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This essay will focus on an examination of the differences between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. In this essay, I shall use quotes and examples from both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers to illustrate my points. Firstly, I shall describe the physical appearances in each type of newspaper. In a typical tabloid newspaper, for example The Mirror, the banner has a plain and stenciled looking typeface, which is designed to attract the consumers attention into purchasing it, whereas in a typical broadsheet in this instant, The Times the banner has a very intricate design which gives it a distinguished look, possibly designed for the attention of the more educated and professional reader. I shall now move on to explain the use of alliteration and large and small titles to illustrate articles in tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. A typical tabloid newspaper, in this case The Mirror, uses alliteration to create dramatic and sensational titles which are again designed to persuade the reader into reading more on the article. Quote: "CRICKET: CRICKET IN CRISIS"¦" This tells us that The Mirror is attempting to attract the reader's attention by having a dramatic title to illustrate its cricket article; communicating to the reader that cricket as a whole is facing a dilemma, when in actual fact the article relates to the England Cricket Team refusing to play in Zimbabwe due to Robert Mugabe's regime. The title then reads on: "NASSER DEMANDS TO BE SAVED FROM ZIMBABWE HELL"¦" The title displays informal language, as if to communicate with the less educated reader. The Mirror also refers to Nasser Hussain the England Cricket Team captain by his first name, whereas typical broadsheet newspapers would refer to people involved in their articles by their last names in order to sound less informal and more professional; an aspect of broadsheet newspapers which appeals to the more educated reading audience. Quote: "Hussain's men plead for Zimbabwe boycott" This title, taken from The Times a broadsheet newspaper begins with a capital letter and follows with lower case letters, like a normal sentence does. It also contains more sophisticated words, like 'plead' and 'boycott'. Overall the cricket article title in The Times seems less eager to attract the reader's attention, and more keen on informing the reader of the facts behind the issue, unlike The Mirror, which seems to prefer attracting the reader's attention by using writing techniques such as whole sentences in capital letters and alliteration. I shall now compare the use of language in The Mirror and The Times. In The Mirror's cricket article, the writer of the article itself is referred to as: "Oliver Holt Chief Sports Writer", whereas the writer of The Times' cricket article is referred to more formally as: "Owen Slot, Chief Sports Reporter". The opening paragraph of The Mirror's cricket article is very informal, and it is written almost as if the writer wants to be the reader's friend. Quote: "JUST when we thought the mess couldn't get any messier, Nasser Hussain and his wandering band of white-feather wavers came along and fouled it up some more" This contrasts with the more professional and factual approach of the first paragraph in The Times' cricket article. Quote: "THE England cricket team yesterday made an urgent request for their controversial opening World Cup match on February 13 to be relocated from Zimbabwe to South Africa"¦" These paragraphs show that The Mirror is biased by taking the side of the common cricket fan, annoyed at the fact that the England Cricket Team will not go to Zimbabwe, while The Times shows no signs of being biased and continues to read in a professional manner despite whatever their personal beliefs may be. By the ninth paragraph of the cricket article, The Mirror then begins to refer to different issues that are irrelevant to the article, in an attempt to justify the situation with the England Cricket Team. Quote: "The sadness is they don't understand the precedent they have set. What happens now when British jets bomb Iraq a few weeks down the line? What happens when our military kills thousands of innocent civilians?" This suggests that The Mirror is clearly stating it's personal opinion, which some readers prefer as they can relate to them. However, this is not the case with The Times, as they keep to the subject of the article without including any other issues throughout. Quote: "It also suggests that the ECB [England and Wales Cricket Board] has failed to represent the view of the players because the players and their employers now occupy significantly differing positions." This suggests that The Times is again taking the more professional and educated approach to portraying their articles, which appeals to the more professional and educated reader. I shall now go on to explain the differences between the editorials in each of the newspapers. Editorials are the specific area in newspapers where the newspaper itself states its own views and opinions on certain news and other issues. The editorial is commonly found in the centre pages of most newspapers. In this instance I shall compare The Sun's editorial with that of The Times' editorial through their writing techniques and use of language. The Sun's editorial, which in this case is referring to the issues with the weather affecting major roads around London, starts off with an alliterated two word sentence to summarise their opinion. Quote: "White Wash". The Times however, starts off it's editorial with a less casual style of writing. Quote: "A winter's tale: Britain muddles on towards snowbound mediocrity" This shows that The Times is carrying on it's professional stance, even when giving it's own personal opinion, as The Sun being a typical tabloid newspaper carries on it's casual and friendly genre. The Sun continues this style by including puns in it's editorial to create a friendlier atmosphere for the reader. Quote: "Yes, they're up grit creek again.""¦"We are a Third World joke - run by snow good jobsworths." The Times uses different and perhaps more sophisticated writing techniques to The Sun, one such technique being the oxymoron. Quote: "British weather is predictably unpredictable". This tells us that The Times is probably using this technique to distinguish itself more from the less sophisticated tabloid newspaper. The Sun lays out it's editorial in short, summarised paragraphs, possibly to make it easier for the reader to comprehend. Quote: "The cost to the country is put at £150million" Then written underneath in a separate paragraph: "Britain is the laughing stock of the world". The Times however, keeps it's editorial's layout in neat and normal sized paragraphs, in it's continuing professional manner. Altogether, I can conclude that The Times a typical broadsheet newspaper is designed for more educated and sophisticated readers, with it's advanced writing techniques and professional layout, whereas The Sun and The Mirror typical tabloid newspapers contrast with broadsheet newspapers, and are set out for the less well educated and more casual reader, with it's friendly use of language and openly-stated opinions.
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This essay will focus on an examination of the differences between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. In this essay, I shall use quotes and examples from both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers to illustrate my points. Firstly, I shall describe the physical appearances in each type of newspaper. In a typical tabloid newspaper, for example The Mirror, the banner has a plain and stenciled looking typeface, which is designed to attract the consumers attention into purchasing it, whereas in a typical broadsheet in this instant, The Times the banner has a very intricate design which gives it a distinguished look,...
at £150million" Then written underneath in a separate paragraph: "Britain is the laughing stock of the world".

The Times however, keeps it's editorial's layout in neat and normal sized paragraphs, in it's continuing professional manner.

Altogether, I can conclude that The Times a typical broadsheet newspaper is designed for more educated and sophisticated readers, with it's advanced writing techniques and professional layout, whereas The Sun and The Mirror typical tabloid newspapers contrast with broadsheet newspapers, and are set out for the less well educated and more casual reader, with it's friendly use of language and openly-stated opinions.

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Any scenario that includes people trapped...Any scenario that includes people trapped in a conditioned T.V sitcom or Big Brother-style control automatically presents comparisons to the Truman Show. The Truman Show is a film about Reality. Truman's truth is all a lie masquerading under harmony but fortunately or could be said unfortunately he identifies the truth of himself. The moral to this story is - What we become comes within, not from the outside. The Truman Show addressed television's relation to society, a lecture on the ludicrousness of an idealised society and especially referred to spectatorship. In my opinion media is portrayed in both negative and positive way because in a negative view: - Truman is never given a choice about his role in life as a whole, he is deceived into believing his life is reality also the audience watching the show are seen as asinine and fixated by what happens to Truman, when human beings are in a television obsessed generation where art and life have become united. I think beside this there is a positive view, it's about Truman's life resembling in a typical fifties sitcom with no violence, no swearing, nothing like the real world "“ fake reality, well before he realises that his life is all programmed and supervised, compared to reality in the twentieth century there are viruses and illnesses effecting many countries like sars, greed and fame creating wars and violence also racism still goes on in the world and there are many other problems unsolved so if I could have chosen to travel back in time or lived in the way of a fifties sitcom like Truman and everything was taken cared of with no problems, I might of chosen yes. The life of Truman's typical fifties sitcom and the style of Pleasantville is set, before Maguire as David and Bud and Witherspoon as Jennifer and Mary Sue changed everything, is one of the similarities in both films also the film Back to the Future had resemblances. The other similarity is that they both have unshakable inward logic with clever plot twists. However, Pleasantville is an inverse of the Truman Show it introduces themes like racism, sexism, family affairs and prejudice that all happened later when people in Pleasantville met David and Jen, then altered everything. Pleasantville is more like a fantasyland than reality where every citizen is perfect and happy, there temperature is always hot but not too hot just right, everyone contributes as a society, it never rains, family roles were more traditional and old-fashioned when men dominated women as in the women were housewives and never worked just cooked, dinner was never late, waste and toilets never existed and marital beds was strictly single, no diseases and this was all in a black and white fifties sitcom. The film Pleasantville showed an excellent juxtaposition between television life and reality because at the opening sequence it clearly showed advertisement of Pleasantville and explained in black and white which meant it'll be an old film round the fifties, soon after it displayed a sentence saying "Once upon a time"¦" this automatically invites the audience like us to think that the film will be about a perfect fairy tale. Soon after it showed a clip from reality showing the contrasts between reality and Pleasantville or could be described as the fifties. A teenage school lesson and the mentors were describing many of the world's problems, how people lived poorly and not everybody lived in a society and cared for each other, this proved to be the opposite way of living to the film, "perfect" Pleasantville. One physical feature of Seahaven in the Truman Show that reeks of a movie-set is the disorder of that typical life incontrovertible suffers from. The director Christoff on a preset course round and round their particular area or doing the same job over and over again sets everything from the window cleaner to the mother pushing the pram. This prevents any chaos from erupting out the need for policemen, which we obviously didn't see any in the Truman Show. He organised everything perfectly to be true. There place to place is the same everyday and it is bound to be conspicuous, however it is not until the end of the movie that Truman enlightens upon this fact. Another apparent movie set prop strangely manifest itself in one of the early scenes of the movie. The specific scene has Truman alone on the beach his mind consciously wandering back to the disastrous death of his father by drowning. Abruptly a downpour of rain falls onto him and no other area of the beach. A technical difficulty would be the best possible explanations. We the audience are fully aware that this is the highest likelihood however Truman has no idea that he is living in the worlds biggest movie studio and settled for he is a blessed divination as a justification. The cinematic effect that they created draws our attention to the physical features of Truman's habitat that would belong in a movie set by moving the camera to awkward angles that not only contains him but also as many of the objects as feasible. This allows the Truman Show to advertise its products while filming the main attraction. In some of the scenes there is also a black fadeout on the camera edges to indicate low quality small cameras designed to capture intimate shots. A number of dedicated viewers of the Truman Show are introduced to us. They are the people of the real world looking into the intimate life of a real person un-knowingly living in a make-believe movie set, the size of a small city. There is an obese man who lives in his bathtub and who also lives to watch the Truman Show. This also applies to two old couch-potato ladies, one of them whose obvious favourite possession is a cushion with Truman's face stitched on. The appeal of the Truman Show is worldwide and apparently very riveting as demonstrated by scenes of an oriental family quite enjoying the show. Some moments could be so riveting that even two security guards put their butts in the firing line, abandoning their jobs, so glued to the last scenes, of Truman escaping his artificial world. Two barmaids also stopped the flow of alcohol to customers, thinking that the Show demanded more attention. What the director of the movie achieves by putting in scenes of the audience, is keeping us, the watchers of the movie, mindful of the fact that Truman is actually in a T.V show which he is the unwitting star twenty four hours a day, seven days a week. The scriptwriter of the "Truman Show" portrayed Christoff who is the director of the Truman Show in his interview as a cold-hearted and calculating human being. Christoff's character overall impresses on me as one of the great entrepreneurs of all-time. It is undisputable; he single-handedly thought of and directed the entire live life passage of a real human being, from birth to adulthood. Many real people in the movie including a mysterious girl, Sylvia that Truman fell in love with in high school he believes that Christoff is a manipulating person. She asks whether he feels at all guilty about twisting a man's life in such a sickening way and making a mockery of it in front of the entire world. When Christoff was asked this question by Sylvia he looked straight at the screen with a lot of confidence and replied, "The world that you live in is the real sick place. What I gave Truman here is a chance to be separate from the outside world and live in a sanctuary." I reckon that he has a lot of confidence in himself to be able admit that he has put Truman in a cage with pretend animals of the same species. But this cage is tens of kilometres wide and enforced by bars, rather with something more effective than anything, a lie. In the interview we are shown that Christoff thinks rather highly of himself. As he believes that his company adopted Truman he feels he has the rights to be able to do whatever he wants to Truman, and this includes humiliating him as the live star of a television show and do everything he pleases. However what we can't deny is that no matter how much evil Christoff possesses, and how highly he thinks of himself, he is very, very smart to be able to make Truman to stay in Seahaven without suspicion for more than 30 years. Christoff also made a comment that is remarkably unique, in my opinion, "Why should we suspect anything? We take the world in which we live in for granted." The paramount theme in Pleasantville-- which is that thinking for oneself and following one's own unique path and being open to the change that comes with that brings "colour", truth, and aliveness to one's life is truly a Sixties Generation idea. Again, it is not that it has never been thought of before. All great ideas have been thought of before, but that does not mean they have been implemented on a social cultural, new level. The Sixties was such a time of turmoil because the values of individual freedom, personal passion, feeling and experience, questioning authority, and thinking for oneself were shared by so many people and were so contrary to the values of the generation in power. In Truman Show, the main character is prevented by circumstances from following his dreams. One event after another keeps him from leaving his hometown. His story might be called "The Truman Show" in reverse for he comes to accept the loss of his dreams. He is rewarded for giving up his yearning for adventure with the warmth of a loving family and friends. Nonetheless, he has been reduced to someone who simply follows a script or role and when it appears that he might fail in that role he considers killing himself. The movie is beloved and timeless, no doubt, because it reassures an entire generation and all those who have had to give up their dreams for whatever reason that their sacrifices were for a higher good and that it is a wonderful life after all. It provides a rationalization against the painful feelings of knowing that one will never know "what might have been" by pointing out the truth that one"s life affects others and has meaning regardless of whether or not one has been fortunate enough to actualise one"s deepest desires, talents, aspirations, and dreams. As mentioned, "It"s a Wonderful Life" calls out to and epitomizes the experiences and attitudes of the World War Two Generation in particular. In one way or another, the situation in the Forties, with the war effort and afterwards, created a generation who, except for the rare individual or one of unusual circumstances, was called upon to step up into mature responsible tasks long before the idealism of their youth would have preferred that they do so. And their generation is scarred for having missed this opportunity. They are individuals deserving of our sympathy; yet crippled they are nonetheless. It is significant that the protagonist of change in the movie Pleasantville would be a young male, Bud David. This is in keeping with legends of old where a young prince comes bearing the new knowledge. But in New-Age style, wonderfully so, he is drawn only reluctantly into this role and we see that it is women who are the real instigators, the least threatened by change. At first, David/Bud opposes his sister and argues for the status quo, maintaining that his sister, who is actually the first one to "break the rules" and thereby to bring colour to the town, must abide by the script. The teenage boy knows the rules well. This fits with legend, where a prince who is not ignorant of tradition brings the new ways; in fact the prince is the one who has excelled in training in traditional ways. In the movie, David is in fact a Pleasantville trivia whiz. He knows exactly the way things are supposed to unravel, the way events are supposed to go. So when his sister first introduces colour by introducing sex, he admonishes her. And when he also is tempted to a change in the "script," of Pleasantville he refuses at first. This is when Bud is offered homemade cookies by the young woman who would be his romantic partner. He refuses because he knows that, according to script, it is another young man who is supposed to get the cookies and end up with that particular girl. Despite his attraction for the young woman, his strong sense of maintaining the status quo, not rocking the boat, causes him to try to refuse the cookies. It takes a great deal of forcefulness on the young woman's part to get him, reluctantly, to accept the cookies that he actually does want. It is not that the young man can't accept change. In fact, even before his sister blatantly brings about change, and therefore colour, by rebelliously introducing sex, he has already sown the seeds of change, although unconsciously, when he suggests to his boss, Mr. Johnson, that he thinks for himself, instead of following a recipe script. This he does unconsciously and out of selfish motives in that he by nature is different from the character he is supposed to portray and so he does not play his role exactly as it is "supposed" to be played. Specifically, because he is not really the robot character he has replaced, he ends up being late for his job "“ which heretofore was a totally unheard of event. It is also significant that it is the young that are the first ones in the town to become "coloured." As in the hundredth monkey phenomenon, it is first the young, especially females, who are open to new experiences, ways, and ideas. Then it is adult females "“ in this movie exemplified by Betty Parker, the mother of Bud and Mary Sue -- who are next to consider alternatives and new ways. Adult males are the last to turn to colour, but among them it is the sensitive ones, exemplified by the artist/soda-jerk character, Mr. Johnson, who "turn on" initially. Last to become colorized to be open to change and thinking for oneself are the "authorities" of the town, in this instance, those on the Chamber of Commerce. And among these the most recalcitrant of all is their leader, Big Bob, played by J.T. Walsh, in his final film role before his passing away. Though Big Bob displays a pleasing and affable persona on the surface for this read "good old boy", there is an insidious Hitler's quality to him which provides the suspense at the climax of the movie where he presides over the fate of the artist, Mr. Johnson, and the "young prince," David/Bud. With the support of the Chamber of Commerce, we know Big Bob has the power to do whatever he will with the two on trial. And since the events preceding the trial has included mob actions which have included a book burning, the attack and destruction of the malt shop, and the cornering, physical intimidation, and physical attack of "coloureds" by gangs "“ images common to modern times which has seen these sorts of events in actuality occurring in the civil rights and anti Vietnam War movements, and currently in democracy as well as anti America demonstrations in third-world countries the fate of the prisoners is imagined to include the ultimate penalty of death. Indeed, this ominous possibility is promoted by the actions of the soda jerk Artist who, at the trial, pitifully pleads for a compromise. This is pitiful since we know that his art is his life, which it is the one thing that has truly enriched his life and made it worth living. We know of its importance in that, even after the attack on his malt shop, he defied the "rules" laid down by the town's authorities which outlawed art and colour by working with the Prince through the night to produce a colourful mural on the outside wall of his shop depicting the current events of the town and the feelings swirling about inside its residents "“ an act which is reminiscent of antiwar demonstrators, who got fired upon at Kent State, of civil rights demonstrators, who police attacked with dogs, and of Tiananmen Square demonstrators, who were rolled over by tanks, shot, and killed. Since this character, recently so courageously defiant, is intimidated into pleading for a compromise in which he would be willing to use only certain colours or where he would submit for approval by the Chamber's leader his ideas for painting beforehand a compromise which his body language and facial expressions show "“ wonderfully acted by Jeff Daniels "“ is one near up against the very death of his soul, we know he fears for the loss of his physical life. The compromise is too much like the compromises we have witnessed being offered and come to expect being offered to some of the Tiananmen Square and other political prisoners of recent times wherein they are required to do something along the lines of admitting their guilt, apologizing to the State for the trouble they have caused it, and promising to never again to engage in such activities. So Big Bob and the Chamber of Commerce represent in the current social framework the Religious Right sometimes referred to as the "religious wrong" and sometimes about which it is noted that the Religious Right is neither. Big Bob"s Chamber of Commerce represents Republicans and those in general in our society who have succumbed to the rewards and threats of the World War Two Generation to live a regimented robot like unfeeling passionless life; to become one of J. D. Salinger's "phonies," to abide by their misconstrued idea of "family values," and above all to "behave" and not do anything to rock the boat of the status which might threaten the privileges of those currently enjoying power and wealth handed down, mostly, by heredity. It is highly significant that in the courtroom scene the "coloured" would be sitting in the balcony, above the black-and-white men. One might say this represents their status as being an elevated state, something to aspire to, and yet not on the level where matters are decided. But even more so, this scene is important in that it is a near exact replication of the courtroom scene wherein the balcony of the courtroom is filled with Blacks, another kind of "coloured." This makes it clear that when the movie is dealing with the conflict between the adult males of the town and the "coloureds" it is referring to the Civil Rights movement. The events in China's Tiananmen Square almost ten years ago so affected and still affect some of us here in America because we know at some level that we have experienced it before. What happened in China a decade ago is so much like what happened here almost three decades ago around the Vietnam War demonstrations, although more subtly. For one thing, the images of the demonstrations in China, e.g., the lone man standing in front of the tank, were so like those of Sixties demonstrations, e.g., Sixties youth blocking the paths of soldiers and placing flowers in their gun barrels. And the result of both was the same: In both cases the opposition, the youth movement, crushed violently in China, subtly and behind the scenes in the US at the command of a generation, clinging desperately to power as much as to their waning physical frames. One might say the WWII generation in America has gotten more finesse, with practice, in its beating back social cultural change not to their liking and that the Chinese geriatric set hasn"t as much practice with it as yet. Nevertheless the results in both countries are the same. They involve the ultimate victory of social cultural change in both instances being delayed until the dying off of an elderly generation in power "“ a generation refusing to die or hand over the controls at the proper time like the generations before them. In result in both films, is that moral is treat everyone like you wished to be treated in a co-operative society. Pleasantville = **** The Truman Show = ***   

Any scenario that includes people trapped in a conditioned T.V sitcom or Big Brother-style control automatically presents comparisons to the Truman Show. The Truman Show is a film about Reality. Truman's truth is all a lie masquerading under harmony but fortunately or could be said unfortunately he identifies the truth...

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Introduction Terminator 2... Introduction Terminator 2 "“ Judgement Day is the sequel to the 1984 film "The Terminator" Analysis The film starts with a black screen, the music is very dramatic and menacing, it tells the viewer that something sinister is going to take place. The first credit appears, it is written in a futuristic font, a hint to the science fiction genre of the film. The scene starts with an image of an establishing- shot of a high street. It is bright summer day in Los Angeles and we can see lots of cars moving on a busy road, we move to a slow- motion shot of children playing on swings, they give the sense of innocence along with the happy feel of the sunny weather, to contrast with the daunting music. The colour starts to fade, as an apocalyptic burning light dominates the screen until the screen is completely white. The words "Los Angeles 2029 A.D." fade in as we go from joyful images of children to ones of death and destruction, the music has stopped and all that can be heard is the wind and a creaking sound, making the viewer cringe, the camera pans over more and more images of death, a wrecked car containing a skeleton driver, skulls scattered underneath a dark and gloomy sky, questions are running through the viewers mind, how and why has this happened? The playground where young children where playing in the previous scene is now in ruins, as we see the skulls of children on the burnt ground next to charred swings and toys, the viewer feels saddened, shocked and sympathetic in the scary silence, which only makes it more intense as the camera stops on the image of a small skull, a depressing voice of a woman is heard "Three billion human lives ended on August 29, 1997. The survivors of the nuclear fire called the war Judgment Day. They lived only to face a new nightmare, a war against the machines..." Suddenly a metallic foot of a robotic figure crushes the small skull along with a bone crushing sound as it shatters to pieces, this is extremely unexpected so the viewer immediately jumps. The camera pans up to reveal the evil looking chrome figure, it is skeleton like with human features, supporting a massing gun. The brutal robot scans the landscape, showing the machine has piecing red, deep set eyes. Bombs explode whilst laser beams shoot across the sky, the camera zooms in of the track of a massive tank representing tanks that have been used in many real life wars shooting lasers whilst crushing masses more skulls, representing the massacre and mass destruction of this mechanical force, that has no mercy or respect for the dead, and which can only be described as wicked. The evil has spread, not only by land, but flying aircraft shoots from the sky. There are close ups of one of the tanks arms shooting lasers, to give a direct impact, as with a shot of a robot shooting straight at the viewer. The camera uses long shots to show the extent of the damage. Soldiers are being blasted to death, a vehicle full of men blown up, all by the terrifying and relentless machine, one of many that seem to invincible, whilst brave and courageous soldiers attempt to battle them, but failing, with bullets simply pinging of their strong armour. The camera shows low angle images, making the machines to even more powerful. The music is a grinding industrial sound, there is a full-scale conflict happening and the human army are losing. One aircraft is destroyed, showing a glimpse of hope for the human defence. One human fighter is seen walking into a tunnel as the voice heard earlier starts speaking again, full of soldiers, as the camera follows behind him, each soldier salutes him, so we know that he plays and important role, the voice explains "The computer which controlled the machines, Skynet, sent two terminators back through time. Their mission: to destroy the leader of the human Resistance"¦ John Conner-" the man walks out of the tunnel with pride and looks through a pair of binoculars heroically "my son". This emphasises the importance of this one man, a true leader. The voice continues to explain the background information to the viewer "The first terminator was programmed to strike at me, in the year 1984...before John was born. It failed. The second was sent to strike at John himself, when he was still a child. As before, the Resistance was able to send a lone warrior. A protector for John. It was just a question of which one of them would reach him first." Whilst the voice is speaking the camera pans in on the strong and tough face of John Conner, until flames dominate the image, the title of the film and the credits are shown with heroic music playing, while the screen burns violently. We see images of the battlefield in flames, including the children's playground, swings still swinging, burning until the face of one of the robots are shown, the shiny evil human skull like looking face, zooming in on the piecing red dot eyes staring at the viewer. The scene suddenly comes to an end. Conclusion In conclusion, I think that the film has an excellent opening, packed with action and special effects making it grab the viewer using music to express emotions- scary, destructive and heroic that only emphasises the visual dynamite, within the footage. It starts by putting questions in the viewers mind, how and why did this happen? It reveals the answers using a battle scene that is extremely shocking and directed at the viewer. The idea of the human force being destroyed by a humanoid, robotic army is terrifying, and the use of the voice of a mother talking about the one hope the human beings have- her son. The burning flames make the viewer feel as if they are inside a furnace, and my favourite shot is one of the children's playground on fire, just because there is nothing more disturbing when the words violence and destruction are mixed with children. The only improvements that in my opinion could be made, are that the humans could be shown fighting closer to the robots, so the viewer could connect more, and shots through the of the humans eyes would make it feel more real for the viewer.   

Introduction Terminator 2 – Judgement Day is the sequel to the 1984 film "The Terminator" Analysis The film starts with a black screen, the music is very dramatic and menacing, it tells the viewer that something sinister is going to take place. The first credit...

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This paper contains both a... This paper contains both a lesson plan for the writing of a movie review by students, including film analysis and other related lesson plans, and my response to the original assignment that I created for an Intermediate Writers' Workshop 11th grade English students at Hopkins High School. The original assignment, a peer review worksheet, assignment assessment, and two student reviews are attached. Purpose: To provide students with a critical context for the analysis of film. They will learn how to think about film using familiar literary concepts as well as the vocabulary of the medium. They will extend their implicit knowledge of media to make connections between images, stereotypes, and the cultural context in which it is displayed. Finally, students will demonstrate their mastery of film analysis by evaluating a film according to defined criteria, formulating an opinion of the film, and providing evidence for that opinion. I began the original assignment by asking my Intermediate Writers' Workshop students to suggest films that they would like to watch in class. I was giving them a reward for having completed the research paper assignment that had endured three weeks. Even in a gender balanced classroom, most of the students preferred action/adventure movies. The movie that they eventually chose by vote, American History X, was rated 'R' and would require parent permission to be seen by the students in the classroom. For the sake of convenience, I chose a PG-13 James Bond movie, The World is Not Enough. However, I quickly realized that this movie typified the action/adventure genre that made it easy for students to identify the conventions of the genre, find examples of those conventions and their characteristics, and develop a reasoned opinion of the movie. Another way to present a media unit is by having the students brainstorm about three things that they like to see when they go to a movie. This idea was suggested in the introductory paragraph of a student's review in which he discusses his expectations for a good movie. Most students know their own preferences and can easily name their three favorite movies. A class discussion can then ensue about the similarities between their favorite movies, including identifying common characteristics, and lead to distinguishing types of movies and creating definitions of movie genres. The discussion can be broadened to include how movies are marketed, including the appeal and power of movie personalities, and how advertising and product tie-ins affect the movie going experience. Students can bring in examples to share with the class, such as Star Wars memorabilia and clips of movie trailers. Images of movie personalities can be used to discuss media stereotypes. Having chosen the action/adventure genre, my class quickly came up with a list of the conventions that are used by these type of films, in particular those in the James Bond series. They identified: fairy tale plots, superheros, villains, beautiful women, gadgets, action sequences, rituals, theme music, and exotic locales. Using both familiar literary terminology and introducing film techniques, I determined five categories of characteristics of action films that convey these conventions to the viewer: action sequences characterization music plot setting However, I think a more effective presentation of this lesson would have included examples of how each of these conventions is realized in film. Students could be encouraged to contribute film clips from movies with which they are familiar. For instance, an action sequence, such as the car chase scene in Ronin, could be viewed and the use of camera angles, special effects, and film editing and speed could be demonstrated. Through this detailed analysis, students can be made aware of their positioning as viewers. They can discover the perspective of the camera and begin to ask questions about what is being shown, what is known, and what has been left out. They can become aware of how the camera interprets action, creates suspense, and gives us information that the characters don't know. They can recognize how their eye is attracted to what is in focus and how that distorts what they are seeing and forces them to see things from a restricted perspective. Characterization in film can be introduced by asking students to make observations of their impressions of a public figure such as Jesse Ventura. A filmed interview of Ventura could be shown to the class. Students would list what they notice about Ventura; what he is wearing, how he moves and talks, what facial expressions he makes, what language he uses, and how he reacts to others and others react to him. They can share these observations in a large class discussion about how to interpret his character. Also, the effect of the camera work on this portrayal, such as close-ups, could be discussed. Relationships are also important to the definition of character. The use of simple editing techniques to create these relationships in film can be shown, for instance, in an episode of "The Practice." Within a dialogue between two characters, the camera swivels between them to focus on a close-up of each character's reaction to the other. This technique creates dramatic tension and furthers the action. However, it limits the range of emotion expressed to a putting on of comedic masks. Actors are often identified by their charming smiles, childish pouts, and, in the case of Julia Roberts, a vixenish laugh so that viewers come to expect actors to play themselves in their roles. This is another aspect of stereotyping; how someone is expected to look and act. A class discussion could be initiated about the relative importance of verbal dialogue in film and whether it functions more to inform viewers about factual information than it does to establish the nature of the relationship between the characters. A comparison of how dialogue is used in different genres could inform the discussion, and students could be encouraged to share clips of movies. Physical movement is also used to reflect relationships in movies, and a variety of sexual encounters have become the shorthand for describing relationships in film. In one review, a student complained about the unrealistic portrayal of casual sex in James Bond movies; she felt that the disregard for unprotected sexual encounters sent an unacceptable message. However, she did not analyze how James Bond's sexuality perpetuates a cultural myth of sexuality as carefree, and the lack of consequences and Bond's immunity from them are important characteristics of the action/adventure genre. The challenge for teachers in guiding students as they explore film is to help them to see how film mirrors or, in this case, challenges societal attitudes. Self reflection as well as a connection between film and other media such as advertising can be made by having the students create collages as in the following assignment: A Crazy, Mixed-Up World How do we know who we are? Do we identify with the portrayals of people that we read about in books or see in the media? The media creates stereotypes, idealized representations of who we should be, how we should look, and what we should do. It creates categories of people such as; suburban mother, father, teenage boy, and teenage girl. In groups, you will identify a media stereotype and create a collage from media images. What do they wear? Where do they live? What do they do for work and fun? What do they eat and drink? What do they buy and where do they shop? In other words, what is their lifestyle? In a journal, write a reflection on this collage that answers two of the following questions: "¢ How do these stereotypes affect you? "¢ Does anything about these stereotypes bother you? "¢ Are these stereotypes and the expectations that they create realistic? "¢ Are there expectations of you? "¢ How do you cope with expectations? This assignment was very successful and somewhat insidious. The students didn't recognize until they completed their collages and presented them to the class what the implications were of these socially manufactured stereotypes and how large of an effect they had on their perceptions of themselves. Continuing the evaluation of film characteristics, a cartoon could provide the focus for a discussion of the role music plays in film and the way sound and images are associated. Music can provide aural cues that generate suspense and provoke emotional reactions as well as set the pace of the movie. Theme music creates expectations in viewers especially during a James Bond film when it signals climactic action. The absence of music can create tension, too. Although many of my IWW students chose to evaluate how music was used in The World is Not Enough, they could not determine whether they liked it. They recognized that they expected to hear music that correlated to what they were seeing on the screen and that it was an effective technique to create suspense and emotion; however, they criticized how blatant and "cheesy," as one student commented, the soundtrack of the movie was. They couldn't decide whether technical expertise that met their expectations was as or more important than artistry and originality. As an English teacher, the crux of the difference between the study of literature in the classroom and that of film involves the popularity of film as an art form. Ideas and technique cannot be considered to the exclusion of the commercial aspects of movie making. It is one thing to make students self aware as viewers; it is another, perhaps more challenging, task to make them aware of themselves as consumers. In my 20th Century American Literature class, I used a survey that a student had developed for a media unit in another class. The objective of the survey was to discover whether students were willing to define themselves according to the current stereotypes of teenagers. Each student could choose to identify him/ herself as a member of a group or fill in their own affiliation. Most of the students who did identify with a group were those who considered themselves as belonging to the preps. In the ensuing class discussion, the preps defined themselves as consumers; they saw themselves as having material advantages that set them apart from the other students who considered themselves 'normal,' a word written in by many students. The atmosphere in the classroom became divisive and even more segregated according to class. I now recognize how resistant students can be to exploring their own socially acceptable values. Another difficulty that confronted the Intermediate Writers' Workshop students was the writing of a summary of the film. Students are used to being passive viewers; they follow along with the action and think that these effects are what make a movie work dramatically. Having been trained to critically read literature, they are better schooled at identifying the dramatic devices that build tension within a written work; contrasting themes, rising and falling action, the climax of the plot, and its resolution. In my discussion with colleagues at Hopkins High School and from my study of their lesson plans and assignments that explore media in the English classroom, I discovered that most use a literary approach to film analysis. They have students analyze the relationships in a movie and how those relationships relate to the movie's theme in much the same way as characterization in a literary work is connected to thematic meaning. They avoid the visual aspect of how meaning is created in film, and don't explore how the experience of viewing creates a different response and different meanings than result from the experience of reading. The idea of critically reading film, in my opinion, needs to be discarded in favor of a critical approach that views film as representational and interactive, exploring the response to the images as integral to the images itself. In other words, the artistry of movie making can also be evaluated by how the film communicates with the audience through the cultural significance of imagery and conventions as well as cinematic technique. This is different than the reader response approach to literary works since a consensus of experience and meaning among viewers will be important, and the viewer's individual perspective that is brought to the interpretation of the film will be less significant than the immediate experience of the film. However, the basic principles of storytelling are still at play in movies, and students can be helped to identify them with a simple worksheet that will also encourage them to develop critical viewing habits. The worksheet should prompt students to list the protagonists and the actors who play those roles, to define the conflicts between the protagonists and what is at stake, to describe the climax, the moment of greatest tension in the film, and to elucidate the resolution by identifying the winners and what was won. How each student sums up these facts in his/her review gives insight into how he/she responds to the film and whether he/she suspends disbelief or maintains his/her skepticism. The importance of a film's believability, whether viewers have an expectation of reality or fantasy and how that applies to a particular genre of film, could be discussed. Some of my students gave their opinions about how they respond to the James Bond fantasy in their reviews; however, they felt that their responses were a matter of personal preference. The settings, however, were easy for the students to identify as well as the role they played in the action scenes and their significance for the action/adventure genre. Setting being completely visual, as opposed to how it functions in literature to create meaning as metaphor or establish mood, the students can interpret its filmic qualities. For instance, most car chases take place in urban settings to enhance the thrill of the scene. One student wrote about the use of the black and white contrast in the ski chase scene to create tension, and another wrote about the mountain scenery providing a contrasting setting, romantic but dangerous, for the same scene. The students interpreted setting as visual cues for the film's drama. If the purpose of this lesson plan was solely focused on film analysis, other activities could be included. Students could be asked to draw a new storyboard of one scene from the movie. They would incorporate new camera angles, choose music and determine when it would come in, and decide on any special effects and the timing of slow motion sequences. A more challenging project would be to have students create their own action/adventure scene based on the class discussion of the conventions and characteristics of the genre as well as a viewing of films within the genre. They would provide the scenario of who, what, and where, as well as creating a storyboard for the scene. A final independent assignment would ask the students to rent a movie in a genre that they don't usually watch. They would then write a before and after journal about their experience of this genre of movie describing their responses to the conventions of the movie and whether the movie met their expectations for that genre. Finally, for this lesson plan, the students transformed their film analysis into a review of the movie. In writing this review, they had to evaluate their expectations for the film based on three of the five characteristics of its genre and develop an opinion as to whether the film met, surpassed, or violated those expectations and what that meant for their experience of the movie. The students were given the five paragraph essay format as a template for their review. Their starting point was a strong assertion of opinion about the movie. They read examples of other movie reviews and noticed the strong, arousing language that was meant to convince and entertain the reader. They were also expected to include a summary of the film and a recommendation to the film's potential audience. For this assignment, I encouraged the students to do as many peer reviews as possible as a way for them to exchange ideas about the movie and give each other feedback. Once the students had written their reviews, it became apparent to me that the students could identify what about the movie they liked or disliked. They had expectations for their experience of this genre and could evaluate the film based on those expectations. During the film, I commented on how those expectations were manipulated by the director, but the students didn't seem able to provide a larger social context for viewing the film. Once again, the issue of the commercial appeal of a film and how that popularity reflects the values and tastes of the society at large is difficult to frame in class discussion or even encourage individually. Intermediate Writers' Workshop Movie Review Ms. Cohen Movie: The World is Not Enough Background: People often disagree about their opinions of a movie. Even best friends will argue about their experience of a movie. However, if we think about what we expect to see in a certain type of movie before we see it, we can evaluate it critically. We can communicate a reasoned opinion about the movie and provide examples of what we mean. Assignment: Write a movie review of The World is Not Enough. Evaluate the movie based on three of five characteristics of action films. Give a recommendation for or against the movie in your conclusion. Format: Introduction: Begin with an interesting, creative lead. State your opinion of the movie based on your choice of three characteristics. Body Paragraph 1: Write a brief summary of the movie. Include the title and names of the director and actors. Body Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4: Evaluate how well the movie portrays each of the three characteristics in three separate paragraphs. Provide examples from the film for each characteristic. Conclusion: Restate your thesis and give a recommendation for or against the movie. Intermediate Writers' Workshop Movie Review Notes Action films are defined by the following characteristics and techniques: Action sequences special effects, fast pacing, rapid cutting, and slow-motion violence Characterization super hero, evil villain, and other stereotypes Music theme and suspense provoking Plot realistic, unrealistic, intriguing, and predictable Setting familiar and exotic locales Choose three of the above and note examples of each as you watch the movie. 1. 2. 3. Peer Workshop: Movie Review 1. Read through the paper completely. 2. Now go back, reread and think about your response. Write directly on the draft. "¢ Does the attention getter provoke your interest? Is it catchy? Does it make you want to read more? "¢ Underline the thesis. Does it give three categories for analyzing the movie? Does it express an opinion of the movie? "¢ Does the summary give you a good picture of what this movie is about or is it confused? Are there too many plot details? "¢ As you read, put a wavy line under any words or thoughts that you don't understand or don't seem to make sense. "¢ Put a check mark next to ideas that are repeated or restated. "¢ Is each category discussed in a separate paragraph? Are specific examples from the movie given for the category? Are they introduced and explained? "¢ Are there transitions between the paragraphs that connect them? "¢ Does the conclusion offer a recommendation for or against the movie? Movie Review Essay Evaluation Name: 1 = not working 2 = adequate 3 = strong 4 =excellent 1. Introduction Attention getter 1 2 3 4 Thesis including three analytical categories Opinion of movie expressed 2. Summary Statement of what the movie is about Reader gets it 1 2 3 4 3. Category One Specific examples provided Examples introduced and explained 1 2 3 4 4. Category Two Specific examples provided Examples introduced and explained 1 2 3 4 5. Category Three Specific examples provided 1 2 3 4 Examples introduced and explained 5. Synthesizing Conclusion Restates thesis Makes recommendation 1 2 3 4 6. Mechanics Spelling Grammar 1 2 3 4 Catchy Title Points for Peer Review: _______ 15 Points for Personal Essay: _______ 60 Total Points for Assignment: _______ 75 Elliott Fifer Block 2 5/30/02 Ms. Cohen Movie Review: 007 The World is Not Enough is the title of the most recent James Bond film. With all of the features that made it exciting, the fast-paced action and modern-day technology were the most appealing. The only downside to this type of movie is that it is very predictable. Many bond movies before this one have had the same type of plot. Agent James Bond sets out to save the world from some of the most notorious of terrorists, while overcoming all of the dangerous obstacles and managing to get the attention of many beautiful women. While this is very predictable, I still enjoyed the movie. The World is Not Enough was directed by Michael Apted, and was the 19th in the running series of James Bond movies. From scenes of the Nervion river in Spain, to the boat chase on the Thames river in London, to the highlands of Scotland, this movie had many breathtaking scenes. The plot was a very twisted and intriguing one. James Bond Pierce Brosnan was assigned to protect Elektra King Sophie Marceau from Renard Robert Carlyle, the world renowned terrorist that feels no pain. However, Bond soon discovered that King and Renard were working together to take over the world's oil industry and wipe out all of Istanbul, Turkey. James then meets Christmas Jones Denise Richards, a biochemist who helps him to track down the bomb just before it detonates in a submarine as they are able to contain the explosion. There are the expected hostage situations, and many near death occurrences for Bond, but in the end he saves the day. My first criteria for this movie was the action. It was a very steady but fast-paced movie and all of the action was very suspenseful. There were scenes with snowmobiles on parachutes floating down from the sky and shooting at the unarmed Bond and King. Bond was able to find woods and defeat all of the attackers with his wit. It was a high-energy scene and was great action. Another example of a good action scene was the part when two helicopters came down from the sky and used chain saw type weapons to destroy a house in another attempt to kill Bond. This was also very exciting but was not successful. The last example of great action in this movie was the final submarine scene when Bond and Jones were trying to stop Renard from detonating his nuclear weapon. It was the type of action that makes you not want to blink. It was very suspenseful and came down to the last couple seconds until finally Bond and Jones escaped. This movie was loaded with these types of action scenes, and it made the movie fun to watch. Another highlight of the movie was all of the high-tech equipment that was used. Many of the action scenes were further enhanced by all of the special effects and technology as well. James Bond's car was a prime example of this, because it was his typical BMW car with bulletproof glass and ejectable seats. It also had rockets hidden on the sides of the wheel wells, allowing him to unexpectedly escape from a helicopter attack. Another example of the advanced technology in this movie was the boat that he used to chase the villain in the very opening scene. It was equipped with very nice features, including a submarine feature allowing him to go under a bridge that had already lowered. The last example of the technology was when Bond pulled out a little gadget that shot a hook up to the top of the tunnel. It helped Bond and Jones escape from the area just before the bomb Renard had set exploded. This was a thin string that must have been made of very strong material to hold two bodies and pull them upwards. My last criteria for the movie was it's predictability. This movie had many seemingly suspenseful scenes, but many were quite predictable. For instance, when the attackers dropped from the sky with machine guns to attempt an assassination of James Bond, it was almost obvious that he would manage to escape and kill them in the process. Another example was when Bond had captured Renard in the missile base. He was obviously not going to kill him when he had the chance, because then the movie would have ended. It really took away from the suspense factor of the movie. It also was predictable when Bond saved the day in the end by killing Renard in a very improbable way and saving all of Turkey. You could see all of this coming from a mile away, and it made the movie less exciting. With all of the features included in the movie, it was good action and had some cool technology, but lacked the spontaneousness and spur of the moment scenes that left you thinking. It was way too predictable. I liked the movie solely for it's appeal and content of effects, but the plot was weak. The predictability and weak love story took away from the action that could have made this one of the best action movies I've ever seen. I would rate this movie a 6 out of 10 because it had some of what was appealing to me, but I would have liked more action and less mushy stuff. Overall, I would recommend this movie to many action fans, but mothers and children might not enjoy this movie as much. Amanda Kuhrke IWW Hour 2 Cohen 5/30/02 The World is Not Enough James Bond is a character that most of us are familiar with. He's handsome, suave, and knows how to get what he wants. However, he's also predictable, unrealistic, and not very exciting. After watching The World Is Not Enough, you would be able to see that too. It's a poor movie that simply fits too many stereotypes to give it any depth. Every Bond movie proves to be the same as the one before it, lacking any real plot and providing a couple hours of pure action scenes. The World is Not Enough stars Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, and Denise Richards as a nuclear physicist named Christmas Jones. Directed by Michael Apted, the movie is based on the heir to an oil fortune who needs protection from her father's killer, Renard, a man left with no physical feeling from a bullet lodged in his brain. Bond swoops in as the protector and not only helps to keep her away from the bad guys, but ends up in her bed as well. When it turns out that the heiress is working for the other side, everything turns around on Mr. Bond. Deceit and murder run rampant throughout the movie, as you would expect in any 007 film. The characterization in the movie is typical; beautiful, sexy people capable of doing anything. First we have the fact that no matter what type of situation the characters get into, their makeup is never smudged, and their hair is never messy. They can go from being drowned in a submarine one minute, to drip dry the next. Second, the characters all have lots of money, which provides them with lavish clothes, and all the suits and ties you could wear in a lifetime. Bond wears a suit in almost every scene, which manages to go without ever getting a stain or tear. Furthermore, because of all their amazing fortune with money and good looks, they are able to get whatever they want. Bond gets all the women, and the seductress is able to escape death countless time thanks to her pretty smile. The setting again is like any other in a Bond movie. Everyone lives in huge houses on the countryside with beautiful, rolling hills as the landscape. No weeds, no dirt, just perfection. The houses are ornate and contain anything you could ever want. I don't think an action movie would be complete without some docks and boats as well. There are many scenes set on boats and ships, and of course, someone is always drowning. It makes you wonder why they don't wear life vests. The docks are always dimly lit and set in murky water. No matter how beautiful that countryside was, the water is always scary and dirty. We also can't forget the underground secret labs in the desert, but have no fear because they are in this movie also. Huge machines and tanks cover the desert. They are cold, and never comfortable, the only purpose they serve is to carry out secret missions without anyone discovering them. There was nothing new about the action scenes in the movie, and they were all overly predictable. Everyone carries at least one gun, and has more than enough bullets to kill an entire army, without even reloading. Guns and bombs are always plentiful for use whether by the bad guy or the good one. With all the gun toting shooters running around, all the main characters somehow manage to dodge the bullets. Nobody important to the plot is ever shot or hurt in anyway until the end of the movie. Even when someone does get hurt in one scene, they are magically healed in the next. Another thing that bothered me about the scenes, was the fact that nobody ever killed each other, even after a long discussion about it. If you were holding a gun to your enemies head, would you choose to talk about your problems, or get rid of them? There were many missed opportunities for the movie to end, which would have been a nice relief. Had Bond killed Renard when he first had the chance, the movie could have ended an hour early. This movie wasn't a complete flop, the actors did their best to make it into something good, but being a Bond movie just gives it a certain style that is unescapable. Every scene in the movie was filled with stereotypes and unrealistic events. If you could look past all that, the movie might be enjoyable. I thought if they had added some new ideas into the movie to make it exciting, it would have been a much better film. After watching countless Bond movies, it's just not fun anymore. If the writers made the people in the movie a little more real to life, and the action scenes a little less predictable, this could have been a much better movie. I do recommend it to action fans, but not anyone who wants a movie with depth.  

This paper contains both a lesson plan for the writing of a movie review by students, including film analysis and other related lesson plans, and my response to the original assignment that I created for an Intermediate Writers' Workshop 11th grade English students at Hopkins High School. The original...

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