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From 1915 to 1917, the trench warfare on the western front produced remarkably few decisive results. The front line during this time didn't move more than a few miles either way with the exception of the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg line in March 1917, despite several massive and bloody offensives from both sides. This was mainly due to the nature of the war "“ a war of attrition with modern weapons. In these circumstances it was almost always the defenders who had the advantage. It became clear to commanders on both sides quite early on in the war that it was going to become a matter of numbers "“ to achieve success the attackers would have to overwhelm the defenders numerically. However due to massive errors of judgement, bad weather conditions and poor planning, numerical advantages were lost by both sides in in a series of attacks resulting in catastrophic losses of life; most notably were the Allied offensives at the Somme and Ypres and the German offensive at Verdun. Because of these neither side was in a position to win a decisive victory, and the western front remained in stalemate. But several things changed as 1918 drew closer, which eventually led to the end of the stand-off and broke the western front into open warfare. The most significant long-term cause of movement was the USA joining the allies. The USA was brought into the war on April 6th 1917 by president Woodrow Wilson after several American ships were sunk by German u-boats and the Zimmerman Telegram was sent. This would have several major affects on the western front, as it would tip the balance of troops in the allies favour as well as bring the mighty American economy to bear. However the Americans were not equipped for war it would not be until 1918 that American Troops would be arriving in any significant number. This caused the Germans to become desperate, and made the German Command realise that if they are to have any chance of winning the war they would need start an decisive offensive soon before the Americans could have any major affect on the war. Although this was indeed a strong cause for the Germans launching an all-out offensive, they were at this point still in no position to do so. The next major event leading to movement on the Western front was the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. Lenin, as he had promised, announced his intentions to withdraw Russia from the war and peace talks began immediately in November 1917, although the treaty was not actually signed until March 1918. This caused the Eastern front to close and was an extremely important event as it freed up over one million German troops and 3000 pieces of artillery which could be now be written into a plan of attack on the Western front "“ the Ludendorf Offensive was thought up and preparations began. If this event had not happened it is unlikely the Germans would have been able to launch any major offensives and therefore this is an extremely important cause of the movement. These two factors were probably the largest, but there were several others which had an effect. The British naval blockade of the Baltic sea had cut of a large proportion of Germanys food and supplies. Without these Germany was not producing enough to feed its armies and its population. In 1917 it was estimated it would be less than a year until food ran out. This added to the desperation and confirmed that, for the Germans, time was not on their side. This is also important, and means even if the Americans hadn't joined the war Germany would still be facing a time constraint to win victory in the west.
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From 1915 to 1917, the trench warfare on the western front produced remarkably few decisive results. The front line during this time didn't move more than a few miles either way with the exception of the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg line in March 1917, despite several massive and bloody offensives from both sides. This was mainly due to the nature of the war – a war of attrition with modern weapons. In these circumstances it was almost always the defenders who had the advantage. It became clear to commanders on both sides quite early on in the war...
others which had an effect. The British naval blockade of the Baltic sea had cut of a large proportion of Germanys food and supplies. Without these Germany was not producing enough to feed its armies and its population. In 1917 it was estimated it would be less than a year until food ran out. This added to the desperation and confirmed that, for the Germans, time was not on their side. This is also important, and means even if the Americans hadn't joined the war Germany would still be facing a time constraint to win victory in the west.
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Source 1 starts by... Source 1 starts by "setting the scene" it, describes what is happening, on the date 5th of January 1066, and it tells us how king Edward died, and had left the throne to Harold Godwine Earl of Wessex. This day was also known as holy innocents day, and on this day the Abbey of Westminster was consecrated or blessed. The source also tells us how Norwegians and English troops had already fought. Earl Morcar, and Earl Edwin had fought the Norwegians, and had been Defeated. Earl Tostig had 60 ships, and Edwin had a large land force, 12 ships came up against Harald the Norwegians and they lost Harold Godwine was relying on them to join him against William of Normandy. When they lost and the Norwegians invaded, Harold had to move all his men who were at the south coast up to the north were they faced the Norwegians army, and won at Stanford Bridge. Now the invasion of the south was imminent, and William was ready to invade England now, he crossed the channel to England, and invaded. Harold's army now had to move all the way down to the south to meet the French invasion force. By now Williams army was extremely tired, and had already fought an immense battle, and were badly fatigued. The British and the Norman armies fought a long and gruelling battle. In this battle Harold was killed, and William expected England to immediately surrender, but they refused. Williams's army called in re-enforcements, and went on a rampage destroying everything in his path until he came to Westminster, and there he was consecrated king by the Archbishop Aldred of York. He then taxed, bought the land of England, and took hostages, which the people did not like. This source was written by English monks, and wrote sometime between the mid-10th centaury to 1154. This source did not seem biased, even though it was written by the English monks who would be annoyed with the French, although they were monks who do not usually lie, and hold grudges, because it is against their religion. This source is very factual, and does not contain many opinions, which means the truth will not be clouded, but if it contains no opinions then it wont tell us what the people thought, which can be quite important. This source focuses on describing the invasion, but does not go in to detail about any of the main things. This source is primary, and is the Anglo Saxon chronicle E. Source 1.2 This source was written by English monks, there is no bias in this source, because it was written by monks, who usually are truthful. The source tells us about the battle with the Norwegians. It says Harold came unexpectedly upon the Norwegians, meaning they were not looking for them at the time they found them, so both armies would have been surprised. There were many Englishmen fighting and after a stubborn battle, of which both sides lost a lot of people. After that battle which the English won, another with the Norwegians was fought within 5 days. This source basically tells us quite a bit about the first battle, but not much on the second battle. It is quite short to, and is only focused on the battles. Source 1.3 This source is entitled "willium of Jumiges: gesta Normunnorum Ducum" which means "lives of the dukes of Normandy" and it entitled about William. It first tells us that Edward had no heir, so he sent "Robert the Archbishop of Canterbury" to William with a message telling him that the king has granted him the "heir to the kingdom that God had entrusted him". But while dieing he sent a message to Harold who is described as "Harold the greatest of all courts in his kingdom" who was very rich and powerful. He gave Harold the guarantee of the crown by a Christian oath, and swore the crown to him while surrounded by honourable and respected people, so that people would not believe that he was forced in to giving him the crown, so the trusted people could prove that he was given it wilfully. This was written about the dukes of Normandy, and therefore it was probably written by the French, and would probably have been biased if maybe the French had lost the battle, because they would have resented losing, but as they won they were not insulting, or angered towards the English. Source 1.4 This source is another part of the Anglo Saxon chronicle D, and English monks who are not usually biased write it. It describes the take over of England. We are first told that Harold lost the battle, and was slain, also he lost many good men. "King Harold was slain"¦ and many good men". The French captured Hastings and once there William expected England to surrender to him. The monks stated that the French invasion was a punishment from god for the nations sins, which seems quite biased, although the monks probably actually believed this, and say that "god granted them because of the nations sins". When William realised that no one would surrender, he called in re enforcements and harried destroyed until he came to Berkhampsted. He there met Archbishop Aldred, prince Edgar, Earl Edwine and Earl Morcar, who were forced to sign a surrender "Submitted from the force of circumstances" On Christmas day Archbishop Aldred consecrated him king, and King William made a pledge that he would "govern the nation accordingly to the best practice of his predecessors if they were loyal to him" this sounds very much like a threat and he is basically saying that if the people of the nation are not loyal to him he will rule unfairly, whereas if they were loyal and did not resist the French takeover of England he would be fair. He then proceeded to impose a heavy tax and built castles all over the country to enforce his rule. He then left to Normandy leaving Britain in the hands of his ministers. The monks say he "oppressed the unhappy people and things went from bad to worse". The heavy tax was most probably to pay off the army from France and all the knights, who were all ready receiving land in Britain too. The monks are more biased on this source than the other 2, maybe because it describes how William ruined Britain and oppressed the people which would get him a very bad name, I do not think they go as far as lying but we cannot tell for sure. Source 1.5 Source 1.5 is again from the Anglo Saxon chronicle, and is part E, although it is set out differently from other sources, and is in a more chronological style, displaying information for the years 1068 "“ 1017, and also for 1075 and 1076. 1068 is Two years after William became king, and describes problems, like the locals of Northumberland came against Earl Robert and killed him and 900 of his men, and then it says that Earl Edgar came with the northumberians to York and made peace with the citizens of York. Then William came from the south with his army and "ravaged the city and killed many hundreds of men. And the atheling went back to Scotland" This shows that William had to seize the country violently and put down all rebellions and attempts of an uprising with extreme force. William did want to make peace but he knew that he had to show England that he would not tolerate any violence. 1096 is about how the Norwegians landed and Earl Waltheof went out and met the atheling Edgar, and many hundreds of men with them met the fleet in Humber. They went to York and won the castles and killed hundreds of William's men. Then King William retaliated by going in to the shire and destroying and ravaging everything, this was known as the ravaging of the north. This is again another attempted uprising, and again William has crushed it before it could become a great threat to him, this shows that the English people were still not happy with the French rule in their country, and William has to deal with this in the most severe way, but it is just re-instating their hate of his rule. There will still be many more attempts of an uprising before William either breaks the People or shows them that he is not their enemy. 1070, the first even of the year was king William making peace with the Earl Waltheof. William is now attempting to make friends in an attempt to put the English's attempts of an uprising to an end, and make peace with the people. But in the spring of that year King William had the monasteries plundered of all their gold, which would upset the people a great deal, and is not a wise move by William, it will just show the people that he has invaded their country, slaughtered many of their men and now he is plundering gold from their monasteries. Then King Sweyn came from Denmark and landed at Humber, the local people made a truce with him believing he would conquer the country, and hoping he would because they were opposed to the Norman rule and wanted king William off the throne. Then Christian the Danish bishop, Earl Osbeorn, and the Danish Housecarls elite soldiers were with them. The English people from all Fenland expected them to conquer the country. The people of England are now allying with their former enemies, and will do anything to get William off the throne. The people still wont accept William as the ruler of England, and will not give up the fight. 1071, at the beginning of this year Earl Edwine and Earl Morcar fled in to the woods of the moors, Earl Morcar escaped on a ship to Ely, but Earl Edwine was betrayed by his own men, and killed. This shows that the people are beginning to lose faith and are realising that the Normans can't be overthrown, and have attempted to flee their country, King William has already begun to break their spirits and soon he may be able to stop the uprisings once and for all. When William heard of the Norwegian landing, he called a naval and land force to this part of the country, and all the invaders surrendered to the King. William took all the weapons and ships, which were added to his army, and give him more power, unlike other attempted uprising's the invasion force did not fight the King's forces and perish like those before them, they knew that they would lose if the fought and gave up, this shows that the people were beginning to accept William more so. 1075, Earl Roger, Earl Ralph, Earl Waltheof, and the bishops and abbots, were planning to expel King William from England. Soon King William, currently in Normandy heard of this, which they planned. Earl Roger and Earl Ralph managed to get the Bretons on their side, and sent east to Denmark for a naval force to assist them. But the King arrived in England and managed to capture Earl Roger, and Waltheof and their kinsmen, and had them imprisoned. Here figures close to the King and high up in power have attempted to throw William out of the country from the inside, but again he stopped this too, he managed to put down many rebellions and attempts at the throne, meaning that internal security must have been very stringent, and successfully stopped many attempts to take the country back. William had surly been prepared for these, and knew that the hardest part of taking the country was actually holding it for the first few years under its new rule. 1076 The King of Denmark, Sweyn died this year, and Earl Waltheof was beheaded and his body taken to the abbey of Crowland. This source is clearly different from the other sources, it is firstly set out in a different style, and the written style is different. It describes how William controlled England and crushed conspiracies planned to overthrow his rein, and attempted to calm England down by forming alliances. It seems much less expressive of the opininions of the writers that the previous sources. These differences could be the influence of many things, the occupation of England by Norman troops is the main cause because material biased against William would be destroyed and the monks punished.   

Source 1 starts by "setting the scene" it, describes what is happening, on the date 5th of January 1066, and it tells us how king Edward died, and had left the throne to Harold Godwine Earl of Wessex. This day was also known as holy innocents day,...

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