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This essay will focus on an examination of the differences between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. In this essay, I shall use quotes and examples from both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers to illustrate my points. Firstly, I shall describe the physical appearances in each type of newspaper. In a typical tabloid newspaper, for example The Mirror, the banner has a plain and stenciled looking typeface, which is designed to attract the consumers attention into purchasing it, whereas in a typical broadsheet in this instant, The Times the banner has a very intricate design which gives it a distinguished look, possibly designed for the attention of the more educated and professional reader. I shall now move on to explain the use of alliteration and large and small titles to illustrate articles in tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. A typical tabloid newspaper, in this case The Mirror, uses alliteration to create dramatic and sensational titles which are again designed to persuade the reader into reading more on the article. Quote: "CRICKET: CRICKET IN CRISIS"¦" This tells us that The Mirror is attempting to attract the reader's attention by having a dramatic title to illustrate its cricket article; communicating to the reader that cricket as a whole is facing a dilemma, when in actual fact the article relates to the England Cricket Team refusing to play in Zimbabwe due to Robert Mugabe's regime. The title then reads on: "NASSER DEMANDS TO BE SAVED FROM ZIMBABWE HELL"¦" The title displays informal language, as if to communicate with the less educated reader. The Mirror also refers to Nasser Hussain the England Cricket Team captain by his first name, whereas typical broadsheet newspapers would refer to people involved in their articles by their last names in order to sound less informal and more professional; an aspect of broadsheet newspapers which appeals to the more educated reading audience. Quote: "Hussain's men plead for Zimbabwe boycott" This title, taken from The Times a broadsheet newspaper begins with a capital letter and follows with lower case letters, like a normal sentence does. It also contains more sophisticated words, like 'plead' and 'boycott'. Overall the cricket article title in The Times seems less eager to attract the reader's attention, and more keen on informing the reader of the facts behind the issue, unlike The Mirror, which seems to prefer attracting the reader's attention by using writing techniques such as whole sentences in capital letters and alliteration. I shall now compare the use of language in The Mirror and The Times. In The Mirror's cricket article, the writer of the article itself is referred to as: "Oliver Holt Chief Sports Writer", whereas the writer of The Times' cricket article is referred to more formally as: "Owen Slot, Chief Sports Reporter". The opening paragraph of The Mirror's cricket article is very informal, and it is written almost as if the writer wants to be the reader's friend. Quote: "JUST when we thought the mess couldn't get any messier, Nasser Hussain and his wandering band of white-feather wavers came along and fouled it up some more" This contrasts with the more professional and factual approach of the first paragraph in The Times' cricket article. Quote: "THE England cricket team yesterday made an urgent request for their controversial opening World Cup match on February 13 to be relocated from Zimbabwe to South Africa"¦" These paragraphs show that The Mirror is biased by taking the side of the common cricket fan, annoyed at the fact that the England Cricket Team will not go to Zimbabwe, while The Times shows no signs of being biased and continues to read in a professional manner despite whatever their personal beliefs may be. By the ninth paragraph of the cricket article, The Mirror then begins to refer to different issues that are irrelevant to the article, in an attempt to justify the situation with the England Cricket Team. Quote: "The sadness is they don't understand the precedent they have set. What happens now when British jets bomb Iraq a few weeks down the line? What happens when our military kills thousands of innocent civilians?" This suggests that The Mirror is clearly stating it's personal opinion, which some readers prefer as they can relate to them. However, this is not the case with The Times, as they keep to the subject of the article without including any other issues throughout. Quote: "It also suggests that the ECB [England and Wales Cricket Board] has failed to represent the view of the players because the players and their employers now occupy significantly differing positions." This suggests that The Times is again taking the more professional and educated approach to portraying their articles, which appeals to the more professional and educated reader. I shall now go on to explain the differences between the editorials in each of the newspapers. Editorials are the specific area in newspapers where the newspaper itself states its own views and opinions on certain news and other issues. The editorial is commonly found in the centre pages of most newspapers. In this instance I shall compare The Sun's editorial with that of The Times' editorial through their writing techniques and use of language. The Sun's editorial, which in this case is referring to the issues with the weather affecting major roads around London, starts off with an alliterated two word sentence to summarise their opinion. Quote: "White Wash". The Times however, starts off it's editorial with a less casual style of writing. Quote: "A winter's tale: Britain muddles on towards snowbound mediocrity" This shows that The Times is carrying on it's professional stance, even when giving it's own personal opinion, as The Sun being a typical tabloid newspaper carries on it's casual and friendly genre. The Sun continues this style by including puns in it's editorial to create a friendlier atmosphere for the reader. Quote: "Yes, they're up grit creek again.""¦"We are a Third World joke - run by snow good jobsworths." The Times uses different and perhaps more sophisticated writing techniques to The Sun, one such technique being the oxymoron. Quote: "British weather is predictably unpredictable". This tells us that The Times is probably using this technique to distinguish itself more from the less sophisticated tabloid newspaper. The Sun lays out it's editorial in short, summarised paragraphs, possibly to make it easier for the reader to comprehend. Quote: "The cost to the country is put at £150million" Then written underneath in a separate paragraph: "Britain is the laughing stock of the world". The Times however, keeps it's editorial's layout in neat and normal sized paragraphs, in it's continuing professional manner. Altogether, I can conclude that The Times a typical broadsheet newspaper is designed for more educated and sophisticated readers, with it's advanced writing techniques and professional layout, whereas The Sun and The Mirror typical tabloid newspapers contrast with broadsheet newspapers, and are set out for the less well educated and more casual reader, with it's friendly use of language and openly-stated opinions.
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This essay will focus on an examination of the differences between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. In this essay, I shall use quotes and examples from both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers to illustrate my points. Firstly, I shall describe the physical appearances in each type of newspaper. In a typical tabloid newspaper, for example The Mirror, the banner has a plain and stenciled looking typeface, which is designed to attract the consumers attention into purchasing it, whereas in a typical broadsheet in this instant, The Times the banner has a very intricate design which gives it a distinguished look,...
at £150million" Then written underneath in a separate paragraph: "Britain is the laughing stock of the world".

The Times however, keeps it's editorial's layout in neat and normal sized paragraphs, in it's continuing professional manner.

Altogether, I can conclude that The Times a typical broadsheet newspaper is designed for more educated and sophisticated readers, with it's advanced writing techniques and professional layout, whereas The Sun and The Mirror typical tabloid newspapers contrast with broadsheet newspapers, and are set out for the less well educated and more casual reader, with it's friendly use of language and openly-stated opinions.

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Any scenario that includes people trapped...Any scenario that includes people trapped in a conditioned T.V sitcom or Big Brother-style control automatically presents comparisons to the Truman Show. The Truman Show is a film about Reality. Truman's truth is all a lie masquerading under harmony but fortunately or could be said unfortunately he identifies the truth of himself. The moral to this story is - What we become comes within, not from the outside. The Truman Show addressed television's relation to society, a lecture on the ludicrousness of an idealised society and especially referred to spectatorship. In my opinion media is portrayed in both negative and positive way because in a negative view: - Truman is never given a choice about his role in life as a whole, he is deceived into believing his life is reality also the audience watching the show are seen as asinine and fixated by what happens to Truman, when human beings are in a television obsessed generation where art and life have become united. I think beside this there is a positive view, it's about Truman's life resembling in a typical fifties sitcom with no violence, no swearing, nothing like the real world "“ fake reality, well before he realises that his life is all programmed and supervised, compared to reality in the twentieth century there are viruses and illnesses effecting many countries like sars, greed and fame creating wars and violence also racism still goes on in the world and there are many other problems unsolved so if I could have chosen to travel back in time or lived in the way of a fifties sitcom like Truman and everything was taken cared of with no problems, I might of chosen yes. The life of Truman's typical fifties sitcom and the style of Pleasantville is set, before Maguire as David and Bud and Witherspoon as Jennifer and Mary Sue changed everything, is one of the similarities in both films also the film Back to the Future had resemblances. The other similarity is that they both have unshakable inward logic with clever plot twists. However, Pleasantville is an inverse of the Truman Show it introduces themes like racism, sexism, family affairs and prejudice that all happened later when people in Pleasantville met David and Jen, then altered everything. Pleasantville is more like a fantasyland than reality where every citizen is perfect and happy, there temperature is always hot but not too hot just right, everyone contributes as a society, it never rains, family roles were more traditional and old-fashioned when men dominated women as in the women were housewives and never worked just cooked, dinner was never late, waste and toilets never existed and marital beds was strictly single, no diseases and this was all in a black and white fifties sitcom. The film Pleasantville showed an excellent juxtaposition between television life and reality because at the opening sequence it clearly showed advertisement of Pleasantville and explained in black and white which meant it'll be an old film round the fifties, soon after it displayed a sentence saying "Once upon a time"¦" this automatically invites the audience like us to think that the film will be about a perfect fairy tale. Soon after it showed a clip from reality showing the contrasts between reality and Pleasantville or could be described as the fifties. A teenage school lesson and the mentors were describing many of the world's problems, how people lived poorly and not everybody lived in a society and cared for each other, this proved to be the opposite way of living to the film, "perfect" Pleasantville. One physical feature of Seahaven in the Truman Show that reeks of a movie-set is the disorder of that typical life incontrovertible suffers from. The director Christoff on a preset course round and round their particular area or doing the same job over and over again sets everything from the window cleaner to the mother pushing the pram. This prevents any chaos from erupting out the need for policemen, which we obviously didn't see any in the Truman Show. He organised everything perfectly to be true. There place to place is the same everyday and it is bound to be conspicuous, however it is not until the end of the movie that Truman enlightens upon this fact. Another apparent movie set prop strangely manifest itself in one of the early scenes of the movie. The specific scene has Truman alone on the beach his mind consciously wandering back to the disastrous death of his father by drowning. Abruptly a downpour of rain falls onto him and no other area of the beach. A technical difficulty would be the best possible explanations. We the audience are fully aware that this is the highest likelihood however Truman has no idea that he is living in the worlds biggest movie studio and settled for he is a blessed divination as a justification. The cinematic effect that they created draws our attention to the physical features of Truman's habitat that would belong in a movie set by moving the camera to awkward angles that not only contains him but also as many of the objects as feasible. This allows the Truman Show to advertise its products while filming the main attraction. In some of the scenes there is also a black fadeout on the camera edges to indicate low quality small cameras designed to capture intimate shots. A number of dedicated viewers of the Truman Show are introduced to us. They are the people of the real world looking into the intimate life of a real person un-knowingly living in a make-believe movie set, the size of a small city. There is an obese man who lives in his bathtub and who also lives to watch the Truman Show. This also applies to two old couch-potato ladies, one of them whose obvious favourite possession is a cushion with Truman's face stitched on. The appeal of the Truman Show is worldwide and apparently very riveting as demonstrated by scenes of an oriental family quite enjoying the show. Some moments could be so riveting that even two security guards put their butts in the firing line, abandoning their jobs, so glued to the last scenes, of Truman escaping his artificial world. Two barmaids also stopped the flow of alcohol to customers, thinking that the Show demanded more attention. What the director of the movie achieves by putting in scenes of the audience, is keeping us, the watchers of the movie, mindful of the fact that Truman is actually in a T.V show which he is the unwitting star twenty four hours a day, seven days a week. The scriptwriter of the "Truman Show" portrayed Christoff who is the director of the Truman Show in his interview as a cold-hearted and calculating human being. Christoff's character overall impresses on me as one of the great entrepreneurs of all-time. It is undisputable; he single-handedly thought of and directed the entire live life passage of a real human being, from birth to adulthood. Many real people in the movie including a mysterious girl, Sylvia that Truman fell in love with in high school he believes that Christoff is a manipulating person. She asks whether he feels at all guilty about twisting a man's life in such a sickening way and making a mockery of it in front of the entire world. When Christoff was asked this question by Sylvia he looked straight at the screen with a lot of confidence and replied, "The world that you live in is the real sick place. What I gave Truman here is a chance to be separate from the outside world and live in a sanctuary." I reckon that he has a lot of confidence in himself to be able admit that he has put Truman in a cage with pretend animals of the same species. But this cage is tens of kilometres wide and enforced by bars, rather with something more effective than anything, a lie. In the interview we are shown that Christoff thinks rather highly of himself. As he believes that his company adopted Truman he feels he has the rights to be able to do whatever he wants to Truman, and this includes humiliating him as the live star of a television show and do everything he pleases. However what we can't deny is that no matter how much evil Christoff possesses, and how highly he thinks of himself, he is very, very smart to be able to make Truman to stay in Seahaven without suspicion for more than 30 years. Christoff also made a comment that is remarkably unique, in my opinion, "Why should we suspect anything? We take the world in which we live in for granted." The paramount theme in Pleasantville-- which is that thinking for oneself and following one's own unique path and being open to the change that comes with that brings "colour", truth, and aliveness to one's life is truly a Sixties Generation idea. Again, it is not that it has never been thought of before. All great ideas have been thought of before, but that does not mean they have been implemented on a social cultural, new level. The Sixties was such a time of turmoil because the values of individual freedom, personal passion, feeling and experience, questioning authority, and thinking for oneself were shared by so many people and were so contrary to the values of the generation in power. In Truman Show, the main character is prevented by circumstances from following his dreams. One event after another keeps him from leaving his hometown. His story might be called "The Truman Show" in reverse for he comes to accept the loss of his dreams. He is rewarded for giving up his yearning for adventure with the warmth of a loving family and friends. Nonetheless, he has been reduced to someone who simply follows a script or role and when it appears that he might fail in that role he considers killing himself. The movie is beloved and timeless, no doubt, because it reassures an entire generation and all those who have had to give up their dreams for whatever reason that their sacrifices were for a higher good and that it is a wonderful life after all. It provides a rationalization against the painful feelings of knowing that one will never know "what might have been" by pointing out the truth that one"s life affects others and has meaning regardless of whether or not one has been fortunate enough to actualise one"s deepest desires, talents, aspirations, and dreams. As mentioned, "It"s a Wonderful Life" calls out to and epitomizes the experiences and attitudes of the World War Two Generation in particular. In one way or another, the situation in the Forties, with the war effort and afterwards, created a generation who, except for the rare individual or one of unusual circumstances, was called upon to step up into mature responsible tasks long before the idealism of their youth would have preferred that they do so. And their generation is scarred for having missed this opportunity. They are individuals deserving of our sympathy; yet crippled they are nonetheless. It is significant that the protagonist of change in the movie Pleasantville would be a young male, Bud David. This is in keeping with legends of old where a young prince comes bearing the new knowledge. But in New-Age style, wonderfully so, he is drawn only reluctantly into this role and we see that it is women who are the real instigators, the least threatened by change. At first, David/Bud opposes his sister and argues for the status quo, maintaining that his sister, who is actually the first one to "break the rules" and thereby to bring colour to the town, must abide by the script. The teenage boy knows the rules well. This fits with legend, where a prince who is not ignorant of tradition brings the new ways; in fact the prince is the one who has excelled in training in traditional ways. In the movie, David is in fact a Pleasantville trivia whiz. He knows exactly the way things are supposed to unravel, the way events are supposed to go. So when his sister first introduces colour by introducing sex, he admonishes her. And when he also is tempted to a change in the "script," of Pleasantville he refuses at first. This is when Bud is offered homemade cookies by the young woman who would be his romantic partner. He refuses because he knows that, according to script, it is another young man who is supposed to get the cookies and end up with that particular girl. Despite his attraction for the young woman, his strong sense of maintaining the status quo, not rocking the boat, causes him to try to refuse the cookies. It takes a great deal of forcefulness on the young woman's part to get him, reluctantly, to accept the cookies that he actually does want. It is not that the young man can't accept change. In fact, even before his sister blatantly brings about change, and therefore colour, by rebelliously introducing sex, he has already sown the seeds of change, although unconsciously, when he suggests to his boss, Mr. Johnson, that he thinks for himself, instead of following a recipe script. This he does unconsciously and out of selfish motives in that he by nature is different from the character he is supposed to portray and so he does not play his role exactly as it is "supposed" to be played. Specifically, because he is not really the robot character he has replaced, he ends up being late for his job "“ which heretofore was a totally unheard of event. It is also significant that it is the young that are the first ones in the town to become "coloured." As in the hundredth monkey phenomenon, it is first the young, especially females, who are open to new experiences, ways, and ideas. Then it is adult females "“ in this movie exemplified by Betty Parker, the mother of Bud and Mary Sue -- who are next to consider alternatives and new ways. Adult males are the last to turn to colour, but among them it is the sensitive ones, exemplified by the artist/soda-jerk character, Mr. Johnson, who "turn on" initially. Last to become colorized to be open to change and thinking for oneself are the "authorities" of the town, in this instance, those on the Chamber of Commerce. And among these the most recalcitrant of all is their leader, Big Bob, played by J.T. Walsh, in his final film role before his passing away. Though Big Bob displays a pleasing and affable persona on the surface for this read "good old boy", there is an insidious Hitler's quality to him which provides the suspense at the climax of the movie where he presides over the fate of the artist, Mr. Johnson, and the "young prince," David/Bud. With the support of the Chamber of Commerce, we know Big Bob has the power to do whatever he will with the two on trial. And since the events preceding the trial has included mob actions which have included a book burning, the attack and destruction of the malt shop, and the cornering, physical intimidation, and physical attack of "coloureds" by gangs "“ images common to modern times which has seen these sorts of events in actuality occurring in the civil rights and anti Vietnam War movements, and currently in democracy as well as anti America demonstrations in third-world countries the fate of the prisoners is imagined to include the ultimate penalty of death. Indeed, this ominous possibility is promoted by the actions of the soda jerk Artist who, at the trial, pitifully pleads for a compromise. This is pitiful since we know that his art is his life, which it is the one thing that has truly enriched his life and made it worth living. We know of its importance in that, even after the attack on his malt shop, he defied the "rules" laid down by the town's authorities which outlawed art and colour by working with the Prince through the night to produce a colourful mural on the outside wall of his shop depicting the current events of the town and the feelings swirling about inside its residents "“ an act which is reminiscent of antiwar demonstrators, who got fired upon at Kent State, of civil rights demonstrators, who police attacked with dogs, and of Tiananmen Square demonstrators, who were rolled over by tanks, shot, and killed. Since this character, recently so courageously defiant, is intimidated into pleading for a compromise in which he would be willing to use only certain colours or where he would submit for approval by the Chamber's leader his ideas for painting beforehand a compromise which his body language and facial expressions show "“ wonderfully acted by Jeff Daniels "“ is one near up against the very death of his soul, we know he fears for the loss of his physical life. The compromise is too much like the compromises we have witnessed being offered and come to expect being offered to some of the Tiananmen Square and other political prisoners of recent times wherein they are required to do something along the lines of admitting their guilt, apologizing to the State for the trouble they have caused it, and promising to never again to engage in such activities. So Big Bob and the Chamber of Commerce represent in the current social framework the Religious Right sometimes referred to as the "religious wrong" and sometimes about which it is noted that the Religious Right is neither. Big Bob"s Chamber of Commerce represents Republicans and those in general in our society who have succumbed to the rewards and threats of the World War Two Generation to live a regimented robot like unfeeling passionless life; to become one of J. D. Salinger's "phonies," to abide by their misconstrued idea of "family values," and above all to "behave" and not do anything to rock the boat of the status which might threaten the privileges of those currently enjoying power and wealth handed down, mostly, by heredity. It is highly significant that in the courtroom scene the "coloured" would be sitting in the balcony, above the black-and-white men. One might say this represents their status as being an elevated state, something to aspire to, and yet not on the level where matters are decided. But even more so, this scene is important in that it is a near exact replication of the courtroom scene wherein the balcony of the courtroom is filled with Blacks, another kind of "coloured." This makes it clear that when the movie is dealing with the conflict between the adult males of the town and the "coloureds" it is referring to the Civil Rights movement. The events in China's Tiananmen Square almost ten years ago so affected and still affect some of us here in America because we know at some level that we have experienced it before. What happened in China a decade ago is so much like what happened here almost three decades ago around the Vietnam War demonstrations, although more subtly. For one thing, the images of the demonstrations in China, e.g., the lone man standing in front of the tank, were so like those of Sixties demonstrations, e.g., Sixties youth blocking the paths of soldiers and placing flowers in their gun barrels. And the result of both was the same: In both cases the opposition, the youth movement, crushed violently in China, subtly and behind the scenes in the US at the command of a generation, clinging desperately to power as much as to their waning physical frames. One might say the WWII generation in America has gotten more finesse, with practice, in its beating back social cultural change not to their liking and that the Chinese geriatric set hasn"t as much practice with it as yet. Nevertheless the results in both countries are the same. They involve the ultimate victory of social cultural change in both instances being delayed until the dying off of an elderly generation in power "“ a generation refusing to die or hand over the controls at the proper time like the generations before them. In result in both films, is that moral is treat everyone like you wished to be treated in a co-operative society. Pleasantville = **** The Truman Show = ***   

Any scenario that includes people trapped in a conditioned T.V sitcom or Big Brother-style control automatically presents comparisons to the Truman Show. The Truman Show is a film about Reality. Truman's truth is all a lie masquerading under harmony but fortunately or could be said unfortunately he identifies the truth...

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Baz Luhrmann's adaptation of the classic...Baz Luhrmann's adaptation of the classic Romeo and Juliet is set in 2 vastly differing times; the language of Shakespearian era in contrast to a much more modern set and city. The use of Shakespearean language gives a sense of timelessness; that the time it takes place is irrelevant; it can happen any time, any where, to any people, and this is what matters. It addresses a young adult audience, who are familiar with both the situations which arise and the pop-like video style of shooting, with the fairly pacey storyline. At the very beginning of the film, there is a vague sense of mystery given by the fuzzy sounds of the TV tuning in. we are not entirely sure of what we are going to see, and so the tuning in of the TV represents how we are trying to grasp the story, trying to latch on to what is happening around us. We see the black and white screen with the noise of no reception just before the newsreader appears on the screen, and so we anticipate that what we are about to hear will be important, or worth waiting for. We relate it to how we feel when we are waiting for the news to come on, and so the way that the story is presented; as the focus of a news report and the distinct tuning in of the viewer, means we expect the story to affect us. The way in which this introduction is presented sets its status to us. Its obvious sense of importance and slight air of tragedy contributes discretely to the overall atmosphere the audience feels at the beginning of this film. The television set is placed in the middle of the screen, and all around it is plain blank blackness. Since the focus is on the TV in the centre, the viewer doesn't consciously notice the black background. This is deliberate to keep the attention on the screen, which mirrors the importance of this story and this news item. The fact that one barely notices the presence of the background emphasises the dominance this story has on one's thoughts, but all this is in the back of one's mind, so does not consciously add to the atmosphere one feels as a viewer. It only adds on to the overall feel. In the corner of the newsreader's setting, the image chosen is that of a broken ring. This represents to us one of the key elements of the story; symbols of unity, split. The ring is a wedding ring, we later find out, and so we transfer this image not to a broken marriage, but to one that was split. We know the story of Romeo and Juliet to be one of truly strong love, and so the image of the ring doesn't represent divorce. It represents a marriage broken against its will, and so the already subconscious feeling of tragedy to be expected is reinforced by this image. During this shot, the camera slowly and gradually zooms in on the TV set, and so the TV set gradually fills up more and more of the space in the screen, pushing the black back ground out. It is to convey the idea of slowly getting drawn into the story, how the viewer's focus eventually rotates entirely around this news item. It mirrors how we can sometimes feel that when someone is talking to us they seem far away, how their words seem distant. It makes the viewer feel like this story relates to them, how distant sounds become common ground. The overall feeling this aspect of the shot gives of is that of involvement. It makes the audience anticipate once more that this story will affect them as an individual. As the beginning sequence takes off into a rapid Rolla coaster of images, the music and atmosphere take on an entirely different tone. It goes from one of casual, and maybe more intense interest, to one of extreme excitement and tension. This is due partly to the speed of the shots and their content, but mostly because of the music and the ideas and images it puts across. The music portrays the idea of overwhelming emotion above all. It is extremely dramatic in its use of emotion, and the power and energy you feel from it. The high pitch of both the piano chords and vocal harmonies give an idea of excitement and speed, and the classical element to it, the traditional instruments and ensemble, give the idea of depth, meaning and sophistication. The high tempo of the piece as it climaxes towards the end increases with the pitch, representing how the power and the emotion and the intensity all build up together. It creates a very powerful, impacting atmosphere of emotion "“ be that of love, loss, finality, deep influence, realisation, accomplishment, indomitable spirit, excitement, violence, downfall, dependency or redemption. There are countless feelings the music could bring out in you, and so the medium of music is perfect for this effect because it is so widely interpretable, you can have all of these feelings at once, and so you are overwhelmed by emotion "“ emotion you felt from this film, and so you anticipate that you could feel overwhelmed again in this film, or that characters will be. When the piece does climax, it then abruptly subsides, and the film titles and quiet remain. The lead up to the names "Romeo and Juliet" give you a sense of the strength of their presence. It's as if there is this huge mountain of things going on, all the things we have just seen and heard in the rush of the previous sequence, simply come down to these four words: "Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet". It is mostly dark, night shots, and so the air of mystery resumes, and we get the idea of "shadowy" goings on. It is natural to associate dark feelings with dark nights, and so sad atmospheres with darkness. The feeling is given that maybe it won't be a happy film. The audience are quite unsure of what to expect, as darkness can also be associated with excitement, and "after dark" activity. So again, moods are split, and the audience is intrigued and very curious about what is to come. The other lighting effects that stand out to the audience are the bright flashing lights. The two main sources of bright flashing lights are the lights of emergency service vehicles, and the bright lights of Vegas. These are two very similar yet contrasting ideas "“ that of danger of safety, and the thrill and excitement of the danger seen in casino life. We see brief characterisations of main composites in the film, mainly the relations of our two main characters "“ Romeo and Juliet. These freeze-frames are usually taken from later periods of the film, when a lot has happened. The characters often look menacing or anxious. We see a brief window into what is to come, and we see the faces of highly-strung, grieving and on edge characters, all of who appear to be close to either Romeo or Juliet. When we see these traits in the people of the story, we combine these new characteristics to the atmosphere created previously, and later it is added to the atmosphere yet to come, and our atmosphere of danger and excitement becomes one of ominous emotion. This foreboding feeling is the product of the things that have just flashed before our senses; the power, the emotion, the excitement, the danger and the worry. The screen with the titles wipes onto the Montague boys speeding down a highway, wearing loud Hawaiian shirts and brave hairstyles. They are jumping about, very over-excited, playing loud music and yelling a lot. The music is very upbeat and rap-like, and associated with carefree youths. The impression is immediately given that these boys are fun loving, arrogant, self assured, confident and aggressive. It is a bright sunny day, and they are in an open top car. It, again, gives that sense of carefree fun, contentment and a completely worry-free atmosphere. The bright colours and the casual dress sense implies all of these things, that they are not afraid to show their true colours, and one has the word "Montague" written on the back of his bald head, which immediately shows his pride and family loyalty. They offer more relaxed and easygoing prospects than that of the music and images in the previous sequence; however it is possible that their pride and aggression may get the better of them. As the Montague boys party in the car, the camera tracks it from behind. Indeed, most of these shots are close ups, or at least within a few metres of the characters. The viewer feels closer to the action. It makes the audience feel as if they are in the car also, and so the excitement seems more real to them. The man in the back seat turns around and speaks to the camera with a tone of excitement, and so it feels as if you are in the car and he is talking to you. You share in his excitement and enthusiasm "“ you share his emotions as if you were a friend in the car with them. This feeling contrasts slightly that of what we have seen before, as it seems so much more social and fun. The audience feels more relaxed and comfortable. The main images used to characterise certain aspects of these characters are the shot of the front of the car, the back of one man's head, Benvolio's necklace and the black eye. The shot of the front of the car is only really relevant and significant when the Capulets arrive, but the tattoo saying "Montague" exemplifies the loyalty a pride the group have to their family name, and equally, Benvolio's Christ necklace exemplifies loyalty to the church, religion and Christ. This, similarly to the car, is also relevant to the Capulets. The black eye just points out once more that they are very loud, confident and self assured, that they get into brawls and fights, and that we can expect something from them the more calm characters could not offer. These things just highlight points already in the backs of the minds of the viewers, and strengthen them as composites of the atmosphere being built. Of the combinations of our ominous emotional atmosphere, power, emotion, danger, worry and excitement these images enforce the excitement and the danger sides of the scale. Our first image of the Capulets is their blue car, not dissimilar to that of the Montagues. This echoes the opening words of the play: "two households, both alike in dignity," how the things they uphold are so alike, yet they cannot get over the grudge. The other thing that becomes apparent after awhile is the Capulets' pride in their religion "“ the same as that of the Montagues. One Capulet has the cross shaved into the back of his head, and Tybalt has a Celtic-style cross on his clothing. We get the impression that their rivalry is misplaced because of their likeness in beliefs, taste and family pride. The first we see of an actual character is the heel of Tybalt's boot. This indirectly gives us the impression that he is feared and respected, as if it is no coincidence that the viewer who recently felt to be a Montague is at the feet of their enemy. We also get the idea of Tybalt's strength of presence by the obvious intimidation felt by the Montagues. The man who first spots Tybalt is completely terrified, and the camera catches this with a close up of his face, like he's realises how real this actually is. Because the Capulets seem so menacing and sinister, the audience are feeling what the Montagues feel; timid and frightened. It leaves them unsure of what they are now expecting, because of the more vulnerable side on the Montagues they have just seen in contrast to the previous images of them. The Capulets seem particularly menacing due to the camera shots. It is shown clearly that they are superior when a close shot of the silver teeth with the word "sin" imprinted on them is shown. It highlights individual characteristics of his personality, and the snarl increases the menace he already displays. When Tybalt is speaking, there is no sound, apart from a faint whistle of the wind. The petrol station is in fact by a main road, but still no noise. This keeps the focus on the words he is mouthing, making it seem more powerful. It also is a discrete reference to the Spaghetti Westerns, with the traditional sounds of the wind whistling. We are seeing this shot mainly from the perspective of the Montagues, and so when we hear Tybalt's voice so clearly, it seems that this is so significant it actually drowns out the noises of the city. The fact the wind remains implies that the whole waking world has stopped to listen to what he's saying, it's that important. After this, a fight breaks out, and the tension is broken and an air of excitement and nerves take over, and the music reflects this with it's quick tempo. The fire in the petrol station represents the burning anger of the two parties involved. * * * * * * * * * * * * When we first see Romeo in the doorway of the church after the chaos outside, we are very close to him. It creates an atmosphere contrasting drastically to the one beforehand, with long distance shots and a lot going on very quickly. We immediately know that what is to come will be different, and with the silence as well, a feeling of anticipation and trepidation is created. The darkness adds a feeling of unease and nervousness to the worried anticipation. The lack of light parallels the lack of sound, and so the impression is given that little is clear in Romeo's mind, and also implies bad things to come, like an omen, and the cliché of a dark night when bad things happen. Only his eye is visible from the light protruding from the church ahead, and this enforces that sense that things aren't clear. To summarize, at this point in the film, the music, lighting, shots and characterisation all add up to feelings of anticipation of the expected denouement, unease and worry, but also a sense of privacy now that the outside world is closed off. Luhrman has used similar techniques to that of the beginning scene showing the Montague boys in their car. In that scene, the wide spaciousness, lighting, noise, music and shouting all gave a sense of contentment and excitement. A lack of all these things in Romeo's scene means a lack of excitement and contentment; more commonly recognised as sadness. Luhrman shows a slot view through the church doors to the ceremony from Romeo's point of view before he proceeds to enter it. It seems he is hesitating; perhaps he is thinking. It puts the audience in Romeo's shoes for the first time in awhile, and a few things strike the audience that never did before, and an effort is made on the audience's part to try to imagine what he must be thinking and feeling. It is clear that the audience was intended to feel empathy when Romeo makes his way down the isle, but at this point in time, the music level is still low, the lighting is beginning to pick up, and Romeo is staying mostly still. It is unclear what is being felt; just immense confusion, and the effort to try and understand what is happening means not much attention is paid to emotion, so it's a little bit like a blank. As Romeo proceeds down the isle, the atmosphere changes to one of nervousness, sadness and unsure anticipation. Romeo walks very slowly, and looks very pained and thoughtful. We also see tracking camera shots of Romeo, showing the scene from his point of view, so the audience feels as if they are in his shoes. The camera flicks between side-on shots of him and shots from his point of view, and it is as if you are being told: "Look at what he is feeling; imagine what he is feeling; look at him; look at what he is seeing..." being told to put the two together. His eyes are fixed, looking ahead to where Juliet lies. The music mirrors what the audience interprets from the characterisation, and so the feeling is strengthened. Romeo presents a very nervous disposition, and naturally, the viewer shares these instincts, and so the nervousness and unease is felt strongly. His slow movements represent his fear of what is ahead, and worry, and his need to think about what is happening and what he should do. He is considering killing himself; he seems quite sure of it, as he has the bottle grasped tightly in his hand, as if, ironically, it was his lifeline. The intentions of the way the atmosphere was created was to make us feel like Romeo, and it does so very successfully, and so we feel what he feels; and his wife is dead and he wants to kill himself, so we aren't feeling great. In the last of the opening scenes of the film which I looked at, there was a fire, which represented the hatred between the two groups; the friction and the conflict. At the end, Juliet is surrounded by candles, lots of them, but this time the flames represent the beauty and importance of Juliet. It brings the focus straight to her. It makes everything seem so much more upsetting to Romeo, as she was treasured so much. The candles and the surrounding darkness make us feel pained, and indeed Romeo feels the same, as he reflexes as he would if he were feeling overpowering physical pain. I think the set up of Juliet's funeral fundamentally says a light has been lost, with the candles and the crosses and the shrubbery all adding up to a funeral parlour times one thousand, and this loss of light is a great sadness to behold. The music gradually builds up as Romeo makes his way down the isle. The music seems to mirror Romeo's and so our feelings, and perhaps this is why there was silence at the beginning, when he didn't know what to think or expect. There is a crescendo, at which point Romeo is looking with desperation at Juliet, and with the music steadily increasing in volume, the feeling of overwhelming emotion resumes. At the beginning of the film, powerful and dramatic music was used to create this same atmosphere, but this time around it is slower, and sadder, and represents more about forlorn hope and great sadness than an overall tragedy. While Romeo is walking down the isle, we see some shots from his point of view as he approaches Juliet. This goes along side the music, in that Luhrman is trying to get us into Romeo's shoes, so that we can see what he is seeing and feel what he is feeling. It makes the feelings seem more real, and makes the audience more involved and caught up. It greatens the sadness also, because the feeling of empathy is literally right there in front of you. Once Romeo has joined Juliet, from that moment on, the shots are all very close up. It gives a huge sense of intimacy with the characters, which, in the long run, means their deaths are more of a tragedy. We see many small movements in Juliet, such as her fingers or eyelids twitching, and they are quite clear in comparison to the predominant stillness around her. It makes the viewer feel very involved, that we have seen she is alive and Romeo hasn't, that after all this time of being in Romeo's shoes, now is the time he needs us to be in his shoes to show him she is alive. A great sense of tension, helplessness and frustration is felt by the audience, who feel as if they are involved in what is going on, because of the intimacy entailed by the shots, but aren't there, so can't help the situation. We also see a close up view of the bottle of poison in Romeo's hand as he lifts it towards his mouth. Since we see it from Juliet's point of view, we see what she sees and feel the same as her, but we know all that has happened, and so the frustration is felt again, but this time from the other way round, feeling as if we want to help her. We also see Romeo die from Juliet's point of view; so again, we share her feelings and their intimacy. Since we felt as if we shared something with them; the intimacy, we also feel the loss when he dies. These scenes are very slow; to provoke thought maybe. It takes time to comprehend some things. This is reflected in the music, as its tempo is consistently slow and sorrowful, the lighting, as it is dark around and intimate in amongst the candles, and the characters seem very thoughtful. After Romeo dies, we see his gun, slowed down and blurry, from Juliet's point of view. The blurriness could represent both the tears in her eyes and the confusion she is feeling about what she may do. It is always intended for the audience to feel empathy, so when so much is shared with the character to the point at which the tears are shown from that same perspective, it is hard to see where the audience ends and the character begins. A viewer can get very emotionally caught up in this scene. Her indecisiveness is common with the image in that it is out of focus. It represents her mind at the same time. Once it comes into focus, it is clear she has decided. The scene after Romeo dies is mostly silent, and so when the echoes of the noises made by Juliet are heard, it is very sudden and shocking, and both Juliet and the audience are startled. For instance, When Juliet clicks the gun, she jumps from the shock of the sound, and this is echoed. The click of the gun makes her jump because of the realisation of what she is about to do, that it is actually real. The tension is slightly relieved because it has been certified that she will shoot herself, but the realness of it shocks both Juliet and the audience. After the gunshot, the camera goes from the close up intimacy with the characters to a long shot overlooking the scene. It acts as a reminder that it is just a story, that before you could have been drawn in, but the reality is you are the onlooker, and so only empathy can be felt at this point because of the detachment entailed. After a few seconds overlooking the final resting place of Romeo and Juliet, some moments of Romeo and Juliet are re-shown. It highlights the sense of loss and nostalgia; that it picks at the fresh wounds of all that was and all that could have been, showing the happiest moments they shared together. The music mirrors this, being slow and sorrowful, creating the atmosphere of great sadness that all involved must be feeling. At the end, it freezes on a shot of Romeo and Juliet kissing underwater. It is the last effort to hold on to what has been lost. And so the feeling loss is greatened and can overwhelm the most emotional of viewers. The film becomes memorable for the sadness felt. A moments' pause for reflection is given between the two scenes, to take in all that has happened; to think how it could have been. It draws out the feelings previously felt, and so the feelings are remembered and the memory sticks. During the gathering of people, including the Montagues, Capulets, police and ambulance men, the camera stays mostly on the chief of police. The importance of what he says is clear, and the focus is certainly solely on him and his words. The people are gathered around him, and all is quiet except for him speaking. When he says, "all are punishèd, all are punishèd!" he is summarising what all the surrounding characters and possibly the audience too are thinking. The fact that he repeats simply puts emphasis on it, and it is also the final thing he says. It is the message he wants you to take away with you. The screen changes, and slow zooming backwards reveals that what we have just watched was on the TV report seen at the very beginning of the film. It renews the sense of detachment, that we are just onlookers to this tragedy. The fact that it zooms out is a direct reference to the opening of the film and the story, where there is slow zooming in. at the beginning, it is used to convey the idea of slowly getting drawn into the story, tuning in and trying to understand. At the end it is like closing off the story, rounding it all up, just taking time to think about what happened. As if you've been drawn into this story, you experienced it, and now it's time to go back to your own life. The last thing the newsreader says is: "And go forth to talk more of these sad things, for never was there a story of more woe, than this of Juliet and her Romeo." It leaves you with a feeling of sadness. Seeing it in a news reel emphasises your detachment from it, whereas before the audience was led to be very caught up in the story. At the very beginning of the film, there is a vague sense of mystery given by the fuzzy sounds of the TV tuning in. however, at the end, it represents not mystery but closure. At the beginning of the film, there is a similar set out to the one seen at the end: The television set is placed in the middle of the screen, and all around it is plain blank blackness, and since the focus is on the TV in the centre, the viewer doesn't consciously notice the black background. In the opening scene, the story gradually unfolds and initiates. And so the end is the opposite; the story is coming to a close and the viewer is gradually disconnected from the scenes which have held the attention and emotion of the audience. In conclusion, it would seem that Luhrman has used many aspects of media to provoke the emotions of his target audience. Young people are very interested in music, so the carefully chosen tracks he has used, particularly at the beginning and end, relate to young viewers very well. He has chosen the cast and characterised them so that they, too, are easy to relate to, and so has really reached the audience. He has also used lighting and images to his advantage, making the atmosphere memorable, and accelerating the feelings brought up in the scenes. He has used the shots to show the audience different ways of looking at what is going on, and also giving participation and status. Overall, using different combinations of the same types of lighting, colour, images, characterisation and shots, he has created equally powerful beginning and ending to a film very effectively with the way he has done it.   

Baz Luhrmann's adaptation of the classic Romeo and Juliet is set in 2 vastly differing times; the language of Shakespearian era in contrast to a much more modern set and city. The use of Shakespearean language gives a sense of timelessness; that the time it takes place is irrelevant; it...

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The audience first encounters the... The audience first encounters the character of Lady Macbeth in act1, scene 5, while she is reading the letter sent to her by her husband, in the letter Macbeth describes the meeting with of the three witches, and them predicting the fact that he is going to be 'Thane of Cawdor', we can tell from the letter the closeness of relationship, Lady Macbeth and her husband have as he addresses Lady Macbeth as; "my dearest partner of greatness", that thou mightest not lose the dues of rejoicing". From then on in the play, she shows herself to be ambitious, and mentally strong. As soon as she reads the letter, she seems to decide that Macbeth will be the next Scottish King, and fulfil the witches' prophecy, no matter the method. This proves that Lady Macbeth is the driving force behind Duncan's murder. She realises that she must influence Macbeth against his better nature. It seems as though Lady Macbeth, can see her husband's weak points, and can change him, to be whatever she wants him to be. Lady Macbeth makes an impression on Macbeth that is not all good, because even though Macbeth can be ambitious, he is not ruthless enough. We can tell how determined Lady Macbeth is, by the way in which she says; "And chastise with the valour of my tongue All that impedes thee from the golden round" It is as though she is going to persuade Macbeth with her words, and uses her words as a charm. She is startled by this news, and so calls on the evil spirits to change her and lose her femininity. "Come you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here," She is calling on the spirits, to give her murderous thoughts, and make herself have no sympathy for humanity at all, and make her have no human feelings, and wants to lose her femininity. Lady Macbeth is trying to rid her conscience, and empty her mind of remorse and pleads to be filled with 'direst cruelty'. She needs to have power to help her through this time, it seems as though she probably would not be able to cope with the fact that she is trying to get her husband to commit a murder. When calling on the spirits she speaks her thoughts aloud, to the audience, this is known as a soliloquy, an example of this is at the start of her speech, beckoning the evil spirits to come forth she says; "That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan Under my battlements" Macbeth, then arrives home, when he does so, we find out how close Lady Macbeth and Macbeth actually are, she seems to be able to read him like an open book. She is already starting to try and change Macbeth by the way that she says; "To beguile the time, Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue; look like the innocent Flower, but be the serpent under't" Lady Macbeth, is trying to make her husband hide her feelings, she thinks that people can read him like a book, if they can do that, then it is likely that they will find out if Macbeth has killed Duncan, and she does not want that to happen. This also shows how in control Lady Macbeth "You shall put this nights great business into my dispatch", Macbeth seems to have absolute confidence in her ability to plan the murder. Her awareness of his character is shown, in this paragraph. It also shows how deceiving and devious she can be. She is going to take control of the whole situation, and make sure that Macbeth carries out his deeds, but Macbeth seems undecided, he seems to hesitate, at the thought of killing the king he sharply explains "We will speak further". But Lady Macbeth does not hesitated at all, she seem to be anxious to be the Queen, and states how "To alter favour ever is to fear, Leave the rest to me", Even though the male usually takes the stronger approach to everything, in this relationship we can tell that Lady Macbeth is definitely the dominating person, and tells Macbeth exactly what to do, when he hesitates she tells him that he is weaker if he doesn't proceed with her plans. When King Duncan arrives at Macbeth's home, Lady Macbeth has already thought up a plan, to get rid of him. Duncan seems to feel very at home in the Macbeth household at says "This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Unto our gentle senses". Which is quite ironic, because he is just about to get killed in a home, in which he feels so comfortable in. Another ironic part to this play, is when Banquo implies how "The temple-haunting martlet, does approve, By his lov'd mansionary, that the heaven's breath Smells wooingly here". Shakespeare shows us here how ironic this play actually is, and also brings imagery into play. Lady Macbeth treats Duncan as if she is the perfect hostess, and hides all of her feelings, much better than Macbeth; King Duncan brings into play the dramatic irony, throughout the play, when he calls Lady Macbeth "Our honour'd hostess". Which shows how good, an actress Lady Macbeth can be, if she can cover up the fact that she is going to kill King Duncan, then she is surely able to cover up the fact that she has killed him, later on in the play. It is also quite ironic because she could be doing exactly as she had said in this scene; "Look like th' innocent flower, but be the sepent under't". Soon Macbeth starts to feel the guilt that Lady Macbeth has rid of, from herself. We know this, because Macbeth feels that he cannot go through with the murder and says: "We will proceed no further in this business", he seems to be overwhelmed with the fact that he was going to kill the king, and afraid of the consequences. Lady Macbeth who is very sly urges him to continue with the murder. The words that Lady Macbeth gives him are very persuasive. She accuses him of being a coward and makes him think he does not love her; "Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, And live like a coward in thine own esteem" Lady Macbeth knew her husband very well. She understood his strengths and weaknesses, better than her did, and this is why she realises she will need to persuade him to kill Duncan. You can see how Lady Macbeth exploits his weaknesses, with phrases such as; "Art thou a feared To be the same in thine own act and valour As thou art in desire?" Her verbal attack, seems to disturb Macbeth, who then defends himself "I dare do all that may become a man", he is afraid that she is doubting his manhood, and tries to explain to Lady Macbeth, that he is still a man whether he kills king Duncan or not, she then uses this to her advantage, launching a second attack stating that nothing would make her break a pledge to him, she tries to appeal to his sensitive and sympathetic side, even the performance of a repulsive deed-killing of killing her infant. We know this because in Act 1 "“scene 7, line 54 Lady Macbeth explains how: "I have given suck, and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me" Lady Macbeth soon gets the reply, which she had been waiting for, which was "If we should fail"-, this gives us the impression, that Lady Macbeth has one her title, she has won her persuasive battle, and replies to Macbeth "We fail", which shows us the confidence in this scheme, she is portraying the fact that it is going to be inevitable that they are to succeed. Again we find out how much of an actress Lady Macbeth is, by the way that she says that she is going to cover up the fact that they have murdered Duncan, by acting broken hearted, she states how: "Who dares receive it other, As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar Upon his death" As Macbeth wavers, she quickly reveals her plan. Filled with admiration for her spirit he replies "Bring forth men children only". Her only sign of pity is her confession that she would have killed Duncan had he not, as he slept, resembled her father. This is the first sign of weakness that we see when she suggests how "Had he not resembled my father as he slept, I had done't" In act2, scene 2-Lady Macbeth has prepared for the murder and waits for Macbeth. In the beginning of Scene2, she has different moods. "That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold" She sounds bold and courageous when she says that. The next line she says is "What hath quench them hath given me fire, Hark! Peace", a noise form outside startles her. She realises it is a bird shrieking. We then see Lady Macbeth's first sign of nerves, as she realises what her consequences could lead to, when Macbeth hears noises, everything seems to be exaggerated, the sound of owls, and crickets seems to distract them, as they feel paranoid that they are being watched and are going to be found out. "It was the owl that shrieked, the fatal bellman, which gives the stern'st good night" she says as she is relieved. Immediately after the murder, Lady Macbeth seems to feel no immediate guilt after the death, no remorse, just satisfaction that her husband is going to become king-that is, if she can keep him from making everyone suspect them. Whilst Macbeth is filled with guilt and horror at his actions, she shows her fortitude and her reason in calming him down, she utters these ironic words: "These deeds must not be thought of' After these ways, so it will make us mad" Even after the horror of the deed, which shakes Macbeth's soul, it is her strength, which brings him to his senses. There is then, a second reference to madness coming from Lady Macbeth saying "You do unbend your noble strength to think so brainsickly of things" This is quite an ironic situation. Later she sees that Macbeth has brought back the daggers. Lady Macbeth takes the daggers and puts them back in Duncan's room. She says "Infirm of purpose, give me the daggers". She seems to have no fear of the situation but there seems to be some sort of nervousness in her. Macbeth's wife returns with blood stains all over hands. She points out that they both have bloodstained hands by saying, "My hands are of your colour, but I shame, to wear a heart so white". She makes Macbeth feel that they are both equally to blame for the murder of Duncan. Lady Macbeth is trying to straighten out Macbeth, although he is still quite fearful. She tries to make Macbeth feel reassured and that Macbeth can justify to what he has just done. Lady Macbeth, once again brings irony into play, when she says; "A little water, clears us of this deed", its as though she is saying that she believes that if she washes the blood away, then the guilt will wash away along with the memories, and she thinks that she can wash away all of her problems. This is the last that we see of Lady Macbeth until act2-scene3. In this scene Macduff is appalled by Duncan's death, Lady Macbeth is told of Duncan's death, but says "What, in our house?" She seems puzzled but not at all shocked. After a while, Macbeth has killed the guards assumed of killing the king. Macbeth, then starts to tell of his feelings for what has happened, to the others. Macbeth seems to be over compensating for the fact that he has nothing to do with this, so he acts as though he feels sympathetic towards King Duncan. He says "who could refrain, That had a heart to love, and in that heart Courage to make's love known" Lady Macbeth has now fainted, and is taken for treatment. She fainted to distract the attention away from Macbeth, so that people are more likely to notice her, rather than Macbeth, and also this shows how much of a good actress she is. Then in Act 3, scene 2- Lady Macbeth deals with Macbeth's mood of depression. Macbeth believes that they have only "Scorched the snake, Not killed it ". He cannot stop thinking about the murder, but Lady Macbeth urges him, to put his past behind him, she does not know that Macbeth has a plot to kill banquo.This shows us how their relationship is deteriorating, they started off in the beginning where, they would tell each other everything and the relationship was loving and caring. But now Macbeth is keeping secrets from Lady Macbeth, it is as though they no longer have trust in one another. This is where we first start to see their relationship start to crumble. Banquo has now been murdered, because Macbeth suspects him of foul play, and they are having a formal banquet, Lady Macbeth and her husband are both concerned about making this banquet as impressive as possible. During the banquet, Macbeth is told of the death of Banquo. This banquet is plays an important part in the novel, it shows us that it is important for people to know their place, so that disorder can be avoided, but the chaos that follows is symbolic of the disorder of Macbeth's rein. Macbeth is now fearing what is going to happen if anyone finds out about the death of Banquo, he seems to be in shock, and without Lady Macbeth he cannot seem to think straight, or stop himself from worrying about matters, which shows how much of an impact Lady Macbeth had on him, and how she supported him so much. Macbeth also hears of Fleance's escape, and is more paranoid, Macbeth turns his attention to the banquet. Lady Macbeth tells her husband "My royal lord, you do not give the cheer". She is telling Macbeth to please his people as a good host should. While Macbeth is talking, he sees Banquo's ghost in his seat. His reaction startles his guests so; Lady Macbeth once again makes excuses for her husband. "Sit, worthy friends, my lord is often thus, and hath been from his youth" are words that Lady Macbeth explains Macbeth's actions. The ghost reappears again and Macbeth's outburst causes his guests to wonder. Lady Macbeth then urges the guests to leave. She fears Macbeth will say too much. Lady Macbeth then tells everyone " A kind good night to all". After the banquet, Lady Macbeth is very quiet, she seems tired, and drained, Macbeth says to his wife "I am in blood Stepp'd in so far, that, should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go o'er". Macbeth is admitting that he has had Banquo killed, and he has killed Duncan, and he is saying that there is no turning back. This is the last time that we see Lady Macbeth in control of herself or of events, she seems worn out, and instead of chastising Macbeth, she only comments that he lacks sleep, she says "You lack the season of all natures, sleep". This scene is like a turning point in the play, it is the last time we also see that Macbeth's conscience is troubling him. We haven't seen Lady Macbeth since Act3 and it is now act5, and her mask is revealed, when she sleep walks, she reveals her anxiety and guilt. She reveals her hidden secrets to the gentlewoman, and she then called a doctor to find out why she was having these extraordinary sleep walking dreams. Lady Macbeth speaks, of references concerning Duncan. Lady Macbeth re-inacts the murder scene, she's still loyal to Macbeth, and only in the banquet did she tell him off. She refers to her hand and says "Out damned spot, out I say!". She seems haunted by the guilt. The doctor tells the gentlewoman that she needs divine help, rather than a doctor, and to keep a close eye, on Lady Macbeth. Her madness increases, her guilt becoming overpowering. The words, "what, will these hands ne'er be clean?" expresses this dreadful guilt. Her ramblings makes the doctor aware of what has happened she says "I tell you again, Banquo's buried, he cannot come out on's grave" When she commits suicide Macbeth hears her cry and states "I have almost forgot the taste of fear the time has been, my senses would have cool'd To hear a night-shriek!" This shows us how the roles of Lady Macbeth and her husband have reversed, Macbeth is no longer guilty, where as he was in the first place and Lady Macbeth was the strong one, that supported the relationship, and told Macbeth what to do, but the guilt soon caught up with her and drove her to insanity. Where as it had been Macbeth that had nearly been driven to insanity earlier on in the play, during the time when the death of Banquo occurred. Macbeth, fought through the hard parts of the guilt that were over powering. Throughout the play Lady Macbeth shows a front to all people, she is acting it is all just to cover up the fact of how decieveing and insecure she is. For example when she was playing the "Honour'd hostess", she was deceiving the public, in order to be deceiving, and also when they had the banquet, Lady Macbeth made a cover for Macbeth, just so that nothing would happen to her lifestyle as being Queen. In the end we are shown that Macbeth is really the stronger person, mentally and physically.  

The audience first encounters the character of Lady Macbeth in act1, scene 5, while she is reading the letter sent to her by her husband, in the letter Macbeth describes the meeting with of the three witches, and them predicting the fact that he is going to be 'Thane...

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n what ways is advertising seeking...n what ways is advertising seeking to affect young people and to what extent could it be construed as harmful? Eye-catching colours, phrases and people attract a consumer to look at an advert, and to absorb the information in them. These tricks of the trade have been used and abused for years and will go on to do so forever, however, the point I am going to raise is how much the youth have been drawn into this potentially vicious web of advertisements. Targeting the young has never been so easy for advertising companies, as they are very impressionable. If an official advert said a product was the best or would make you feel or look a certain way, then their outlook, likely to be less pessimistic than an adult, would be to believe this and be influenced. The youth are also the generation that will be the lasting impact on advertising/marketing companies, so in a way, if you catch them young they will be an investment. Starting at the very bottom, in adverts for fast food or toys, for example the Mc Donald's Happy Meal- a TV commercial may contain a joke or two appropriate for all ages, even if it would go over most 5 year olds' heads. It would also use tricks to interest the child, such as bright colours, cartoons or captions. Once the child expresses interest and the adult laughs at the joke; Mc Donald's have sold that family a happy meal, and a possibility of many more visits. Although this appears totally harmless, it seems slightly worrying that if children as young as 4 or 5 can be influenced into getting their parents to spend money in fast food restaurants, then no wonder 12 year olds are becoming influenced into buying alcohol. In looking at old adverts, and comparing them to new ones, it has become clear that although sex has always been used in some, it is only more recently that the vast majority of campaigns promote their product in the usage of someone's sexuality. This highly effective method of selling goods could, however, be harmful to some young people. For example, in an advertisement for Chanel perfume, there is a typically beautiful blonde in a see-through dress, with a typically perfect body. The article is appealing because of this woman, not because of the comparatively tiny bottle of the actual perfume in the corner. The first issue I see here is that the advert is indirectly hinting to the consumer that if you buy this perfume, when you wear it you will look like this woman. Secondly, as her appearance is so attractive and seemingly perfect, no doubt with aid of special effects, this is the type of person young readers flicking through a magazine would want to be. This comes down to how the media is creating the perfect body, the perfect face, and the perfect dress, that more and more young people are becoming obsessed with. If advertising had always used a wide range of sizes and faces, the question could be raised that would aesthetically pleasing people be as small a group as they are today? Or would it all depend on personal opinion? To blame what human nature has become on advertising may well be an exaggeration, however, there is still no doubt that when the youth see 'perfect' models in these adverts, they cannot help but feel they want to be like them, just a little. The actions they take in order to achieve this are generally no problem, unless they are particularly impressionable people or insecure. This is an enormous factor of why teenagers become anorexic or depressed, when the fascination of the perfect body becomes an obsession. Possibly even more concerning is the advertisement of alcohol and cigarettes, although targeting an age group older than teenagers, subtly makes it more accessible by using very young people having a great time. Again, the use of bright colours is used along with typically attractive women, often looking independent or powerful, seductive or mysterious, depending on what mood the advert is trying to portray. Interestingly, the advertisement of cigarettes was prohibited in magazines, television and newspapers, and will be completely abolished including billboards by next month. Although this should be productive in terms of the public's health, advertising companies will lose vast amounts of money. The question on my mind here is that will alcohol go the same way? Alcohol advertisers are walking a tight rope. It has to be queried that perhaps higher standards are needed for alcohol advertising than the standard rules on truth and decency. Although alcohol brings pleasure to a great many people, it is undoubtedly dangerous and the advertising of this risk is strictly morally wrong. The advertising in itself is a weak influence on consumption as a whole; however, the visibility of it and how it reflects young drinkers' behaviour makes it an obvious target to public health authorities. It is no wonder that alcohol advertising has been banned altogether in many countries, considering the strict rules advertising companies have to regulate in the UK and Ireland yet many campaigns do not comply with their spirit. The main areas of concern as I see it in the targeting of young people are 'binge drinking' "“ drinking to get drunk and sexual success. For example, Smirnoff used a naked man, perched on a banister to advertise themselves recently, despite warnings against drink as an 'accessory to sexual relationships' and 'sexual innuendo.' The advertisement was undoubtedly both offensive and displaying drunken behaviour. Another example is when Reef shows a young lady removing a man's boxer shorts. I feel this raises an intriguing 21st century development, in how this can be considered politically correct. Is it really acceptable for young women to be shown being sexually dominant towards men? The rules have obviously been judging drinking adverts by contemporary standards of taste and decency rather than by the stricter alcohol codes. Although drinks companies probably do not purposely target the under 18s market, it is difficult to exclude them from TV schedules and magazines which target the 18-24 year olds. The styles of drinking implied in some of these advertisements are not exactly ideal if the younger audience is considered even if they may deem it beyond their responsibility. Also, the products themselves are an easy-to-drink introduction to alcohol. This all leaves us wondering if advertising is actually encouraging the younger members of society to be corrupted more easily and exposed to too many harmful images and stereotypes regarding beautiful models etc. An enormous change can already be seen if we look back a couple of generations ago, children of fifteen or sixteen would be the absolute youngest drinking alcohol and having sex etc., whereas now, an increasing number of eleven and twelve year olds are going out on drink binges every weekend. Even myself, at the mere age of fourteen, have seen fundamental changes in the way image is portrayed in younger children. Being aware of image and sexuality for people my age began at around eleven, and since I have recently been horrified by eight and nine year olds who wear make-up and sexy clothes. It is definitely concerning, let alone downright shocking to imagine what could happen in the future. The increasing acceptability of underage drinking, sex and superficial images can only leave me with pictures of rowdy and drunken seven year olds terrorizing old ladies like myself in the years to come. Whatever lengths a small percentage of people may go to in order to stop this, I am sure the majority of people want advertising to survive and continue to entertain us in all media, however, there is currently too much ammunition advertising companies are producing for their opponents, so the authorities will need to apply more vigilance in their rules in order to break away from the prospective dangers.   

n what ways is advertising seeking to affect young people and to what extent could it be construed as harmful? Eye-catching colours, phrases and people attract a consumer to look at an advert, and to absorb the information in them. These tricks of the trade have been used and...

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