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This essay will focus on an examination of the differences between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. In this essay, I shall use quotes and examples from both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers to illustrate my points. Firstly, I shall describe the physical appearances in each type of newspaper. In a typical tabloid newspaper, for example The Mirror, the banner has a plain and stenciled looking typeface, which is designed to attract the consumers attention into purchasing it, whereas in a typical broadsheet in this instant, The Times the banner has a very intricate design which gives it a distinguished look, possibly designed for the attention of the more educated and professional reader. I shall now move on to explain the use of alliteration and large and small titles to illustrate articles in tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. A typical tabloid newspaper, in this case The Mirror, uses alliteration to create dramatic and sensational titles which are again designed to persuade the reader into reading more on the article. Quote: "CRICKET: CRICKET IN CRISIS"¦" This tells us that The Mirror is attempting to attract the reader's attention by having a dramatic title to illustrate its cricket article; communicating to the reader that cricket as a whole is facing a dilemma, when in actual fact the article relates to the England Cricket Team refusing to play in Zimbabwe due to Robert Mugabe's regime. The title then reads on: "NASSER DEMANDS TO BE SAVED FROM ZIMBABWE HELL"¦" The title displays informal language, as if to communicate with the less educated reader. The Mirror also refers to Nasser Hussain the England Cricket Team captain by his first name, whereas typical broadsheet newspapers would refer to people involved in their articles by their last names in order to sound less informal and more professional; an aspect of broadsheet newspapers which appeals to the more educated reading audience. Quote: "Hussain's men plead for Zimbabwe boycott" This title, taken from The Times a broadsheet newspaper begins with a capital letter and follows with lower case letters, like a normal sentence does. It also contains more sophisticated words, like 'plead' and 'boycott'. Overall the cricket article title in The Times seems less eager to attract the reader's attention, and more keen on informing the reader of the facts behind the issue, unlike The Mirror, which seems to prefer attracting the reader's attention by using writing techniques such as whole sentences in capital letters and alliteration. I shall now compare the use of language in The Mirror and The Times. In The Mirror's cricket article, the writer of the article itself is referred to as: "Oliver Holt Chief Sports Writer", whereas the writer of The Times' cricket article is referred to more formally as: "Owen Slot, Chief Sports Reporter". The opening paragraph of The Mirror's cricket article is very informal, and it is written almost as if the writer wants to be the reader's friend. Quote: "JUST when we thought the mess couldn't get any messier, Nasser Hussain and his wandering band of white-feather wavers came along and fouled it up some more" This contrasts with the more professional and factual approach of the first paragraph in The Times' cricket article. Quote: "THE England cricket team yesterday made an urgent request for their controversial opening World Cup match on February 13 to be relocated from Zimbabwe to South Africa"¦" These paragraphs show that The Mirror is biased by taking the side of the common cricket fan, annoyed at the fact that the England Cricket Team will not go to Zimbabwe, while The Times shows no signs of being biased and continues to read in a professional manner despite whatever their personal beliefs may be. By the ninth paragraph of the cricket article, The Mirror then begins to refer to different issues that are irrelevant to the article, in an attempt to justify the situation with the England Cricket Team. Quote: "The sadness is they don't understand the precedent they have set. What happens now when British jets bomb Iraq a few weeks down the line? What happens when our military kills thousands of innocent civilians?" This suggests that The Mirror is clearly stating it's personal opinion, which some readers prefer as they can relate to them. However, this is not the case with The Times, as they keep to the subject of the article without including any other issues throughout. Quote: "It also suggests that the ECB [England and Wales Cricket Board] has failed to represent the view of the players because the players and their employers now occupy significantly differing positions." This suggests that The Times is again taking the more professional and educated approach to portraying their articles, which appeals to the more professional and educated reader. I shall now go on to explain the differences between the editorials in each of the newspapers. Editorials are the specific area in newspapers where the newspaper itself states its own views and opinions on certain news and other issues. The editorial is commonly found in the centre pages of most newspapers. In this instance I shall compare The Sun's editorial with that of The Times' editorial through their writing techniques and use of language. The Sun's editorial, which in this case is referring to the issues with the weather affecting major roads around London, starts off with an alliterated two word sentence to summarise their opinion. Quote: "White Wash". The Times however, starts off it's editorial with a less casual style of writing. Quote: "A winter's tale: Britain muddles on towards snowbound mediocrity" This shows that The Times is carrying on it's professional stance, even when giving it's own personal opinion, as The Sun being a typical tabloid newspaper carries on it's casual and friendly genre. The Sun continues this style by including puns in it's editorial to create a friendlier atmosphere for the reader. Quote: "Yes, they're up grit creek again.""¦"We are a Third World joke - run by snow good jobsworths." The Times uses different and perhaps more sophisticated writing techniques to The Sun, one such technique being the oxymoron. Quote: "British weather is predictably unpredictable". This tells us that The Times is probably using this technique to distinguish itself more from the less sophisticated tabloid newspaper. The Sun lays out it's editorial in short, summarised paragraphs, possibly to make it easier for the reader to comprehend. Quote: "The cost to the country is put at £150million" Then written underneath in a separate paragraph: "Britain is the laughing stock of the world". The Times however, keeps it's editorial's layout in neat and normal sized paragraphs, in it's continuing professional manner. Altogether, I can conclude that The Times a typical broadsheet newspaper is designed for more educated and sophisticated readers, with it's advanced writing techniques and professional layout, whereas The Sun and The Mirror typical tabloid newspapers contrast with broadsheet newspapers, and are set out for the less well educated and more casual reader, with it's friendly use of language and openly-stated opinions.
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This essay will focus on an examination of the differences between tabloid and broadsheet newspapers. In this essay, I shall use quotes and examples from both tabloid and broadsheet newspapers to illustrate my points. Firstly, I shall describe the physical appearances in each type of newspaper. In a typical tabloid newspaper, for example The Mirror, the banner has a plain and stenciled looking typeface, which is designed to attract the consumers attention into purchasing it, whereas in a typical broadsheet in this instant, The Times the banner has a very intricate design which gives it a distinguished look,...
at £150million" Then written underneath in a separate paragraph: "Britain is the laughing stock of the world".

The Times however, keeps it's editorial's layout in neat and normal sized paragraphs, in it's continuing professional manner.

Altogether, I can conclude that The Times a typical broadsheet newspaper is designed for more educated and sophisticated readers, with it's advanced writing techniques and professional layout, whereas The Sun and The Mirror typical tabloid newspapers contrast with broadsheet newspapers, and are set out for the less well educated and more casual reader, with it's friendly use of language and openly-stated opinions.

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"Newspaper is a piece of paper..."Newspaper is a piece of paper that informs certain individuals with the information that matters", This is how Charles .A Dana, editor from 1867 to 1897 of the legendary newspaper "The new York sun "defines newspaper. Leiter, Harriss & Johnson, 2000 . In reality two types of newspaper exist, namely tabloid and broadsheet, so the following essay will discuss the characteristics of both tabloid and broadsheet based on three South African newspaper known as "The daily sun ", "The star " the mail and guardian and the Sowetan Sunday Sun ". It will in brief include the process involved in the production of newspaper based on a visit to Beel'd newsroom in Auckland park , Johannesburg. The word tabloid itself has several definition .In 1884 it was trademarked as a name for compressed drugs. Beginning in 1901 tabloid was used to identify a certain type of newspaper Kamp, 1999. One that was condensed, usually half the size of a broadsheet. The reason being, for the convince of reading in public transport, such as trains , taxis , buses etc. This emphasis that it is targeting lower class readers , mostly from the townships who have low level of literacy . These newspaper are commonly identified with boisterous , brief news content and abundance pictures, some fiction and often they appear to the human interest in crime, sex and disaster. One of the characteristics of tabloids is that most of their news are treated in a sensational manner. Another characteristics of tabloid newspaper is peculiarit " The unusual or unexpected often capture the imagination and provides moments of diversion " Nel, 1992 ,p.39 . This often leads to sensationalism , where the journalist will turn an average story into a sensationalist news report to attract readers . This is often done by using sensationalist language. Eg most of the stories published by daily sun man bite donkey to death , cats give birth to rats .Daily sun headlines contain a clear succinct and intriguing message to kindle a spark of interest in the potential readers . Since daily sun headlines are limited in term of space than the main body of a story , certain words tend to be used that are normally prohibited from the main text e.g bid for attempt , shock for surprise , what is interesting is that daily sun use those words because they are probably more easily understood by readers , as they are typically short , familiar ,frequently use if sensational word . Because of the fact that daily sun is for people with low education they don't use long sentence comparing to broadsheet such as the Star or This daybecause they know that their readers will have difficulties in reading those long sentences. Daily sun most of the times focus mainly on events such as murder , sex , scandal and sin . A good example can be a story published by Sowetan Sunday sun on 22 February 2004 about presenter of jam alley doing his things on a front seat . Conflicts is always good news for Daily sun and sowetan and attracted a large readership . From the front page with reports of war seen last year in the tabloids newspapers , to extents that daily newspapers such as daily sun included special section in their paper to cover the war in Iraq politicians taking each other on the death of Dula omar and differences in ideology to the back page with tales from the Bafana-Bafana camp , the rugby field and the disappearance of Jabu Pule . Conflict and gossip are Tabloids regular and dominant features Nel ,1992 What makes people to buy tabloids newspapers daily sun and Sunday sun is because of their package . The daily sun and Sunday sun looks appealing to the audiences . Most of their cover stories are appealing to the readers imagine driving to work and you see board written sex with snake page 7 I think you will buy that newspaper in order to read the full review of that story . I also think for Daily sun to publish those kinds of stories is because most of their readers are in rural areas . They know that those kind of gossip will be entertaining to peoples living in rural areas , bearing in mind that Daily sun and Sunday sun target readers with low levels of literacy , and because of this they can't publish stories such as foreign or international news what's the use of people living in rural areas knowing about Bush . Also because of the fact that daily sun is targeting people with low income they won't include any review of arts literature , books , art , painting , music and theater because they know that their readers are from working class .Nel,f 1992 Since their readers are from working class and are not highly interested in economic news , market shares etc. Tabloids newspapers such as daily sun instead of inquiring of the state of affairs of the country , they will probably ask the president Thabo mbeki what he does in his free times , or what are his hobbies . For daily sun and Sunday sun the audience or readers plays big part in deciding what is consider "front page news " by journalist . The headline stories should be relevant to majority of the readers as possible . For example Sunday sun may run a story on the latest scandals concerning presenter of jam alley having sex on a front seat or daily sun running a story of "sex with snake " and be very successful as front page news , but if the same story was to be run by broadsheet newspaper such as "the Star and this day "the paper wouldn't sell as the story does not hold much relevance to the majority of the readership ."When the readers will be affected and how the reader will be affected and to what degree the reader will be affected determine the way tabloids newspapers such as daily sun and Sunday sun are constructed Bovee,1999.. For tabloids more events become more newsworthy the closer the action occurs to the audience .Daily sun deal with local events rather than something that happened far from the audience e.g Allegations of apartheid spy , it is more likely to affects audience and make impact on their lives which is the characteristics of a good newspaper to affect the audience Greer, 1999 . Tabloids newspapers such as the daily sun don't balance their stories , most of the time they interview the subject after the publication of the story , and this means that it can be easier for journalist to include fake stories . Other features of tabloids newspaper is that their focus is mainly on celebrities and personality . This can be found in a Sunday sun up and personal sections , where they will ask celebrities some questions . Daily sun and Sunday sun does not provide more space for the opinions from readers and also the analysis of articles .Tabloids news papers such as daily sun and the Sunday sun don't separate facts from opinion . As I have mentioned in my introduction that tabloids newspaper contain more visual articles than written words and this take more space , thus make it impossible for newspapers to provide more spaces for opinions and analysis of article . Lastly Daily sun and Sunday sun provide more space for personal advices and letter , this can be found on page14 of the daily sun or page 7 of Sunday sun , every day they invite social workers or doctors to advise the readers or reply to letters send by readers . According to Kamp1999 tabloid newspaper clearly offers their readers something they can not find in other media .Imagine if newspapers such as sunday sun where not in existence ,how will we ever figure out that Siphiwe presenter of jam alley was having sex on a front seat . or others stories concerning celebrities such as kabzela jabu pule etc In the daily sun the banner reads "Black may day "a bit more sensational than the star .The layout for this paper is structed in a way that the pictures fill two "“thirds of the page and the rest of the page is filled with advertisement . The picture shows the police wheeling a dead body wrapped in a plastic away from the dam . the picture was so emotional , it shows police in action at the scene of the event . The daily sun decided to approach this story from the human interest angle . It focus on the trauma experienced by families of those involved in the tragic accident . referring to the Daily sun published on the 12th May 2003 Broadsheet refers to size as well as the contents , which is typical of quality newspaper such as "the Star and this day " . There are three basic elements to be considered when defining a newspaper as a broadsheet and deciding if broadsheet is infact broadsheet . Broadsheet must be big in size comparing to the tabloids newspaper , its content must be of a quality value and it must have commercial value . The meaning of the word broadsheet is clear from the Greek word Broo and the Latin word sheeto Bovee,1996 On the issue of size I think many people as well as journalist will disagree with me if I can say that broadsheet is determined by size , because certain newspapers such as "The citizen , the mail and guardian " their sizes is that of tabloids ,but they contain quality news. So on this issue I can say that Mail and guardian together with the Citizen deserve to be called as something between tabloids and broadsheet . Most of the stories published by mail and guardian are often attributed or has many . identical sources .Mail and guardian as a weekly newspaper for me it raise the question of what is news , because it is published on Friday and most of the stories will be familiar to the audience or readers , this will be against what was quoted by Nel 1992,p.34 "news , like milk is perishable ".according to this quote , time is an important factor to consider when reporting something as news . Once a story has been told it can no longer be told again and still be considered news by readers because they will familiar with that story . The event itself does not have to be recent but untold to the public .Mail and guardian concentrate mainly on politics and business issues , they don't include gossips columns or columns such as motoring . Another of the mail and guardian "traditional news test "is peculiarity. The unusual or unexpected often captures the imaginations and provides moments of diversion" Nel ,1992 ,p.39 This often leads to sensationalism where journalist will turn an average story into a sensational news report to attract the readers . This is often done by using sensational language Nel ,1992 Broadsheet newspapers such as "the star" and "this day "have regular opinion columns where they will invite experts from highly respect fields , for example the story of deputy president Mr Zuma , they invited certain individuals from political background , such as lectures and lawyers to have their say on that issue . Most of the news in a star newspaper is from foreign or international countries , lets again go back to the last year war in Iraq , during the war The star was covering the war , they also add ten special pages in order to cover the war in Iraq . Coming to the Star newspaper I can say is the broadsheet that include tabloids, if we can look at columns such as motoring , their size are like those of the tabloids newspaper , also the business report is of the same size as tabloids newspapers . Secondly stories contained on those sub section such as business report or motoring are similar to those stories published by papers such as daily sun because those journalist use their own views .Thirdly language used on those subsection is of the same quality with those used by the daily sun or the Sunday sun .sensational language However many people will say that those people who write those motoring or business sections are experts in that fields . Because of the fact the star targets consumers with high incomes and with high level of education they include sections such as arts , where they will inform their readers about new movie release , cd's , books , theater play etc. Since readers of the star are from high class backgrounds and are highly interested in economic , business share , the star include economic issues and share prices in their paper . Mail and guardian or the star instead of asking the president about his hobbies , they will ask him about the state of affair of the country . . The process involved in the creation of newspaper is long and complicated Debeer,1998. It begins with reporters going out to cover stories , they or the editors consider newsworthy . They obtain information by means of interviewing and fact gathering from data base or local source . Once the story is gotten down in full details , it is taken back to the office . The editor read the story and can make changes or send it back to the reporter . Once the editor is satisfied with the story , it is filled in the paper computers to be retrieved later . At the news meeting the reporters tell the rest of the editorial staff what stories they have been covering or they are told what stories they must cover. The newspaper editor will begin planning the paper by means of a page plan . It starts out as a blank page with defining where stories and adverts will be placed , as the news or adverts comes in the page plan is filled . From the editor it goes to the night editor , who read through it and send it on to the other night editors . The plan is then passed on to the page sub , then the revise sub . After that it is finalized and sent off to the printing press . At three the next day the whole process begin again . It is not only the creation of the newspaper that is difficult and also is deciding the quality of the newspaper . Ultimately "Quality of the newspaper lies in the eye of the beholder"Greer ,1999,p5 journalist ,editors or readers . The following essay has discussed the characteristics of both tabloids and broadsheet newspaper based on three south African newspaper The daily sun , the star mail and guardian and Sunday sun . It has discover that certain newspapers such as mail and guardian and the citizen are somewhere in between tabloids and broadsheet. Secondly it has discussed the issue of audience as the determiner of news in a newspaper , newspaper publish their stories in connection with the level of literacy of their readers   

"Newspaper is a piece of paper that informs certain individuals with the information that matters", This is how Charles .A Dana, editor from 1867 to 1897 of the legendary newspaper "The new York sun "defines newspaper. Leiter, Harriss & Johnson, 2000 . In reality two types of newspaper...

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The audience first encounters the... The audience first encounters the character of Lady Macbeth in act1, scene 5, while she is reading the letter sent to her by her husband, in the letter Macbeth describes the meeting with of the three witches, and them predicting the fact that he is going to be 'Thane of Cawdor', we can tell from the letter the closeness of relationship, Lady Macbeth and her husband have as he addresses Lady Macbeth as; "my dearest partner of greatness", that thou mightest not lose the dues of rejoicing". From then on in the play, she shows herself to be ambitious, and mentally strong. As soon as she reads the letter, she seems to decide that Macbeth will be the next Scottish King, and fulfil the witches' prophecy, no matter the method. This proves that Lady Macbeth is the driving force behind Duncan's murder. She realises that she must influence Macbeth against his better nature. It seems as though Lady Macbeth, can see her husband's weak points, and can change him, to be whatever she wants him to be. Lady Macbeth makes an impression on Macbeth that is not all good, because even though Macbeth can be ambitious, he is not ruthless enough. We can tell how determined Lady Macbeth is, by the way in which she says; "And chastise with the valour of my tongue All that impedes thee from the golden round" It is as though she is going to persuade Macbeth with her words, and uses her words as a charm. She is startled by this news, and so calls on the evil spirits to change her and lose her femininity. "Come you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here," She is calling on the spirits, to give her murderous thoughts, and make herself have no sympathy for humanity at all, and make her have no human feelings, and wants to lose her femininity. Lady Macbeth is trying to rid her conscience, and empty her mind of remorse and pleads to be filled with 'direst cruelty'. She needs to have power to help her through this time, it seems as though she probably would not be able to cope with the fact that she is trying to get her husband to commit a murder. When calling on the spirits she speaks her thoughts aloud, to the audience, this is known as a soliloquy, an example of this is at the start of her speech, beckoning the evil spirits to come forth she says; "That croaks the fatal entrance of Duncan Under my battlements" Macbeth, then arrives home, when he does so, we find out how close Lady Macbeth and Macbeth actually are, she seems to be able to read him like an open book. She is already starting to try and change Macbeth by the way that she says; "To beguile the time, Look like the time; bear welcome in your eye, Your hand, your tongue; look like the innocent Flower, but be the serpent under't" Lady Macbeth, is trying to make her husband hide her feelings, she thinks that people can read him like a book, if they can do that, then it is likely that they will find out if Macbeth has killed Duncan, and she does not want that to happen. This also shows how in control Lady Macbeth "You shall put this nights great business into my dispatch", Macbeth seems to have absolute confidence in her ability to plan the murder. Her awareness of his character is shown, in this paragraph. It also shows how deceiving and devious she can be. She is going to take control of the whole situation, and make sure that Macbeth carries out his deeds, but Macbeth seems undecided, he seems to hesitate, at the thought of killing the king he sharply explains "We will speak further". But Lady Macbeth does not hesitated at all, she seem to be anxious to be the Queen, and states how "To alter favour ever is to fear, Leave the rest to me", Even though the male usually takes the stronger approach to everything, in this relationship we can tell that Lady Macbeth is definitely the dominating person, and tells Macbeth exactly what to do, when he hesitates she tells him that he is weaker if he doesn't proceed with her plans. When King Duncan arrives at Macbeth's home, Lady Macbeth has already thought up a plan, to get rid of him. Duncan seems to feel very at home in the Macbeth household at says "This castle hath a pleasant seat; the air Nimbly and sweetly recommends itself Unto our gentle senses". Which is quite ironic, because he is just about to get killed in a home, in which he feels so comfortable in. Another ironic part to this play, is when Banquo implies how "The temple-haunting martlet, does approve, By his lov'd mansionary, that the heaven's breath Smells wooingly here". Shakespeare shows us here how ironic this play actually is, and also brings imagery into play. Lady Macbeth treats Duncan as if she is the perfect hostess, and hides all of her feelings, much better than Macbeth; King Duncan brings into play the dramatic irony, throughout the play, when he calls Lady Macbeth "Our honour'd hostess". Which shows how good, an actress Lady Macbeth can be, if she can cover up the fact that she is going to kill King Duncan, then she is surely able to cover up the fact that she has killed him, later on in the play. It is also quite ironic because she could be doing exactly as she had said in this scene; "Look like th' innocent flower, but be the sepent under't". Soon Macbeth starts to feel the guilt that Lady Macbeth has rid of, from herself. We know this, because Macbeth feels that he cannot go through with the murder and says: "We will proceed no further in this business", he seems to be overwhelmed with the fact that he was going to kill the king, and afraid of the consequences. Lady Macbeth who is very sly urges him to continue with the murder. The words that Lady Macbeth gives him are very persuasive. She accuses him of being a coward and makes him think he does not love her; "Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem'st the ornament of life, And live like a coward in thine own esteem" Lady Macbeth knew her husband very well. She understood his strengths and weaknesses, better than her did, and this is why she realises she will need to persuade him to kill Duncan. You can see how Lady Macbeth exploits his weaknesses, with phrases such as; "Art thou a feared To be the same in thine own act and valour As thou art in desire?" Her verbal attack, seems to disturb Macbeth, who then defends himself "I dare do all that may become a man", he is afraid that she is doubting his manhood, and tries to explain to Lady Macbeth, that he is still a man whether he kills king Duncan or not, she then uses this to her advantage, launching a second attack stating that nothing would make her break a pledge to him, she tries to appeal to his sensitive and sympathetic side, even the performance of a repulsive deed-killing of killing her infant. We know this because in Act 1 "“scene 7, line 54 Lady Macbeth explains how: "I have given suck, and know How tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me" Lady Macbeth soon gets the reply, which she had been waiting for, which was "If we should fail"-, this gives us the impression, that Lady Macbeth has one her title, she has won her persuasive battle, and replies to Macbeth "We fail", which shows us the confidence in this scheme, she is portraying the fact that it is going to be inevitable that they are to succeed. Again we find out how much of an actress Lady Macbeth is, by the way that she says that she is going to cover up the fact that they have murdered Duncan, by acting broken hearted, she states how: "Who dares receive it other, As we shall make our griefs and clamour roar Upon his death" As Macbeth wavers, she quickly reveals her plan. Filled with admiration for her spirit he replies "Bring forth men children only". Her only sign of pity is her confession that she would have killed Duncan had he not, as he slept, resembled her father. This is the first sign of weakness that we see when she suggests how "Had he not resembled my father as he slept, I had done't" In act2, scene 2-Lady Macbeth has prepared for the murder and waits for Macbeth. In the beginning of Scene2, she has different moods. "That which hath made them drunk hath made me bold" She sounds bold and courageous when she says that. The next line she says is "What hath quench them hath given me fire, Hark! Peace", a noise form outside startles her. She realises it is a bird shrieking. We then see Lady Macbeth's first sign of nerves, as she realises what her consequences could lead to, when Macbeth hears noises, everything seems to be exaggerated, the sound of owls, and crickets seems to distract them, as they feel paranoid that they are being watched and are going to be found out. "It was the owl that shrieked, the fatal bellman, which gives the stern'st good night" she says as she is relieved. Immediately after the murder, Lady Macbeth seems to feel no immediate guilt after the death, no remorse, just satisfaction that her husband is going to become king-that is, if she can keep him from making everyone suspect them. Whilst Macbeth is filled with guilt and horror at his actions, she shows her fortitude and her reason in calming him down, she utters these ironic words: "These deeds must not be thought of' After these ways, so it will make us mad" Even after the horror of the deed, which shakes Macbeth's soul, it is her strength, which brings him to his senses. There is then, a second reference to madness coming from Lady Macbeth saying "You do unbend your noble strength to think so brainsickly of things" This is quite an ironic situation. Later she sees that Macbeth has brought back the daggers. Lady Macbeth takes the daggers and puts them back in Duncan's room. She says "Infirm of purpose, give me the daggers". She seems to have no fear of the situation but there seems to be some sort of nervousness in her. Macbeth's wife returns with blood stains all over hands. She points out that they both have bloodstained hands by saying, "My hands are of your colour, but I shame, to wear a heart so white". She makes Macbeth feel that they are both equally to blame for the murder of Duncan. Lady Macbeth is trying to straighten out Macbeth, although he is still quite fearful. She tries to make Macbeth feel reassured and that Macbeth can justify to what he has just done. Lady Macbeth, once again brings irony into play, when she says; "A little water, clears us of this deed", its as though she is saying that she believes that if she washes the blood away, then the guilt will wash away along with the memories, and she thinks that she can wash away all of her problems. This is the last that we see of Lady Macbeth until act2-scene3. In this scene Macduff is appalled by Duncan's death, Lady Macbeth is told of Duncan's death, but says "What, in our house?" She seems puzzled but not at all shocked. After a while, Macbeth has killed the guards assumed of killing the king. Macbeth, then starts to tell of his feelings for what has happened, to the others. Macbeth seems to be over compensating for the fact that he has nothing to do with this, so he acts as though he feels sympathetic towards King Duncan. He says "who could refrain, That had a heart to love, and in that heart Courage to make's love known" Lady Macbeth has now fainted, and is taken for treatment. She fainted to distract the attention away from Macbeth, so that people are more likely to notice her, rather than Macbeth, and also this shows how much of a good actress she is. Then in Act 3, scene 2- Lady Macbeth deals with Macbeth's mood of depression. Macbeth believes that they have only "Scorched the snake, Not killed it ". He cannot stop thinking about the murder, but Lady Macbeth urges him, to put his past behind him, she does not know that Macbeth has a plot to kill banquo.This shows us how their relationship is deteriorating, they started off in the beginning where, they would tell each other everything and the relationship was loving and caring. But now Macbeth is keeping secrets from Lady Macbeth, it is as though they no longer have trust in one another. This is where we first start to see their relationship start to crumble. Banquo has now been murdered, because Macbeth suspects him of foul play, and they are having a formal banquet, Lady Macbeth and her husband are both concerned about making this banquet as impressive as possible. During the banquet, Macbeth is told of the death of Banquo. This banquet is plays an important part in the novel, it shows us that it is important for people to know their place, so that disorder can be avoided, but the chaos that follows is symbolic of the disorder of Macbeth's rein. Macbeth is now fearing what is going to happen if anyone finds out about the death of Banquo, he seems to be in shock, and without Lady Macbeth he cannot seem to think straight, or stop himself from worrying about matters, which shows how much of an impact Lady Macbeth had on him, and how she supported him so much. Macbeth also hears of Fleance's escape, and is more paranoid, Macbeth turns his attention to the banquet. Lady Macbeth tells her husband "My royal lord, you do not give the cheer". She is telling Macbeth to please his people as a good host should. While Macbeth is talking, he sees Banquo's ghost in his seat. His reaction startles his guests so; Lady Macbeth once again makes excuses for her husband. "Sit, worthy friends, my lord is often thus, and hath been from his youth" are words that Lady Macbeth explains Macbeth's actions. The ghost reappears again and Macbeth's outburst causes his guests to wonder. Lady Macbeth then urges the guests to leave. She fears Macbeth will say too much. Lady Macbeth then tells everyone " A kind good night to all". After the banquet, Lady Macbeth is very quiet, she seems tired, and drained, Macbeth says to his wife "I am in blood Stepp'd in so far, that, should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go o'er". Macbeth is admitting that he has had Banquo killed, and he has killed Duncan, and he is saying that there is no turning back. This is the last time that we see Lady Macbeth in control of herself or of events, she seems worn out, and instead of chastising Macbeth, she only comments that he lacks sleep, she says "You lack the season of all natures, sleep". This scene is like a turning point in the play, it is the last time we also see that Macbeth's conscience is troubling him. We haven't seen Lady Macbeth since Act3 and it is now act5, and her mask is revealed, when she sleep walks, she reveals her anxiety and guilt. She reveals her hidden secrets to the gentlewoman, and she then called a doctor to find out why she was having these extraordinary sleep walking dreams. Lady Macbeth speaks, of references concerning Duncan. Lady Macbeth re-inacts the murder scene, she's still loyal to Macbeth, and only in the banquet did she tell him off. She refers to her hand and says "Out damned spot, out I say!". She seems haunted by the guilt. The doctor tells the gentlewoman that she needs divine help, rather than a doctor, and to keep a close eye, on Lady Macbeth. Her madness increases, her guilt becoming overpowering. The words, "what, will these hands ne'er be clean?" expresses this dreadful guilt. Her ramblings makes the doctor aware of what has happened she says "I tell you again, Banquo's buried, he cannot come out on's grave" When she commits suicide Macbeth hears her cry and states "I have almost forgot the taste of fear the time has been, my senses would have cool'd To hear a night-shriek!" This shows us how the roles of Lady Macbeth and her husband have reversed, Macbeth is no longer guilty, where as he was in the first place and Lady Macbeth was the strong one, that supported the relationship, and told Macbeth what to do, but the guilt soon caught up with her and drove her to insanity. Where as it had been Macbeth that had nearly been driven to insanity earlier on in the play, during the time when the death of Banquo occurred. Macbeth, fought through the hard parts of the guilt that were over powering. Throughout the play Lady Macbeth shows a front to all people, she is acting it is all just to cover up the fact of how decieveing and insecure she is. For example when she was playing the "Honour'd hostess", she was deceiving the public, in order to be deceiving, and also when they had the banquet, Lady Macbeth made a cover for Macbeth, just so that nothing would happen to her lifestyle as being Queen. In the end we are shown that Macbeth is really the stronger person, mentally and physically.  

The audience first encounters the character of Lady Macbeth in act1, scene 5, while she is reading the letter sent to her by her husband, in the letter Macbeth describes the meeting with of the three witches, and them predicting the fact that he is going to be 'Thane...

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Fiona Wolstenholme "How far would...Fiona Wolstenholme "How far would you agree with the opinion that 'Blind Date' as a formulaic programme format depends for its success upon the encouragement of gender, social and cultural stereotypes?" Write a critical and analytical review of one episode of the programme. You may consider: · Use of character 'types' · Language · Arrangement of the programme · Technical aspects 'Blind Date' is a popular, intellectually undemanding, Saturday night show that attracts over eight million viewers every week. But why? Is it Cilla's 'contagious' laugh? Or is it the interesting, exotic places the couples visit? Or maybe it is the fact that you realise there are people more desperate than you are and they are declaring it on TV. Whatever it is, it works. But how much of it is real? The contestants seem to be definite 'characters' rather than real people. They fit into the moulds of various stereotypes that have been set. The first stereotype we see is 'the ordinary bloke'. This is Tony from Reading, he is a working class Royal Mail manager, He goes to the pub for a quick pint with his friends and he is known as 'the common Joe'. He stresses that he is a lad because he wants to emphasise his heterosexuality and this is because a homosexual male is still not fully accepted in society and is the subject of ridicule among his male peers. The next stereotype we encounter is 'Jack the Lad'; a working class male who likes a laugh, his beer and chasing 'birds'. He is Mike the metal worker from Devon. He has quite a strong Devon accent, which can sometimes make him sound a bit stupid. His answers are obviously scripted because he uses alliteration, " "¦I like my birds and my booze"¦" He is speaking in his natural voice, which is laidback but shows him to be loud and cocky. He is an extrovert and loves the reaction he gets from the infamous 'pork pie story'. He links back to this in all his answers and the canned laughter is overplayed. During the show, the use of sexual innuendo is common and here is no exception, ""¦and I'm meaty on the inside"¦" The last male contestant is Pete from London who is a surgeon cue audience: Oooooh! He is middle class but is trying to cover this so he can be 'just one of the lads'. He is wearing an eye-catching shirt, which is casually left untucked out of his fake leather trousers; he also displays some designer stubble. He puts on an Estuary English accent to sound more proletarian. This results in his saying such words as 'nipper' and 'you'll be larfing', but he cannot hide his background when he says words like 'portfolio' and 'elegant'. The lucky lady who has the chance to choose one of these three lads is Vicky from Coventry. She is quite confident and uses lots of sexual innuendo. This is obviously scripted as she is describing her car and she says it is like Cilla, ""¦and when she goes, she goes"¦" She also greets the boys with "Hello Boys" the trademark phrase of 'Wonderbra'. This is titillation for the male audience. Another example of this is, " I would be the Eiffel Tower. You can scale the heights with me for a bit of ooh la la and the views from the top are amazing." The couple from the previous week's show return smiling and walking together so the question of whether Cilla 'should buy a new hat' is still on the viewers' minds. The two lovebirds on this particular show were Natalie and Chris. Chris is the 'good catholic Irish boy' who looks very similar to the presenter Craig Doyle. He is the type of boy your mum would love you to bring home. He looks innocent as if he needs a girl to mother him. He has the all-important happy go lucky Irish charm. His accent is mostly perceived as funny, friendly and approachable. Nevertheless, as soon as he gets the chance, he starts to badmouth Natalie and reveals he had a very interesting time with a singing waitress. Natalie is obviously not his type. She is the 'wild one' with cropped platinum blonde hair and piercings. She is quite masculine and has an assertive manner as her job is a policewoman and is like Charity Dingle from 'Emmerdale'. She hurls abuse at him; they argue for a bit and then finally come to the not very surprising conclusion that they will not be seeing each other again. We are then taken into a break but not before we are given a glimpse of the three 'lovely ladies' we will meet in the second half and are reminded of the two hopefuls that won last week. This is all to tempt us back after the break. When you do return you are greeted with some jazzy music that you cannot help but wiggle your hips to, some flashy magenta and lilac scenery and a short Liverpudlian woman with fiery red hair calling herself 'Aunty Cilla'. You are now introduced to three girls and you can immediately see which social categories they fit into. Number 1 is Alicia from Liverpool who is a good time girl and a bit 'tarty'. She shows this by saying ""¦I'm not really fussy about what type of man I want"¦" is short, pretty and blonde and she is wearing a short red dress revealing her legs. She is very similar to Emily Shadwick from 'Brookside'. The second 'lovely lady' is Sarah from Hampshire who is a self-confessed snob and she is the 'villain' of the show. She has high standards for men to meet and says, ""¦They have to have a salary of at least thirty grand a year"¦" She acts like a middle class 'yuppie', being 'a financial advisor', but in reality will probably only have a lower middle class background. She comes across as being 'nouveau riche' and she likes the idea of this. She speaks in 'refined' English because she must keep up the pretence of her being superior. Her natural language and accent is accidentally displayed when she is trying to sound domineering, "so come on Alex and pick number 2." The last possible winner we see is Catherine from Solihull who is an A-class bimbo. She has long blonde hair, a sun-bed tan and she loves Britney Spears. It is accepted that she seems to be obsessed by another woman and in our society many men find this a 'turn on'. This is another example of sexual titillation as Cilla comments, ""¦are you sure you should be on this show?" because ironically the show features 'normal' people. She is a typical dumb blonde and is immature. She lives near Birmingham and so speaks with a 'Brummie' accent. This can sometimes give the impression of stupidity or gormlessness. Number 3 lives up to this as she is not the sharpest knife in the kitchen. She would never be able to think of her answers in such a short amount of time and she would have trouble thinking of a coherent answer all by herself. After she has done her cringe-worthy impression of Britney Spears we meet the lucky man who has to pick one of these three hopefuls. The 'fortunate' man who has to pick a lady is Alex. He is a Grade 1 'yuppie' who is in college studying business and has smooth Italian looks like Beppe from 'Eastenders'. He provides the female members of the audience with sexual titillation as he tells his story of posing for a nude calendar with his dignity covered by a piece of fruit, a satsuma, in case you were wondering. After he picks the 'Brummie Britney', we meet the couple from last week. The pair from last week was Naomi and Richard. Richard is an Australian and is very laidback but says what he means. He talks a lot and this enables Cilla to make a joke at the end, ""¦can I get a word in?" when he does not stop talking. He uses colloquial Aussie language such as 'bonza' and 'G'day' but he is not a 'typical' Australian in his looks as he is tall, scrawny and pale skinned. Naomi is self-conscious, spoilt and of mixed race. She expected Richard to have a tanned surfer's body, blonde hair and blue eyes. When he calls her a whale she is almost in tears as you can see that weight is an issue for her. He later explains that is not what he meant. She does not seem to accept this and is very angry. This couple go beyond the usual stereotypes, he is not a 'typical' Australian and she is not a 'typical' demure girl of mixed race. This may confuse the audience but they accept it with out question because it does not occur to them to query the stereotypes that have been set. We were given an article written by an undercover reporter posing as a contestant on 'Blind Date' who was able to confirm that our suspicions of pre-planned answers are correct. She also revealed that the make-up artists and researchers give the contestants advice and clues on whom to pick. They do this by underlining the intended winner's number on the script. The contestants all have their lines to learn and if these are said wrongly, it is cut out. In the article, we read a woman explained the one of the male contestants kept on fluffing his lines so they had to keep reshooting that piece until it was correct. That does not sound like 'reality TV' to me. Cilla always has to be shown as the funnier, clever one. If anyone disregards this, it will be edited and cut out. She is not a specific stereotype; she is 'a scouser who made it big'. The answers or character information that is given are always easy targets for Cilla and 'our' Graham, the commenter, to make jokes about. The holidays they win seem to be very expensive and the camera work accentuates this by filming the entrances of grand hotels and the beautiful landmarks. This makes the show look classy instead of brassy. The holiday video is careful not to give too much away and always leaves the audience wondering if this is the 'one in a million' couple that fall in love. They also use background music to create a certain atmosphere and make the show seem modern and trendy, but to me this fails. The show is popular for various reasons. Some people watch it and realise their prejudices are correct; some watch it to have these prejudices confirmed. People are naturally inquisitive and like to know what other people do with their lives. 'Blind Date' gives a painfully accurate view of youth culture today. People watch it and believe it is real when it is more similar to 'Coronation Street' as opposed to 'Big Brother'. In the world people are always going to be judged and then pigeon holed. 'Blind Date' obviously encourages this but it just shows the mentality of the eight million British viewers who watch it every week. The people on the show are pretentious and fake but they are encouraged to be like this. Surely, this is wrong because when the programme is seen by its target audience they will believe that they too have to fit into a certain stereotype. 'Blind Date' crushes your individuality and the only thing it is good for is to raise your self-esteem by reassuring yourself that you will never be that desperate.   

Fiona Wolstenholme "How far would you agree with the opinion that 'Blind Date' as a formulaic programme format depends for its success upon the encouragement of gender, social and cultural stereotypes?" Write a critical and analytical review of one episode of the programme. You may consider: ·...

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