver Cromwell, who was appointed lord protector. His rule was harsh but effective. He attempted to bring in military rule, and in 1556 he was even offered the crown. Oliver Cromwell died on a stormy night in 1658. His son Richard know as 'tumbledown dick' was made lord protector, but had little taste for power. The revolution was over. After eleven years of Oliver Cromwell and his puritan government, Charles II is restored to the throne. In the village of eyam, the tensions created by the civil war continue, and an uneasy peace has settled over the village. Then a deadly disease arrives and the play tells us of how it took the lives of many innocent villagers. The plague was supposedly brought into Eyam by a man called George Vicars. He came to Eyam in August, 1665 and found lodging with a lead miner"s widow called Mary Cooper. Around the end of August a box of material was sent to him. Tradition says that it came from London. When he opened the box, he found that the clothes were damp and so he laid them out to dry. The disease struck quickly and within about 5 or 6 days of his first symptoms, Vicars died.15 days later, Edward Cooper, son of Mary Cooper, also died, quickly followed by several of their neighbours. Now the villagers knew that a deadly disease was spreading, and that they could not escape it. William Mompesson, the new rector of Eyam, asked the villagers to stay in the village in fear of the infection spreading. Food parcels were delivered to the boundaries of the village, and the villagers would collect them from there. They were paid for by coins which were dipped in vinegar to disinfect them. The grim task of burying the dead fell to the village sexton and the victims were often buried hurriedly in graves which were scattered around the village. Usually there was no funeral service, for gatherings of people were discouraged for fear of spreading the infection. When the plague ended in 1666, eyam had a population of approximately 73, 277 people had died. The recently appointed rector William Mompesson, who I have already mentioned, moved to the village with his family, his wife Catherine and two children of four and five and he is looking upon it as a positive step. He is a well educated man who has spent 10 years at Cambridge. "My intelligence could have made me a civil servant or a diplomat...I chose Christ because of a vision"¦In eyam I shall lay the first foundation of God's house"¦" He is first shown around the village by his patron, George Saville who thinks the village itself is bleak. He gives Mompesson advice that 200 people n the village are still friends with the former rector so they are his enemies "Thomas Stanley"¦ he was the old rector here under Cromwell"¦ there are about three hundred and fifty people in this village perhaps two hundred of them are still his friends; which means that they're your enemies" "It will be a real test, William, don't undervalue it" Shortly after his arrival he has his first meeting with the former rector. It takes place at a wake being held for Emmot and Rowland's wedding. The stage directions used when Stanley enters gives us a description of him and what he used to do: "Thomas Stanley enters. He is a rather down-at-heel looking puritan preacher in his fifties, an imposing man with a mane of white hair, seeming to bring on stage with him, in his very appearance, a memory of the puritan revolution at its most positive and idealistic stage." Stanley is very bitter towards mompesson, when he introduces himself. He immediately dismisses any thing the new rector says. "Then you will have learned that there is Wright and wrong and that oil and vinegar in the same jar won't mix without a beating. You build your palace and I will build mine, and let god decide which of us has constructed a tomb. My thanks for your kindness sir" shortly after this meeting there is word that George vicars has become sick and the village seem scared and now do seem to look up to mompesson more because they are scared. "Quote" Mompesson is unsure about seeing the sick villager but eventually goes to see him. Once mompesson has realised it is the plague he talks to his wife about leaving but she reassures him and tells him to stick it out and do all he can to help. "Quote" This is where we are first introduced to Catharine properly and through out the play she supports he husband but she had a turning point in act three. She is having doubts and is worried about her children as they are only four and five and she doesn't want them to die. ""¦must I go in to our children and say to them, my darlings, you're only four and five , but your father says you must be strong, so if you die neat week without having had any life you mustn't mind, because that's what god wants"¦" Also at the time of this conversation we have an example of stage craft as there are two conversations at the same time. His one between mompesson and Catherine and Stanley having second thoughts about shutting up the village. However both of these are resolved as mompesson decides to send his children away and Stanley talks to mompesson about his doubts and they are resolved. As we reach the end of the play all of these characters have changed in a way. Stanley decides to put aside his dislike for the new rector and helped to rid the village of the plague. Mompesson had doubts at the beginning and thought about leaving but he stuck it out and helps to get rid of the plague, and Catherine is very positive at the beginning supporting mompesson but even she shows she has doubts about the village.   

The Roses of Eyam by Don Taylor an accurate portrayal of how the villages of a small village situated in Derbyshire called Eyam coped with the arrival of the plague in 1665. In the civil war Charles I had little understanding of Scotland. The Scottish church was Presbyterian it...

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The first poem I am... The first poem I am going to look at is Charlotte O"Neil"s song. Charlotte O"Neil is servant who looks on her life as gruelling and dull. Her heart sets on an exciting new life in New Zealand were she hoped to live her life as "luxurious" as her mistress. We learn about Charlottes O"Neil"s lifestyle and how it differs from her mistress's and with that we can answer why she wrote this poem. In the poem it clarifies that Charlotte O"Neil was bored with her work and felt she could do more from her independents and individuality. Her harsh tone in lines 1-5 suggests she's had enough of her slavery, "and I washed your plate and I scrubbed till my hands were raw." Charlotte is obviously a hard working girl and dislikes her life being owed to her masters, therefore she wants to escape and discover life. Charlotte writes the poem about the past in lines 1-14, she sounds angry, how her mistress treated her, "You lay on a silken pillow. I lay on a attic cot". The tone changes again in lines 13-14, Charlotte comes to feel hurt, "The rich man earns his castle, you said. The poor deserve the gate." This is supposed to show that God made people to live in different social classes - some to serve and some to be served. This would obviously hurt Charlotte as her mistress treats her like dirt and thinks nothing of Charlotte. In stanzas 4-6 deal with the future - Charlotte lists all the things she won"t be doing any more and imagines her former employers coping by themselves. The mood changes from anger, emotional to confident and powerful. Charlotte gets cheeky in lines 15-18, "But I"ll never say "sir" or "thank you ma"am" and I"ll never curtsey more." The mood is different at the end because Charlotte is showing to her mistress that she is an independent woman and confident by the use of language and tone she is writing in. Charlotte is leaving her job to make a new life in New Zealand and no longer wants to be bossed about by anyone - wants to be independent. The style of the poem is very interesting because of the mixture of tones Charlotte used "“ harsh, emotional to proud, cocky and shown independence and therefore you could have read the poem with different out looks- · Triumphantly - Charlotte is delighted to have escaped? · Sorrowfully - Charlotte regrets all the effort she put in to keeping other people happy? · In a cheeky way - she even calls one of her former employers my dear line 24, which proves she has no respect for them? It is also interesting that the poem deals with the past and the future, while there is no mention of the present - Charlotte"s life on board ship. The poem originally was a song, and that describes why there is a definite rhythm. " I scraped out your grate and I washed your plate and I scrubbed till my hands were raw." Repetition also takes place, "and I"ve cleaned your house/and I"ve cleaned your clothes" This language in the poem sets up a contrast between two lives - that of the servant, and that of the master and mistress, by using "I've" and "You", "You rang your bell and I answered..." The last line more or less repeats line 20. On the page it is presented as a stanza by itself, "and you can open your own front door." Both things emphasise the line so it creates a triumphant conclusion and this helps us appreciate the type of character Charlotte is, independent, powerful and tuff even though she has been trodden on.   

The first poem I am going to look at is Charlotte O"Neil"s song. Charlotte O"Neil is servant who looks on her life as gruelling and dull. Her heart sets on an exciting new life in New Zealand were she hoped to live her life as "luxurious" as her mistress....

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The writers of 'The... The writers of 'The Gold Cadillac' and 'Country Lovers' portray several issues between them. They both try to emphasise the treatment black people received in the 1950's. They write about many issues such as; the different worlds of Apartheid South Africa, the expectations and the lives of the black characters in the stories and how the society reacts to them in everyday life. In 'The Gold Cadillac' the author shows how much the Black people are separated from the White people in the society 'WHITE ONLY, COLOURED NOT ALLOWED' this obviously isn't very nice to even picture but to somebody that actually is judged by the colour of their skin must feel very angry and upset towards white people. A lot of bad things even in society these days in particular countries are blamed on the black people, as some cannot except that they have any talent or good in them at all. 'Whose car is this boy?' They could not even believe that the man owned this car they automatically presumed that he had stolen it, obviously the man didn't like this at all and he decides to argue back, but again this gives the white policemen more ammunition and reason o punish him. The fact that they were stopped due to their colour shows just how much the black people were thought of as useless and unworthy of living within the same area of everybody else, we see in this story the seriousness of the conditions in Apartheid South Africa. Things are very different in 'Country Lovers' we don't see they pressures society put on black people but the shame the white people feel when they fear that others will recognise feelings between the two races. Paulus obviously likes Thebedi very much but when he realises the baby is his he changes into a murderer. This is only an act to hide the shame of him and Thebedi doing 'what people did when they made love'. At the beginning of the story the black people also have an education but they are unable to carry it on because they just work on the farm again the author is showing the insignificance of black people in society. In country lovers Njabulo"s attitude is positive. Even though the baby may not be his own he still cares for and supports it: " Out of his farm labourers earnings he bought from the Indian store a cellophane"¦ six napkins, a card of safety pins, a knitted jacket, cap and bootees, a dress, and a tin of Johnson"s baby powder for Thebedi"s baby." He may have chosen to support the baby because he loved her and wanted to help her so put the baby first. It may also be that he knows that the baby belongs to Paulus but is powerless to do anything about it so makes the best of the situation. However, Paulus reacts in a completely different manner thinking only of himself: " He struggled for a moment with a grimace of tears of anger and self pity" This makes us feel that he completely inconsiderate and selfish as he and Thebedi have been friends since they were small children and now Paulus is turning his back on her and thinking of himself and how the situation will affect him. The reason Paulus wants the child kept out of sight is because many people in the village are aware of the fact that Paulus and Thebedi were very close friends. If people saw the colour of the baby it wouldn"t be long before they would realise that it didn't really belong to Paulus but of a white father. Thebedi's baby was killed due to Paulus' shame on himself and the shame he would experience if anybody else knew that the baby was his. He is very worried whether anyone will find out from the look of the baby as it has a few characteristics of Paulus himself. 'Don't take it out"¦you must give it to someone'. The reference to the baby 'it' shows that the baby doesn't have a real importance to Paulus and that his main priority is to excuse himself from the situation so he has nothing to do with it. When Paulus and Thebedi are in court being questioned about the murder of the baby, the author portrays again the shame on the white people and completely ignores the black like they don't even exist. It shows that it doesn't matter what you do if you have dark skin because it is expected of you but is frowned upon if you associate yourself with black people. Even in the farm all we read is black women doing 'as they were employed to do as casual labour' why is it black women should do it? And the writer writes it really briefly as if it is a fact of life that black women should be slaves to white folk. Again the insignificance and unimportance of black people is shown here. Right at the end when we read about the newspaper coverage it portrays the embarrassment of it all by stating 'shielding his face' like he doesn't want everyone or anyone to know that this case even existed with a black person. Then Thebedi was explained and interviewed really briefly basically because they felt they had to and they didn't really care whether she was in it or not. 'Interviewed by the Sunday papers, which spelled her name in a variety of ways' it doesn't matter how black people are treated because they are not worth the hassle. This is the main theme of this story, but thankfully people are treated a lot better in areas of the globe today, hopefully one day all people will be treated the same everywhere.   

The writers of 'The Gold Cadillac' and 'Country Lovers' portray several issues between them. They both try to emphasise the treatment black people received in the 1950's. They write about many issues such as; the different worlds of Apartheid South Africa, the expectations and the lives of the...

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